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Alfred Tarski
Alfred Tarski's Convention T (Theories of Truth)
Published: 2015/11/29
Channel: Carneades.org
Tarski
Tarski's semantic theory of truth
Published: 2012/03/27
Channel: Frege100
Who Was Alfred Tarski? (Theories of Truth)
Who Was Alfred Tarski? (Theories of Truth)
Published: 2015/09/13
Channel: Carneades.org
How Do We Capture the Truth of Beliefs? Type Theory
How Do We Capture the Truth of Beliefs? Type Theory
Published: 2016/12/15
Channel: The Ling Space
Saul Kripke
Saul Kripke's Theory of Truth (Semantic Type-Free)
Published: 2017/10/22
Channel: Carneades.org
What is TRUTH-CONDITIONAL SEMANTICS? What does TRUTH-CONDITIONAL SEMANTICS mean?
What is TRUTH-CONDITIONAL SEMANTICS? What does TRUTH-CONDITIONAL SEMANTICS mean?
Published: 2017/04/27
Channel: The Audiopedia
Type Free Theories of Truth (Introduction)
Type Free Theories of Truth (Introduction)
Published: 2016/08/28
Channel: Carneades.org
Wilfrid Sellars, Philosophical Semantics & Synthetic Necessary Truths - Kenneth Westphal
Wilfrid Sellars, Philosophical Semantics & Synthetic Necessary Truths - Kenneth Westphal
Published: 2016/07/12
Channel: UCD School of Philosophy
The Correspondence Theory of Truth
The Correspondence Theory of Truth
Published: 2015/05/31
Channel: Carneades.org
Logic 02-1-04 Truth Belief & Rationality - A Mistaken Objection to Correspondence Theory of Truth
Logic 02-1-04 Truth Belief & Rationality - A Mistaken Objection to Correspondence Theory of Truth
Published: 2013/08/16
Channel: Richard Legum
Theory of Semantics
Theory of Semantics
Published: 2015/01/08
Channel: pyrrho314
Douglas Patterson - Theory and Concept in Tarski
Douglas Patterson - Theory and Concept in Tarski's Philosophy of Language
Published: 2016/05/18
Channel: just_Cire
Semantic Scope Ambiguity
Semantic Scope Ambiguity
Published: 2014/10/22
Channel: The Ling Space
Axiomatic Theories of Truth (Typed Theories)
Axiomatic Theories of Truth (Typed Theories)
Published: 2016/07/24
Channel: Carneades.org
What is TRUTH CONDITION? What does TRUTH CONDITION mean? TRUTH CONDITION meaning & explanation
What is TRUTH CONDITION? What does TRUTH CONDITION mean? TRUTH CONDITION meaning & explanation
Published: 2016/11/15
Channel: The Audiopedia
Hilary Putnam on Meaning & Externalism
Hilary Putnam on Meaning & Externalism
Published: 2016/03/25
Channel: Philosophical Overdose
The Deflationary Theory of Truth
The Deflationary Theory of Truth
Published: 2015/07/05
Channel: Carneades.org
Godless Truth Bearers
Godless Truth Bearers
Published: 2014/06/22
Channel: Gary Edwards
What is CORRESPONDENCE THEORY OF TRUTH? What does CORRESPONDENCE THEORY OF TRUTH mean?
What is CORRESPONDENCE THEORY OF TRUTH? What does CORRESPONDENCE THEORY OF TRUTH mean?
Published: 2017/06/04
Channel: The Audiopedia
Thinking vs. Knowing: The Semantics and Pragmatics of Presuppositions
Thinking vs. Knowing: The Semantics and Pragmatics of Presuppositions
Published: 2017/03/30
Channel: The Ling Space
A Theory Of Truth In 3 Parts: Introduction
A Theory Of Truth In 3 Parts: Introduction
Published: 2013/04/11
Channel: Suicideforcelluloid
Searle on Truth - The Correspondence Theory & Objections
Searle on Truth - The Correspondence Theory & Objections
Published: 2015/12/06
Channel: Philosophical Overdose
Alfred Tarski and the Liar
Alfred Tarski and the Liar's Paradox
Published: 2016/01/31
Channel: Carneades.org
PHILOSOPHY - Language: Meaning and Language [HD]
PHILOSOPHY - Language: Meaning and Language [HD]
Published: 2014/11/07
Channel: Wireless Philosophy
