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OpenGL Skeletal Animation Tutorial #1
OpenGL Skeletal Animation Tutorial #1
Published: 2017/01/17
Channel: ThinMatrix
Spine Demo Reel  - 2D Skeletal Animation - Julio Duque Montero - 2017
Spine Demo Reel - 2D Skeletal Animation - Julio Duque Montero - 2017
Published: 2017/06/09
Channel: Julio Duque Montero
Bone
Bone
Published: 2010/05/09
Channel: andrewkful
Blender Tutorial: Basics of Character Rigging
Blender Tutorial: Basics of Character Rigging
Published: 2013/02/20
Channel: Sebastian Lague
Silly Symphonies - The Skeleton Dance
Silly Symphonies - The Skeleton Dance
Published: 2015/10/15
Channel: Walt Disney Animation Studios
Bone Tool Animation (Adobe Flash Tutorial)
Bone Tool Animation (Adobe Flash Tutorial)
Published: 2013/11/14
Channel: Draw with Jazza
Puppet2D 2D skeletal Animation Unity
Puppet2D 2D skeletal Animation Unity
Published: 2014/01/06
Channel: Puppet2D
Skeleton Playing Tennis: Incredible CGI Animation
Skeleton Playing Tennis: Incredible CGI Animation
Published: 2013/10/22
Channel: Barcroft TV
HUMAN SKELETAL SYSTEM
HUMAN SKELETAL SYSTEM
Published: 2013/07/08
Channel: 7activestudio
After Effects Character Animation Tutorial Series - Part 1 - Creating the Skeleton
After Effects Character Animation Tutorial Series - Part 1 - Creating the Skeleton
Published: 2015/08/03
Channel: mamoworld.com
Bone Tool Animate CC Character Rigging Tutorial
Bone Tool Animate CC Character Rigging Tutorial
Published: 2017/03/04
Channel: ArtTips
Zelda TP - Skeletal Animation
Zelda TP - Skeletal Animation
Published: 2007/06/13
Channel: Tab0203
Unity 2D Tutorial - Skeletal Characters and Animations
Unity 2D Tutorial - Skeletal Characters and Animations
Published: 2017/06/26
Channel: Cat Trap Studios
[C/C++/OpenGL] GPU Vertex Skinning (Skeletal Animation) (2006)
[C/C++/OpenGL] GPU Vertex Skinning (Skeletal Animation) (2006)
Published: 2011/01/11
Channel: yoshi2233
Unity 2D Skeletal Animation Sprites And Bones
Unity 2D Skeletal Animation Sprites And Bones
Published: 2015/10/05
Channel: RJ Videos
Unite Europe 2016 - 2D Skeletal Animation for Unity: Anima2D
Unite Europe 2016 - 2D Skeletal Animation for Unity: Anima2D
Published: 2016/07/05
Channel: Unity
PhotoAnim - 2D Tutorial #3 of 4 - Skeletal animation
PhotoAnim - 2D Tutorial #3 of 4 - Skeletal animation
Published: 2011/11/29
Channel: PhotoAnim
Unity Basics - 2D Character Animation #1 - Setting Up A Skeleton
Unity Basics - 2D Character Animation #1 - Setting Up A Skeleton
Published: 2015/07/30
Channel: gamesplusjames
OpenGL Skeletal Animation
OpenGL Skeletal Animation
Published: 2017/04/28
Channel: Rxtje
Basic Skeletal Animation Game Editor Demo
Basic Skeletal Animation Game Editor Demo
Published: 2015/01/18
Channel: SolidusCode
OpenGL Skeletal Animation Tutorial #2
OpenGL Skeletal Animation Tutorial #2
Published: 2017/02/07
Channel: ThinMatrix
Introduction to Bone Biology
Introduction to Bone Biology
Published: 2012/01/20
Channel: Amgen
OpenGL Skeletal Animation Tutorial #3
OpenGL Skeletal Animation Tutorial #3
Published: 2017/02/28
Channel: ThinMatrix
Animating game art assets in Spine - image and bone setup and idle animation
Animating game art assets in Spine - image and bone setup and idle animation
Published: 2016/12/31
Channel: Chris Hildenbrand
Motion Capture and Skeletal Animation with Kinect V2
Motion Capture and Skeletal Animation with Kinect V2
Published: 2017/01/29
Channel: Certain Things Studios
Skeletal Animation System
Skeletal Animation System
Published: 2016/03/23
Channel: Henry Dai
[MEDICAL] 3D Anatomy and Physiology Animations : Bones and Skeletal Muscles
