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Semantic Primes and NSM
Semantic Primes and NSM
Published: 2016/07/01
Channel: Jake Goldwasser
What is Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM)?
What is Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM)?
Published: 2017/01/13
Channel: NSM Lab
1st Language Creation Conference - 3 - John Clifford - Semantic Primes
1st Language Creation Conference - 3 - John Clifford - Semantic Primes
Published: 2011/04/19
Channel: Language Creation Society
Language Power
Language Power 'Semantic Priming'.
Published: 2012/04/05
Channel: Debbie Halls-Evans
Semantic networks and spreading activation
Semantic networks and spreading activation
Published: 2013/11/24
Channel: yuecl
semantic primitives   0001
semantic primitives 0001
Published: 2017/05/03
Channel: richard mullins
Semantic & Multilingual Strategies in Lucene/Solr
Semantic & Multilingual Strategies in Lucene/Solr
Published: 2015/01/07
Channel: Lucidworks
A conversation between Yitang Zhang and Daniel Goldston [HD] [2013
A conversation between Yitang Zhang and Daniel Goldston [HD] [2013
Published: 2015/06/01
Channel: Graduate Mathematics
2017 Breakthrough Prize in Mathematics awarded to Jean Bourgain
2017 Breakthrough Prize in Mathematics awarded to Jean Bourgain
Published: 2016/12/16
Channel: National Academy of Sciences
How Are Words Connected in our Minds? Priming
How Are Words Connected in our Minds? Priming
Published: 2015/09/02
Channel: The Ling Space
NSM, non-translatability, and
NSM, non-translatability, and 'happiness' in Chinese
Published: 2017/04/04
Channel: NSM Lab
What Is A Semantic Level
What Is A Semantic Level
Published: 2017/11/28
Channel: Alan Sawyer
Yitang Zhang - A transition formula for mean values of Dirichlet polynomials [IAS 2014]
Yitang Zhang - A transition formula for mean values of Dirichlet polynomials [IAS 2014]
Published: 2016/07/15
Channel: Graduate Mathematics
TESOL Linguistics & Metalanguage
TESOL Linguistics & Metalanguage
Published: 2012/09/14
Channel: F Tuzi
Difference Between Conceptual and Perceptual
Difference Between Conceptual and Perceptual
Published: 2016/02/19
Channel: Aeldra
What Is A Cultural Script?
What Is A Cultural Script?
Published: 2017/11/12
Channel: Thrupe Thert
Alan Turing and Number Theory
Alan Turing and Number Theory
Published: 2012/12/10
Channel: VideoLecturesChannel
Subliminal messages and priming
Subliminal messages and priming
Published: 2014/03/22
Channel: Philip Pampoulov
What is PRINCIPLE OF COMPOSITIONALITY? What does PRINCIPLE OF COMPOSITIONALITY mean?
What is PRINCIPLE OF COMPOSITIONALITY? What does PRINCIPLE OF COMPOSITIONALITY mean?
Published: 2017/04/27
Channel: The Audiopedia
1st Language Creation Conference - 7 - David Peterson - Down with morphemes
1st Language Creation Conference - 7 - David Peterson - Down with morphemes
Published: 2011/04/19
Channel: Language Creation Society
LCC2 - Clint Hutchison - Universal Semantic Markers
LCC2 - Clint Hutchison - Universal Semantic Markers
Published: 2011/04/16
Channel: Language Creation Society
Noun Classes
Noun Classes
Published: 2016/07/01
Channel: Jake Goldwasser
Counting From Infinity: Yitang Zhang and The Twin Prime Conjecture preview
Counting From Infinity: Yitang Zhang and The Twin Prime Conjecture preview
Published: 2017/02/21
Channel: American Public TV
NSM Meaning
NSM Meaning
Published: 2015/04/27
Channel: ADictionary
FLEx for Conlangs: Overview
FLEx for Conlangs: Overview
Published: 2015/09/12
Channel: Jeremy Graves
Spotlight Talk: A Formalization of Representation Learning
Spotlight Talk: A Formalization of Representation Learning
Published: 2017/03/27
Channel: Simons Institute
prime factorization & exponential form
prime factorization & exponential form
Published: 2015/09/16
Channel: Kathleen Gormal
