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OpenGL Skeletal Animation Tutorial #1
OpenGL Skeletal Animation Tutorial #1
Published: 2017/01/17
Channel: ThinMatrix
Spine Demo Reel  - 2D Skeletal Animation - Julio Duque Montero - 2017
Spine Demo Reel - 2D Skeletal Animation - Julio Duque Montero - 2017
Published: 2017/06/09
Channel: Julio Duque Montero
Bone
Bone
Published: 2010/05/09
Channel: andrewkful
Bone Tool Animation (Adobe Flash Tutorial)
Bone Tool Animation (Adobe Flash Tutorial)
Published: 2013/11/14
Channel: Draw with Jazza
Bone tool animation on Adobe Animater
Bone tool animation on Adobe Animater
Published: 2017/01/29
Channel: SK Animation world
Silly Symphonies - The Skeleton Dance
Silly Symphonies - The Skeleton Dance
Published: 2015/10/15
Channel: Walt Disney Animation Studios
[MEDICAL] 3D Anatomy and Physiology Animations : Bones and Skeletal Muscles
[MEDICAL] 3D Anatomy and Physiology Animations : Bones and Skeletal Muscles
Published: 2017/02/11
Channel: Video Medical
Skeleton Playing Tennis: Incredible CGI Animation
Skeleton Playing Tennis: Incredible CGI Animation
Published: 2013/10/22
Channel: Barcroft TV
Puppet2D 2D skeletal Animation Unity
Puppet2D 2D skeletal Animation Unity
Published: 2014/01/06
Channel: Puppet2D
HUMAN SKELETAL SYSTEM
HUMAN SKELETAL SYSTEM
Published: 2013/07/08
Channel: 7activestudio
Blender Tutorial: Basics of Character Rigging
Blender Tutorial: Basics of Character Rigging
Published: 2013/02/20
Channel: Sebastian Lague
OpenGL ASSIMP Skeletal Animation Tutorial (Link in description)
OpenGL ASSIMP Skeletal Animation Tutorial (Link in description)
Published: 2016/07/29
Channel: RealityMultiplied
Bone Tool Animate CC Character Rigging Tutorial
Bone Tool Animate CC Character Rigging Tutorial
Published: 2017/03/04
Channel: ArtTips
OpenGL Skeletal Animation
OpenGL Skeletal Animation
Published: 2017/04/28
Channel: Rxtje
Introduction to Bone Biology
Introduction to Bone Biology
Published: 2012/01/20
Channel: Amgen
Basic Skeletal Animation Game Editor Demo
Basic Skeletal Animation Game Editor Demo
Published: 2015/01/18
Channel: SolidusCode
Character Rigging, EASY Character Animation Tutorial In After Effects, Illustrator And Duik Plugin
Character Rigging, EASY Character Animation Tutorial In After Effects, Illustrator And Duik Plugin
Published: 2017/01/10
Channel: Gigantic
Unity Basics - 2D Character Animation #1 - Setting Up A Skeleton
Unity Basics - 2D Character Animation #1 - Setting Up A Skeleton
Published: 2015/07/30
Channel: gamesplusjames
Zelda TP - Skeletal Animation
Zelda TP - Skeletal Animation
Published: 2007/06/13
Channel: Tab0203
OpenGL Skeletal Animation Tutorial #2
OpenGL Skeletal Animation Tutorial #2
Published: 2017/02/07
Channel: ThinMatrix
OpenGL Skeletal Animation Tutorial #3
OpenGL Skeletal Animation Tutorial #3
Published: 2017/02/28
Channel: ThinMatrix
[C/C++/OpenGL] GPU Vertex Skinning (Skeletal Animation) (2006)
[C/C++/OpenGL] GPU Vertex Skinning (Skeletal Animation) (2006)
Published: 2011/01/11
Channel: yoshi2233
Unite Europe 2016 - 2D Skeletal Animation for Unity: Anima2D
Unite Europe 2016 - 2D Skeletal Animation for Unity: Anima2D
Published: 2016/07/05
Channel: Unity
How I create animations for my games - 2d skeletal animation in AS3
How I create animations for my games - 2d skeletal animation in AS3
Published: 2013/02/02
Channel: thetidegames.com / mmankt
MAYA CHARACTER RIGGING TUTORIAL: JOINTS & SKINNING
MAYA CHARACTER RIGGING TUTORIAL: JOINTS & SKINNING
Published: 2016/02/08
Channel: James Taylor
SkeleGUN & ZOMBIE - Minecraft Animation
SkeleGUN & ZOMBIE - Minecraft Animation
Published: 2013/07/07
Channel: NikNikamTV Minecraft Animations / Gameplays / Short Films
