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My son getting "stuck" talking about one thing. Ticking, Autism spectrum disorder. MERLD
My son getting "stuck" talking about one thing. Ticking, Autism spectrum disorder. MERLD
Published: 2012/05/11
Channel: Shannon Lee
What Is Fortification Spectra?
What Is Fortification Spectra?
Published: 2017/08/30
Channel: Burning Question
What Is Fortification Spectra?
What Is Fortification Spectra?
Published: 2017/09/10
Channel: Question Tray
SemanticFusion:  Dense 3D Semantic Mapping with Convolutional Neural Networks
SemanticFusion: Dense 3D Semantic Mapping with Convolutional Neural Networks
Published: 2016/09/20
Channel: John McCormac
Blind Transmitter Authentication for Spectrum Security & Enforcement in Cognitive Radio Network
Blind Transmitter Authentication for Spectrum Security & Enforcement in Cognitive Radio Network
Published: 2015/02/23
Channel: Wireless @ Virginia Tech
Apathy and impulsivity in frontotemporal lobar degeneration syndromes
Apathy and impulsivity in frontotemporal lobar degeneration syndromes
Published: 2017/05/19
Channel: Brain: A Journal of Neurology
Inside the autism brain: Memory hub could underlie social, cognitive quirks of autism
Inside the autism brain: Memory hub could underlie social, cognitive quirks of autism
Published: 2017/02/23
Channel: Spectrum
Get More Hope, Less Despair, and Move Toward Action with Mindfulness and Focus | Andrew Chignell
Get More Hope, Less Despair, and Move Toward Action with Mindfulness and Focus | Andrew Chignell
Published: 2017/08/24
Channel: Big Think
Aerialtronics unveils PENSAR - dual spectrum computer vision platform
Aerialtronics unveils PENSAR - dual spectrum computer vision platform
Published: 2017/06/19
Channel: Aerialtronics
Child Language Disability Semantic and Pragmatic Difficulties Bera Dialogues Vol 2Pdf Book
Child Language Disability Semantic and Pragmatic Difficulties Bera Dialogues Vol 2Pdf Book
Published: 2016/11/17
Channel: J. Navees
ASD progress with colorful semantics programme
ASD progress with colorful semantics programme
Published: 2014/09/25
Channel: Autismforus
Full spectrum semantic dominance - Atlântic in May 2012 - Silenth warfare
Full spectrum semantic dominance - Atlântic in May 2012 - Silenth warfare
Published: 2012/05/30
Channel: Gaudencio Figueiredo
The Spectral Convolution Saves the Day
The Spectral Convolution Saves the Day
Published: 2014/05/19
Channel: Bioinformatics Algorithms: An Active Learning Approach
ALS and FTLD on Same Spectrum of Disease
ALS and FTLD on Same Spectrum of Disease
Published: 2012/03/09
Channel: PennInstituteonAging
Pragmatic language impairment
Pragmatic language impairment
Published: 2015/10/18
Channel: Audiopedia
Marbeya Sound - Spectrum
Marbeya Sound - Spectrum
Published: 2014/03/04
Channel: Marbeya Sound
S.P.L.D. (Semantic Pragmatic Language Disorder)
S.P.L.D. (Semantic Pragmatic Language Disorder)
Published: 2009/07/20
Channel: Anil
Symantic Pragmatic Disorder Takes Control Of My Life!!!
Symantic Pragmatic Disorder Takes Control Of My Life!!!
Published: 2016/12/28
Channel: AFCOli
semantic americana
semantic americana
Published: 2011/04/12
Channel: ThresholdFunction
FTLD-aphasix and semantic d.wmv
FTLD-aphasix and semantic d.wmv
Published: 2010/03/12
Channel: Jack Storey
Towards Machines that Perceive and Communicate
Towards Machines that Perceive and Communicate
Published: 2017/06/30
Channel: Center for Brains, Minds and Machines (CBMM)
Image generation with deep learning - Michał Jamroż
Image generation with deep learning - Michał Jamroż
Published: 2017/11/13
Channel: PyData
Spectrum Interactive - Media Screen Case Study
Spectrum Interactive - Media Screen Case Study
Published: 2007/11/19
Channel: spectruminteractive
What is Pragmatic Language Impairment?
What is Pragmatic Language Impairment?
Published: 2012/09/13
Channel: RADLD
Smart Audio Effects for Live Audio Mixing - Alessandro Palladini
Smart Audio Effects for Live Audio Mixing - Alessandro Palladini
Published: 2015/09/11
Channel: Semantic Audio
Why Do Repeated Words Turn Into Gibberish?  | Psych2Go
Why Do Repeated Words Turn Into Gibberish? | Psych2Go
Published: 2015/01/12
Channel: Psych2Go
Information Workbench as a Platform for Building Semantic Cultural Heritage Applications
Information Workbench as a Platform for Building Semantic Cultural Heritage Applications
Published: 2014/10/18
Channel: Oxford e-Research Centre
Semantic Baton
Semantic Baton
Published: 2013/07/10
Channel: MarquisEstelle
Cohere
Cohere's Social Semantic Network
Published: 2010/06/24
Channel: Anna De Liddo
Microsoft
Microsoft's Robot Touch Screen Lets You Palpate a Brain
Published: 2013/06/11
Channel: IEEE Spectrum
Half Inch Heroes - Semantic Pragmatic
Half Inch Heroes - Semantic Pragmatic
Published: 2010/02/28
Channel: David Sharpe
Suth Music - Stress Spectrum Series - Kickstart
Suth Music - Stress Spectrum Series - Kickstart
Published: 2014/06/04
Channel: NatureMovies
Glossary Blueprint
Glossary Blueprint
Published: 2014/08/25
Channel: Spectrum Groupe
Semantic and Pragmatic Language Disorders Pdf Book
Semantic and Pragmatic Language Disorders Pdf Book
Published: 2016/11/12
Channel: Martin H
Marbeya Sound - Semantic Drift
Marbeya Sound - Semantic Drift
Published: 2014/03/04
Channel: Marbeya Sound
Extracting Speed Spectrum Hidden Data From Digital Media
Extracting Speed Spectrum Hidden Data From Digital Media
Published: 2013/11/05
Channel: InnovationAdsOfIndia
Marbeya Sound - Semantic Drift [OFFICIAL VIDEO]
Marbeya Sound - Semantic Drift [OFFICIAL VIDEO]
Published: 2014/02/05
Channel: Marbeya Sound
Using CIDOC CRM for dynamically querying ArSol, a relational database, from the semantic web.
Using CIDOC CRM for dynamically querying ArSol, a relational database, from the semantic web.
Published: 2015/05/29
Channel: Recording Archaeology
Semantic Security for the Wiretap Channel
Semantic Security for the Wiretap Channel
Published: 2012/09/03
Channel: TheIACR
Semantic Synth v1
Semantic Synth v1
Published: 2007/06/26
Channel: zeroinfluencer
The Purkinje Effect: Why we can
The Purkinje Effect: Why we can't see as many colors at night
Published: 2017/03/13
Channel: John Yowan
What Is The Color Of Ivory?
What Is The Color Of Ivory?
Published: 2017/11/10
Channel: Spertu Spen
The Role of Big Data in Transportation Planning
The Role of Big Data in Transportation Planning
Published: 2015/11/08
Channel: UCCONNECT
Fernando Pereira Low-Pass Semantics Technion Computer Engineering Conference Lecture
Fernando Pereira Low-Pass Semantics Technion Computer Engineering Conference Lecture
Published: 2013/06/02
Channel: Technion
What Is The Definition Of Deep Processing?
What Is The Definition Of Deep Processing?
Published: 2017/07/26
Channel: sparky feel
Is Social Pragmatic Communication Disorder Autism?
Is Social Pragmatic Communication Disorder Autism?
Published: 2017/09/01
Channel: Call into Question
What Are Pragmatics Of Language?
What Are Pragmatics Of Language?
Published: 2017/08/21
Channel: Thaal Thaal
Interacting with Soli: Exploring Fine-Grained Dynamic Gesture Recognition in the Radio-Frequency ...
Interacting with Soli: Exploring Fine-Grained Dynamic Gesture Recognition in the Radio-Frequency ...
Published: 2016/10/04
Channel: ACM SIGCHI
KNowledge Effects and Meta-Data Karma: Robert J.Pefferly at TEDxTallinn
KNowledge Effects and Meta-Data Karma: Robert J.Pefferly at TEDxTallinn
Published: 2012/09/05
Channel: TEDx Talks
What Is The Source Of The Microwave?
What Is The Source Of The Microwave?
Published: 2017/08/12
Channel: Cynthia Cynthia
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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The semantic spectrum (sometimes referred to as the ontology spectrum or the smart data continuum or semantic precision) is a series of increasingly precise or rather semantically expressive definitions for data elements in knowledge representations, especially for machine use.