Moonstruck:  Rev. Moon
Moonstruck: Rev. Moon's "Church" #4: Semantic Deception - Moon is Not the Son
Published: 2011/01/24
Channel: CAnswersTV
Metalanguage Meaning
Metalanguage Meaning
Published: 2015/04/23
Channel: SDictionary
Chatbots 3.0 (sp1pt2/3) Robert Lockhart - Integrating Semantics and Empirical Language Data
Chatbots 3.0 (sp1pt2/3) Robert Lockhart - Integrating Semantics and Empirical Language Data
Published: 2010/05/10
Channel: ALICE AI Foundation
Semantic Methods R Stanley
Semantic Methods R Stanley
Published: 2015/11/10
Channel: tranSMART Foundation
Linking Rs
Linking Rs
Published: 2017/05/08
Channel: Jake Goldwasser
Chatbots 3.0 (sp1pt1/3) Robert Lockhart - Integrating Semantics and Empirical Language Data
Chatbots 3.0 (sp1pt1/3) Robert Lockhart - Integrating Semantics and Empirical Language Data
Published: 2010/05/10
Channel: ALICE AI Foundation
Module 3: Verbs (Grammar Fundamentals for a Pluralistic Society)
Module 3: Verbs (Grammar Fundamentals for a Pluralistic Society)
Published: 2014/09/01
Channel: LEADERSproject
Symmetric Key and Public Key Encryption
Symmetric Key and Public Key Encryption
Published: 2013/06/18
Channel: itfreetraining
Welcome to Artifexian 2015
Welcome to Artifexian 2015
Published: 2015/09/17
Channel: Artifexian
CERIAS Security: Semantic Attacks and Security 4/6
CERIAS Security: Semantic Attacks and Security 4/6
Published: 2010/04/25
Channel: Christiaan008
A Brief Discussion of Anna Wierzbicka and her contributions
A Brief Discussion of Anna Wierzbicka and her contributions
Published: 2011/07/05
Channel: birdman9265
Cross-modal Antecedent Priming Experiment (E-Prime 2)
Cross-modal Antecedent Priming Experiment (E-Prime 2)
Published: 2016/04/26
Channel: lillian Zhang
Limits And Frontiers
Limits And Frontiers
Published: 2016/07/01
Channel: Jake Goldwasser
UPW2015 Priming exercise
UPW2015 Priming exercise
Published: 2015/10/22
Channel: mamcloud
Prywatność
Prywatność
Published: 2007/05/14
Channel: elektrokofewarka
1st Language Creation Conference - 2 - Sally Caves - The Medium and the Internet Conlanger
1st Language Creation Conference - 2 - Sally Caves - The Medium and the Internet Conlanger
Published: 2011/04/19
Channel: Language Creation Society
my audio
my audio
Published: 2013/09/27
Channel: John CLIFFORD
eCF Encoding Continued Fraction Knowledge in Computational Form in W|A
eCF Encoding Continued Fraction Knowledge in Computational Form in W|A
Published: 2014/02/03
Channel: Wolfram
PROBLEM 2   Large
PROBLEM 2 Large
Published: 2013/10/30
Channel: Robert Dutton
BBC Universe Documentary The Great Math Mystery BBC Documentary 2015
BBC Universe Documentary The Great Math Mystery BBC Documentary 2015
Published: 2017/06/05
Channel: Ray Grissinger
New in 11.1: Mathematical Constant Data and Riemann Hypothesis Results
New in 11.1: Mathematical Constant Data and Riemann Hypothesis Results
Published: 2016/12/21
Channel: Wolfram
AUI-S /IRD Leadership program_05.wmv
AUI-S /IRD Leadership program_05.wmv
Published: 2010/09/27
Channel: Teemon1000
Periklis Papakonstantinou @ Theory Lunch
Periklis Papakonstantinou @ Theory Lunch
Published: 2016/03/08
Channel: Princeton TCS
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Semantic primes or semantic primitives are semantic concepts that are innately understood, but cannot be expressed in simpler terms. They represent words or phrases that are learned through practice, but cannot be defined concretely. For example, although the meaning of "touching" is readily understood, a dictionary might define "touch" as "to make contact" and "contact" as "touching", providing no information if neither of these words are understood. The concept of innate semantic primes was largely introduced by Anna Wierzbicka's book, Semantics: Primes and Universals.