Character Design for Skeletal (Bone) Animation in 2D
Character Design for Skeletal (Bone) Animation in 2D
Published: 2015/12/14
Channel: Dorian Butron
Skeletal Animation System
Skeletal Animation System
Published: 2016/03/23
Channel: Henry Dai
Animation in Maya 2015 - Rig and animate a lamp - 4 Attach the mesh to your skeleton using parenting
Animation in Maya 2015 - Rig and animate a lamp - 4 Attach the mesh to your skeleton using parenting
Published: 2013/11/18
Channel: OnlineMediaTutor | Maya modeling & animation tutorials!
Unity 2D Skeletal Animation Sprites And Bones
Unity 2D Skeletal Animation Sprites And Bones
Published: 2015/10/05
Channel: RJ Videos
Unity 2D Tutorial - Skeletal Characters and Animations
Unity 2D Tutorial - Skeletal Characters and Animations
Published: 2017/06/26
Channel: Cat Trap Studios
OpenGL Skeletal Animation Tutorial #4: Collada (.dae) Format
OpenGL Skeletal Animation Tutorial #4: Collada (.dae) Format
Published: 2017/03/27
Channel: ThinMatrix
Skeletal Animation
Skeletal Animation
Published: 2014/08/09
Channel: Saharaplace
Piston - Skeletal Animation Demo
Piston - Skeletal Animation Demo
Published: 2015/04/13
Channel: stjahns
Smash
Smash's Devlog: 2D Skeletal Animation
Published: 2013/09/09
Channel: SmashJava
Skeletal Animation en la GPU OpenGL 3.3 y 4.0 Tutorial 7 parte 1
Skeletal Animation en la GPU OpenGL 3.3 y 4.0 Tutorial 7 parte 1
Published: 2014/07/14
Channel: jose rojas
Animating game art assets in Spine - image and bone setup and idle animation
Animating game art assets in Spine - image and bone setup and idle animation
Published: 2016/12/31
Channel: Chris Hildenbrand
Rig and Animate ANYTHING in Blender
Rig and Animate ANYTHING in Blender
Published: 2016/08/23
Channel: Remington Graphics
axial and appendicular skeleton
axial and appendicular skeleton
Published: 2011/04/05
Channel: David Faulkner
Skeletal Animation
Skeletal Animation
Published: 2011/06/15
Channel: Catalin Zima-Zegreanu
Blender | Animation and Bone Tutorial
Blender | Animation and Bone Tutorial
Published: 2014/03/15
Channel: British Tea-Rex
Publishing a 3D mesh with bone animation for three.js from Blender
Publishing a 3D mesh with bone animation for three.js from Blender
Published: 2013/10/26
Channel: Akihiro Oyamada
OpenGL - Skeletal Animation
OpenGL - Skeletal Animation
Published: 2014/07/26
Channel: Vinh Truong
Development of Bone
Development of Bone
Published: 2014/06/16
Channel: INTELECOM
PhotoAnim - 2D Tutorial #3 of 4 - Skeletal animation
PhotoAnim - 2D Tutorial #3 of 4 - Skeletal animation
Published: 2011/11/29
Channel: PhotoAnim
2D skeletal animation WIP
2D skeletal animation WIP
Published: 2012/06/15
Channel: Lee Cephas
Skeletal animations with Animo Sprites
Skeletal animations with Animo Sprites
Published: 2014/05/06
Channel: LanicaCo
C++ Game Engine - Hawk Engine - Skeletal Animation Improved
C++ Game Engine - Hawk Engine - Skeletal Animation Improved
Published: 2017/07/07
Channel: Hawk Engine
Skeletal animation with openGL, first part
Skeletal animation with openGL, first part
Published: 2016/09/26
Channel: Marjan Mrak
Crimson Legend Character Editor Step 1
Crimson Legend Character Editor Step 1
Published: 2007/10/20
Channel: Marc ten Bosch
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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'Bones' (in green) used to pose a hand. In practice, the 'bones' themselves are often hidden and replaced by more user-friendly objects. In this example from the open source project Blender, these 'handles' (in blue) have been scaled down to bend the fingers. The bones are still controlling the deformation, but the animator only sees the 'handles'.