At the low end of the spectrum is a simple binding of a single word or phrase and its definition. At the high end is a full ontology that specifies relationships between data elements using precise URIs for relationships and properties.

With increased specificity comes increased precision and the ability to use tools to automatically integrate systems but also increased cost to build and maintain a metadata registry.

Some steps in the semantic spectrum include the following:

  1. glossary: A simple list of terms and their definitions. A glossary focuses on creating a complete list of the terminology of domain-specific terms and acronyms. It is useful for creating clear and unambiguous definitions for terms and because it can be created with simple word processing tools, few technical tools are necessary.
  2. controlled vocabulary: A simple list of terms, definitions and naming conventions. A controlled vocabulary frequently has some type of oversight process associated with adding or removing data element definitions to ensure consistency. Terms are often defined in relationship to each other.
  3. data dictionary: Terms, definitions, naming conventions and one or more representations of the data elements in a computer system. Data dictionaries often define data types, validation checks such as enumerated values and the formal definitions of each of the enumerated values.
  4. data model: Terms, definitions, naming conventions, representations and one or more representations of the data elements as well as the beginning of specification of the relationships between data elements including abstractions and containers.
  5. taxonomy: A complete data model in an inheritance hierarchy where all data elements inherit their behaviors from a single "super data element". The difference between a data model and a formal taxonomy is the arrangement of data elements into a formal tree structure where each element in the tree is a formally defined concept with associated properties.
  6. ontology: A complete, machine-readable specification of a conceptualization using URIs (and then IRIs) for all data elements, properties and relationship types. The W3C standard language for representing ontologies is the Web Ontology Language (OWL). Ontologies frequently contain formal business rules formed in discrete logic statements that relate data elements to each another.