[MEDICAL] 3D Anatomy and Physiology Animations : Bones and Skeletal Muscles
Published: 2017/02/11
Channel: Video Medical
axial and appendicular skeleton
axial and appendicular skeleton
Published: 2011/04/05
Channel: David Faulkner
3D Skeletal animation for GameMaker Studio | GM Marketplace
3D Skeletal animation for GameMaker Studio | GM Marketplace
Published: 2015/06/28
Channel: MishMash
SkeleGUN & ZOMBIE - Minecraft Animation
SkeleGUN & ZOMBIE - Minecraft Animation
Published: 2013/07/07
Channel: NikNikamTV Minecraft Animations / Gameplays / Short Films
Piston - Skeletal Animation with DLB Skinning
Piston - Skeletal Animation with DLB Skinning
Published: 2015/04/29
Channel: stjahns
Unity 2d Skeletal Animation Experiment
Unity 2d Skeletal Animation Experiment
Published: 2013/05/09
Channel: Matthew Holtzem
Unity 2D Skeletal Animation Learning
Unity 2D Skeletal Animation Learning
Published: 2016/11/09
Channel: doctrina kharkov
Godot Engine - Tutorial Series (08 Animating our Character)
Godot Engine - Tutorial Series (08 Animating our Character)
Published: 2015/01/31
Channel: Andreas Esau
Character Design for Skeletal (Bone) Animation in 2D
Character Design for Skeletal (Bone) Animation in 2D
Published: 2015/12/14
Channel: Dorian Butron
FlashLearner.com - Animation Made Easy With The Bone Tool
FlashLearner.com - Animation Made Easy With The Bone Tool
Published: 2011/03/04
Channel: KnowFlash
Skeletal Animation
Skeletal Animation
Published: 2011/06/15
Channel: Catalin Zima-Zegreanu
OpenGL - Skeletal Animation
OpenGL - Skeletal Animation
Published: 2014/07/26
Channel: Vinh Truong
Colony of One - OpenGL skeletal animation switching
Colony of One - OpenGL skeletal animation switching
Published: 2013/01/24
Channel: TinyMem
Hand Movement Skeletal Animation in C
Hand Movement Skeletal Animation in C
Published: 2014/03/01
Channel: Luke Lincoln
MAYA CHARACTER RIGGING TUTORIAL: JOINTS & SKINNING
MAYA CHARACTER RIGGING TUTORIAL: JOINTS & SKINNING
Published: 2016/02/08
Channel: James Taylor
Tutorial 01 - Character Rigging
Tutorial 01 - Character Rigging
Published: 2015/04/23
Channel: Matt Wilson
Mr Skeletal Animation collab w/Grin Animates [meme]
Mr Skeletal Animation collab w/Grin Animates [meme]
Published: 2017/04/27
Channel: bbpanzu
2D skeletal animation - Mech H16
2D skeletal animation - Mech H16
Published: 2014/01/08
Channel: Stachir
Blender tutorials DVD 11: Blender Inside Out : 5 04 Skeletal Animation
Blender tutorials DVD 11: Blender Inside Out : 5 04 Skeletal Animation
Published: 2013/10/28
Channel: WannabeExpert
Speed drawing + Skeletal animation with  DragonBones Pro
Speed drawing + Skeletal animation with DragonBones Pro
Published: 2017/01/17
Channel: The Black Shadow
2D Animation In Blender Tutorials- basic 2d bone rigging
2D Animation In Blender Tutorials- basic 2d bone rigging
Published: 2013/07/09
Channel: Blender2DCom
2D skeletal animation WIP
2D skeletal animation WIP
Published: 2012/06/15
Channel: Lee Cephas
DragonBones 2D animation solution
DragonBones 2D animation solution
Published: 2016/07/20
Channel: DragonBones
Skeleton Animation Cycles Running Animation
Skeleton Animation Cycles Running Animation
Published: 2014/05/22
Channel: VideoLifeWorld
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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'Bones' (in green) used to pose a hand. In practice, the 'bones' themselves are often hidden and replaced by more user-friendly objects. In this example from the open source project Blender, these 'handles' (in blue) have been scaled down to bend the fingers. The bones are still controlling the deformation, but the animator only sees the 'handles'.