Donald Davidson- Coherence Theory of Truth and Knowledge
Donald Davidson- Coherence Theory of Truth and Knowledge
Published: 2015/08/26
Channel: BlueSpectacles
The Pragmatic Theory of Truth (A Problem to be Solved)
The Pragmatic Theory of Truth (A Problem to be Solved)
Published: 2011/04/09
Channel: TheSecularTheist
What Is An Entailment In Semantic?
What Is An Entailment In Semantic?
Published: 2017/07/03
Channel: sparky marketips
KnowULinguistics - Truth
KnowULinguistics - Truth
Published: 2012/09/04
Channel: castview
SEM121 - Entailment
SEM121 - Entailment
Published: 2013/05/16
Channel: The Virtual Linguistics Campus
Wittgenstein on Truth
Wittgenstein on Truth
Published: 2011/08/12
Channel: The Partially Examined Life
The Indefinability of Truth (Tarski
The Indefinability of Truth (Tarski's Theorem)
Published: 2016/04/17
Channel: Carneades.org
9. Logic Lecture: Symbolic Logic 7: Truth Trees
9. Logic Lecture: Symbolic Logic 7: Truth Trees
Published: 2010/01/19
Channel: drjasonjcampbell
Correspondence theory of truth
Correspondence theory of truth
Published: 2016/09/04
Channel: WikiWikiup
Type Free Theories of Truth (Kripke/Feferman Axiomatic Theory)
Type Free Theories of Truth (Kripke/Feferman Axiomatic Theory)
Published: 2016/12/18
Channel: Carneades.org
Truth condition
Truth condition
Published: 2016/09/19
Channel: Wikivoicemedia
Logic 02-1-03 Truth Belief & Rationality - Correspondence Theory of Truth
Logic 02-1-03 Truth Belief & Rationality - Correspondence Theory of Truth
Published: 2013/08/16
Channel: Richard Legum
Model Theory - part 07 - Semantics pt 1
Model Theory - part 07 - Semantics pt 1
Published: 2016/03/04
Channel: Taylor Dupuy's Math Vlog
Theories of Truth
Theories of Truth
Published: 2017/09/08
Channel: Ch-02 Humanities-II [Arts, History, Philosophy]
Correspondence Theory of Truth Puppet Show
Correspondence Theory of Truth Puppet Show
Published: 2013/11/20
Channel: Sara Mcintyre
The Rorty Discussion with Donald Davidson - Part 1 of 6
The Rorty Discussion with Donald Davidson - Part 1 of 6
Published: 2009/05/18
Channel: riversonthemoon
Theory of Truth
Theory of Truth
Published: 2016/04/14
Channel: graytaich0
Syntax vs Semantics (Philosophical Distinctions)
Syntax vs Semantics (Philosophical Distinctions)
Published: 2015/09/20
Channel: Carneades.org
A Theory Of Truth In Three Parts: Thesis
A Theory Of Truth In Three Parts: Thesis
Published: 2013/04/11
Channel: Suicideforcelluloid
You Can
You Can't Handle The Truth!
Published: 2015/05/17
Channel: Carneades.org
What
What's Up With The Presupp?
Published: 2014/03/15
Channel: Gary Edwards
What Is An Entailment In Semantic
What Is An Entailment In Semantic
Published: 2017/11/05
Channel: Cwerd Ceel
How Do We Build Meaning with Math? Set Theory and Adjectives
How Do We Build Meaning with Math? Set Theory and Adjectives
Published: 2015/12/02
Channel: The Ling Space
Paul Christiano on Probabilistic Metamathematics and the Definability of Truth
Paul Christiano on Probabilistic Metamathematics and the Definability of Truth
Published: 2013/10/26
Channel: Machine Intelligence Research Institute
SEM120 - Sentence Semantics
SEM120 - Sentence Semantics
Published: 2013/04/05
Channel: The Virtual Linguistics Campus
Predicate Logic Semantics - Models
Predicate Logic Semantics - Models
Published: 2017/02/13
Channel: David Agler
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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A semantic theory of truth is a theory of truth in the philosophy of language which holds that truth is a property of sentences.[1]