Skeletal animation is a technique in computer animation in which a character (or other articulated object) is represented in two parts: a surface representation used to draw the character (called skin or mesh) and a hierarchical set of interconnected bones (called the skeleton or rig) used to animate (pose and keyframe) the mesh.[1] While this technique is often used to animate humans or more generally for organic modeling, it only serves to make the animation process more intuitive and the same technique can be used to control the deformation of any object — a door, a spoon, a building, or a galaxy. When the animated object is more general than, for example, a humanoid character the set of bones may not be hierarchical or interconnected, but it just represents a higher level description of the motion of the part of mesh or skin it is influencing.

The technique was introduced in 1988 by Nadia Magnenat Thalmann, Richard Laperrière, and Daniel Thalmann.[2] This technique is used in virtually all animation systems where simplified user interfaces allows animators to control often complex algorithms and a huge amount of geometry; most notably through inverse kinematics and other "goal-oriented" techniques. In principle, however, the intention of the technique is never to imitate real anatomy or physical processes, but only to control the deformation of the mesh data.

Technique[edit]

"Rigging is making our characters able to move. The process of rigging is we take that digital sculpture, and we start building the skeleton, the muscles, and we attach the skin to the character, and we also create a set of animation controls, which our animators use to push and pull the body around."[attribution needed]

This technique is used by constructing a series of 'bones,' sometimes referred to as rigging. Each bone has a three-dimensional transformation (which includes its position, scale and orientation), and an optional parent bone. The bones therefore form a hierarchy. The full transform of a child node is the product of its parent transform and its own transform. So moving a thigh-bone will move the lower leg too. As the character is animated, the bones change their transformation over time, under the influence of some animation controller. A rig is generally composed of both forward kinematics and inverse kinematics parts that may interact with each other. Skeletal animation is referring to the forward kinematics part of the rig, where a complete set of bones configurations identifies a unique pose.

Each bone in the skeleton is associated with some portion of the character's visual representation. Skinning is the process of creating this association. In the most common case of a polygonal mesh character, the bone is associated with a group of vertices; for example, in a model of a human being, the 'thigh' bone would be associated with the vertices making up the polygons in the model's thigh. Portions of the character's skin can normally be associated with multiple bones, each one having a scaling factors called vertex weights, or blend weights. The movement of skin near the joints of two bones, can therefore be influenced by both bones. In most state-of-the-art graphical engines, the skinning process is done on the GPU thanks to a shader program.

For a polygonal mesh, each vertex can have a blend weight for each bone. To calculate the final position of the vertex, a transformation matrix is created for each bone which, when applied to the vertex, first puts the vertex in bone space then puts it back into mesh space, the vertex. After applying a matrix to the vertex, it is scaled by its corresponding weight. This algorithm is called matrix palette skinning, because the set of bone transformations (stored as transform matrices) form a palette for the skin vertex to choose from.

Benefits and drawbacks[edit]

Strengths
  • Bone represent set of vertices (or some other objects, which represent for example a leg).
    • Animator controls fewer characteristics of the model
      • Animator can focus on the large scale motion.
    • Bones are independently movable.

An animation can be defined by simple movements of the bones, instead of vertex by vertex (in the case of a polygonal mesh).

Weaknesses
  • Bone represents set of vertices (or some other object).
    • Does not provide realistic muscle movement and skin motion
    • Possible solutions to this problem:

Applications[edit]

Skeletal animation is the standard way to animate characters or mechanical objects for a prolonged period of time (usually over 100 frames). It is commonly used by video game artists and in the movie industry, and can also be applied to mechanical objects and any other object made up of rigid elements and joints.

Performance capture (or motion capture) can speed up development time of skeletal animation, as well as increasing the level of realism.

For motion that is too dangerous for performance capture, there are computer simulations that automatically calculate physics of motion and resistance with skeletal frames. Virtual anatomy properties such as weight of limbs, muscle reaction, bone strength and joint constraints may be added for realistic bouncing, buckling, fracture and tumbling effects known as virtual stunts. However, there are other applications of virtual anatomy simulations such as military[3] and emergency response. Virtual soldiers, rescue workers, patients, passengers and pedestrians can be used for training, virtual engineering and virtual testing of equipment. Virtual anatomy technology may be combined with artificial intelligence for further enhancement of animation and simulation technology.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Soriano, Marc. "Skeletal Animation". Bourns College of Engineering. Retrieved January 2011.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  2. ^ N. Magnenat-Thalmann, R.Laperrière, D. Thalmann, Joint-Dependent Local Deformations for Hand Animation and Object Grasping, Proc. Graphics Interface'88, Edmonton, 1988, pp.26-33
  3. ^ "Defense". Santos Human Inc. Retrieved January 2011.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)

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