Typical questions for determining semantic precision[edit]

The following is a list of questions that may arise in determining semantic precision.

correctness
How can correct syntax and semantics be enforced? Are tools (such as XML Schema) readily available to validate syntax of data exchanges?
adequacy/expressivity/scope
Does the system represent everything that is of practical use for the purpose? Is an emphasis being placed on data that is externalized (exposed or transferred between systems)?
efficiency
How efficiently can the representation be searched / queried, and - possibly - reasoned on?
complexity
How steep is the learning curve for defining new concepts, querying for them or constraining them? are there appropriate tools for simplifying typical workflows? (See also: ontology editor)
translatability
Can the representation easily be transformed (e.g. by Vocabulary-based transformation) into an equivalent representation so that semantic equivalence is ensured?

Determining location on the semantic spectrum[edit]

Many organizations today are building a metadata registry to store their data definitions and to perform metadata publishing. The question of where they are on the semantic spectrum frequently arises. To determine where your systems are, some of the following questions are frequently useful.

  1. Is there a centralized glossary of terms for the subject matter?
  2. Does the glossary of terms include precise definitions for each terms?
  3. Is there a central repository to store data elements that includes data types information?
  4. Is there an approval process associated with the creation and changes to data elements?
  5. Are coded data elements fully enumerated? Does each enumeration have a full definition?
  6. Is there a process in place to remove duplicate or redundant data elements from the metadata registry?
  7. Is there one or more classification schemes used to classify data elements?
  8. Are document exchanges and web services created using the data elements?
  9. Can the central metadata registry be used as part of a Model-driven architecture?
  10. Are there staff members trained to extract data elements that can be reused in metadata structures?

Strategic nature of semantics[edit]

Today, much of the World Wide Web is stored as Hypertext Markup Language. Search engines are severely hampered by their inability to understand the meaning of published web pages. These limitations have led to the advent of the Semantic web movement.

In the past, many organizations that created custom database application used isolated teams of developers that did not formally publish their data definitions. These teams frequently used internal data definitions that were incompatible with other computer systems. This made Enterprise Application Integration and Data warehousing extremely difficult and costly. Many organizations today require that teams consult a centralized data registry before new applications are created.

The job title of an individual that is responsible for coordinating an organization's data is a Data architect.

History[edit]

The first reference to this term was at the 1999 AAAI Ontologies Panel. The panel was organized by Chris Welty, who at the prodding of Fritz Lehmann and in collaboration with the panelists (Fritz, Mike Uschold, Mike Gruninger, and Deborah McGuinness) came up with a "spectrum" of kinds of information systems that were, at the time, referred to as ontologies. The "ontology spectrum" picture appeared in print in the introduction to Formal Ontology and Information Systems: Proceedings of the 2001 Conference. The ontology spectrum was also featured in a talk at the Semantics for the Web meeting in 2000 at Dagstuhl by Deborah McGuinness. McGuinness produced a paper describing the points on that spectrum that appeared in the book that emerged (much later) from that workshop called "Spinning the Semantic Web." Later, Leo Obrst extended the spectrum into two dimensions (which technically is not really a spectrum anymore) and added a lot more detail, which was included in his book, The Semantic Web: A Guide to the Future of XML, Web Services, and Knowledge Management.

The concept of the Semantic precision in business systems was popularized by Dave McComb in his book Semantics in Business Systems: The Savvy Managers Guide published in 2003 where he frequently uses the term Semantic Precision.

This discussion centered around a 10 level partition that included the following levels (listed in the order of increasing semantic precision):

  1. Simple Catalog of Data Elements
  2. Glossary of Terms and Definitions
  3. Thesauri, Narrow Terms, Relationships
  4. Informal "Is-a" relationships
  5. Formal "Is-a" relationships
  6. Formal instances
  7. Frames (properties)
  8. Value Restrictions
  9. Disjointness, Inverse, Part-of
  10. General Logical Constraints

Note that there was a special emphasis on the adding of formal is-a relationships to the spectrum which seems to have been dropped.

The company Cerebra has also popularized this concept by describing the data formats that exist within an enterprise in their ability to store semantically precise metadata. Their list includes:

  1. HTML
  2. PDF
  3. Word Processing documents
  4. Microsoft Excel
  5. Relational databases
  6. XML
  7. XML Schema
  8. Taxonomies
  9. Ontologies

What the concepts share in common is the ability to store information with increasing precision to facilitate intelligent agents.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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