Origin[edit]

The semantic conception of truth, which is related in different ways to both the correspondence and deflationary conceptions, is due to work published by Polish logician Alfred Tarski in the 1930s. Tarski, in "On the Concept of Truth in Formal Languages", attempted to formulate a new theory of truth in order to resolve the liar paradox. In the course of this he made several metamathematical discoveries, most notably Tarski's undefinability theorem using the same formal technique as Kurt Gödel used in his incompleteness theorems. Roughly, this states that a truth-predicate satisfying convention-T for the sentences of a given language cannot be defined within that language.

Tarski's theory[edit]

To formulate linguistic theories[2] without semantic paradoxes such as the liar paradox, it is generally necessary to distinguish the language that one is talking about (the object language) from the language that one is using to do the talking (the metalanguage). In the following, quoted text is use of the object language, while unquoted text is use of the metalanguage; a quoted sentence (such as "P") is always the metalanguage's name for a sentence, such that this name is simply the sentence P rendered in the object language. In this way, the metalanguage can be used to talk about the object language; Tarski demanded that the object language be contained in the metalanguage.

Tarski's material adequacy condition, also known as Convention T, holds that any viable theory of truth must entail, for every sentence "P", a sentence of the following form (known as "form (T)"):

(1) "P" is true if, and only if, P.

For example,

(2) 'snow is white' is true if and only if snow is white.

These sentences (1 and 2, etc.) have come to be called the "T-sentences". The reason they look trivial is that the object language and the metalanguage are both English; here is an example where the object language is German and the metalanguage is English:

(3) 'Schnee ist weiß' is true if and only if snow is white.

It is important to note that as Tarski originally formulated it, this theory applies only to formal languages. He gave a number of reasons for not extending his theory to natural languages, including the problem that there is no systematic way of deciding whether a given sentence of a natural language is well-formed, and that a natural language is closed (that is, it can describe the semantic characteristics of its own elements). But Tarski's approach was extended by Davidson into an approach to theories of meaning for natural languages, which involves treating "truth" as a primitive, rather than a defined, concept. (See truth-conditional semantics.)

Tarski developed the theory to give an inductive definition of truth as follows.

For a language L containing ¬ ("not"), ∧ ("and"), ∨ ("or"), ∀ ("for all"), and ∃ ("there exists"), Tarski's inductive definition of truth looks like this:

  • (1) A primitive statement "A" is true if, and only if, A.
  • (2) "¬A" is true if, and only if, "A" is not true.
  • (3) "AB" is true if, and only if, "A" is true and "B" is true.
  • (4) "AB" is true if, and only if, "A" is true or "B" is true or ("A" is true and "B" is true).
  • (5) "∀x(Fx)" is true if, and only if, for every object x "Fx" is true.
  • (6) "∃x(Fx)" is true if, and only if, there is an object x for which "Fx" is true.

These explain how the truth conditions of complex sentences (built up from connectives and quantifiers) can be reduced to the truth conditions of their constituents. The simplest constituents are atomic sentences. A contemporary semantic definition of truth would define truth for the atomic sentences as follows:

Tarski himself defined truth for atomic sentences in a variant way that does not use any technical terms from semantics, such as the "expressed by" above. This is because he wanted to define these semantic terms in terms of truth, so it would be circular were he to use one of them in the definition of truth itself. Tarski's semantic conception of truth plays an important role in modern logic and also in much contemporary philosophy of language. It is a rather controversial matter whether Tarski's semantic theory should be counted either as a correspondence theory or as a deflationary theory.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hale, Bob; Wright, Crispin, eds. (1999). "A Companion to the Philosophy of Language". A Companion to the Philosophy of Language. pp. 309–330. doi:10.1111/b.9780631213260.1999.00015.x. ISBN 9780631213260. , p. 326
  2. ^ Parts of section is adapted from Kirkham, 1992.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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