List of semantic primes[edit]

Category Primes
Substantives I, YOU, SOMEONE/PERSON, PEOPLE
Relational Substantives SOMETHING/THING, BODY, KIND, PART
Determiners THIS, THE SAME, OTHER
Quantifiers ONE, TWO, SOME, ALL, MANY/MUCH
Evaluators GOOD, BAD
Descriptors BIG, SMALL
Mental predicates THINK, KNOW, WANT, FEEL, SEE, HEAR
Speech SAY, WORDS, TRUE
Actions, Events, Movement, contact DO, HAPPEN, MOVE
Existence, Possession THERE IS/EXIST, HAVE
Life and Death LIVE, DIE
Time WHEN/TIME, NOW, BEFORE, AFTER, A LONG TIME, A SHORT TIME, FOR SOME TIME, MOMENT
Space WHERE/PLACE, HERE, ABOVE, BELOW, FAR, NEAR, SIDE, INSIDE, TOUCH (CONTACT)
Logical Concepts NOT, MAYBE, CAN, BECAUSE, IF
Intensifier, Augmenter VERY, MORE
Similarity LIKE/WAY

Table adapted from Goddard, 2002.

A universal syntax of meaning[edit]

Semantic primes represent universally meaningful concepts, but to have meaningful messages, or statements, such concepts must combine in a way that they themselves convey meaning. Such meaningful combinations, in their simplest form as sentences, constitute the syntax of the language. Wierzbicka provides evidence that just as all languages use the same set of semantic primes, they also use the same, or very similar syntax. She states: "I am also positing certain innate and universal rules of syntax - not in the sense of some intuitively unverifiable formal syntax a la Chomsky, but in the sense of intuitively verifiable patterns determining possible combinations of primitive concepts (Wierzbicka, 1996)." She gives one example comparing the English sentence, "I want to do this", with its equivalent in Russian. Although she notes certain formal differences between the two sentence structures, their semantic equivalence emerges from the "....equivalence of the primitives themselves and of the rules for their combination."

This work [of Wierzbicka and colleagues] has led to a set of a highly concrete proposals about a hypothesised irreducible core of all human languages. This universal core is believed to have a fully ‘language-like’ character in the sense that it consists of a lexicon of semantic primitives together with a syntax governing how the primitives can be combined (Goddard, 1998).

It may not be surprising that all humans today possess a common language core of semantic primes and a more or less universal syntax, since there is substantial evidence that all humans today descended from a common speech-enabled male and female Homo sapiens ancestor[citation needed]. Linguist Johanna Nichols traces Homo sapiens language origin as far back as 130,000 years ago, perhaps only 65,000 years after the earliest Homo sapiens fossil finds (Adler, 2000). Philosopher G. J. Whitrow expresses it:

....despite the great diversity of existing languages and dialect, the capacity for language appears to be identical in all races. Consequently, we can conclude that man's linguistic ability existed before racial diversification occurred (Whitrow, 1988).

Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM)[edit]

In effect, the combination of a set of semantic primes each representing a different basic concept, residing in minds with a propensity to acquire certain basic concepts, and a common set of rules for combining those concepts into meaningful messages, constitutes a natural semantic prime language, or natural semantic metalanguage. In English, the natural semantic metalanguage reduces language to a core that enables full development of the English language. A new word can be added as a shorthand substitute for a 'text' in the natural semantic metalanguage, a 'text' that can convey what English speakers mean by lie, by what a person does when he says something not true because he wants someone to think it true. Any English word can be described (defined) with a text using a primitive lexicon of about 60 words (concepts) in the English natural semantic metalanguage. Likewise can any complex semantic sentence in English be paraphrased reductively to the core words and syntax of the natural semantic metalanguage. The texts can make subtle distinctions English-speakers make between happy, glad, joyful, ecstatic, etc., and can supply those distinctions to those who want to know them.

Given the universal nature of the list of semantic primes among languages, and of the grammar, every language has essentially the same natural semantic metalanguage, though each semantic prime sounds different among languages and the appearance of the syntax may differ. Wierzbicka and colleagues refer to all the natural semantic metalanguages as 'isomorphic' with each other. Conceivably, if the dictionary of meaning descriptions of each language was reductively paraphrased in the text of its natural semantic metalanguage, and that natural semantic metalanguage was translated to a common natural semantic metalanguage for all natural languages, it would greatly reduce language barriers.

Notes[edit]

References cited[edit]

External links[edit]

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