Skeletal animation is a technique in computer animation in which a character (or other articulated object) is represented in two parts: a surface representation used to draw the character (called skin or mesh) and a hierarchical set of interconnected bones (called the skeleton or rig) used to animate (pose and keyframe) the mesh.[1] While this technique is often used to animate humans or more generally for organic modeling, it only serves to make the animation process more intuitive and the same technique can be used to control the deformation of any object — a door, a spoon, a building, or a galaxy. When the animated object is more general than, for example, a humanoid character the set of bones may not be hierarchical or interconnected, but it just represents a higher level description of the motion of the part of mesh or skin it is influencing.

The technique was introduced in 1988 by Nadia Magnenat Thalmann, Richard Laperrière, and Daniel Thalmann.[2] This technique is used in virtually all animation systems where simplified user interfaces allows animators to control often complex algorithms and a huge amount of geometry; most notably through inverse kinematics and other "goal-oriented" techniques. In principle, however, the intention of the technique is never to imitate real anatomy or physical processes, but only to control the deformation of the mesh data.

Technique[edit]

"Rigging is making our characters able to move. The process of rigging is we take that digital sculpture, and we start building the skeleton, the muscles, and we attach the skin to the character, and we also create a set of animation controls, which our animators use to push and pull the body around."[attribution needed]

This technique is used by constructing a series of 'bones,' sometimes referred to as rigging. Each bone has a three-dimensional transformation (which includes its position, scale and orientation), and an optional parent bone. The bones therefore form a hierarchy. The full transform of a child node is the product of its parent transform and its own transform. So moving a thigh-bone will move the lower leg too. As the character is animated, the bones change their transformation over time, under the influence of some animation controller. A rig is generally composed of both forward kinematics and inverse kinematics parts that may interact with each other. Skeletal animation is referring to the forward kinematics part of the rig, where a complete set of bones configurations identifies a unique pose.

Each bone in the skeleton is associated with some portion of the character's visual representation. Skinning is the process of creating this association. In the most common case of a polygonal mesh character, the bone is associated with a group of vertices; for example, in a model of a human being, the 'thigh' bone would be associated with the vertices making up the polygons in the model's thigh. Portions of the character's skin can normally be associated with multiple bones, each one having a scaling factors called vertex weights, or blend weights. The movement of skin near the joints of two bones, can therefore be influenced by both bones. In most state-of-the-art graphical engines, the skinning process is done on the GPU thanks to a shader program.

For a polygonal mesh, each vertex can have a blend weight for each bone. To calculate the final position of the vertex, a transformation matrix is created for each bone which, when applied to the vertex, first puts the vertex in bone space then puts it back into mesh space, the vertex. After applying a matrix to the vertex, it is scaled by its corresponding weight. This algorithm is called matrix palette skinning, because the set of bone transformations (stored as transform matrices) form a palette for the skin vertex to choose from.

Benefits and drawbacks[edit]

Strengths
  • Bone represent set of vertices (or some other objects, which represent for example a leg).
    • Animator controls fewer characteristics of the model
      • Animator can focus on the large scale motion.
    • Bones are independently movable.

An animation can be defined by simple movements of the bones, instead of vertex by vertex (in the case of a polygonal mesh).

Weaknesses
  • Bone represents set of vertices (or some other object).
    • Does not provide realistic muscle movement and skin motion
    • Possible solutions to this problem:

Applications[edit]

Skeletal animation is the standard way to animate characters or mechanical objects for a prolonged period of time (usually over 100 frames). It is commonly used by video game artists and in the movie industry, and can also be applied to mechanical objects and any other object made up of rigid elements and joints.

Performance capture (or motion capture) can speed up development time of skeletal animation, as well as increasing the level of realism.

For motion that is too dangerous for performance capture, there are computer simulations that automatically calculate physics of motion and resistance with skeletal frames. Virtual anatomy properties such as weight of limbs, muscle reaction, bone strength and joint constraints may be added for realistic bouncing, buckling, fracture and tumbling effects known as virtual stunts. However, there are other applications of virtual anatomy simulations such as military[3] and emergency response. Virtual soldiers, rescue workers, patients, passengers and pedestrians can be used for training, virtual engineering and virtual testing of equipment. Virtual anatomy technology may be combined with artificial intelligence for further enhancement of animation and simulation technology.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Soriano, Marc. "Skeletal Animation". Bourns College of Engineering. Retrieved January 2011.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  2. ^ N. Magnenat-Thalmann, R.Laperrière, D. Thalmann, Joint-Dependent Local Deformations for Hand Animation and Object Grasping, Proc. Graphics Interface'88, Edmonton, 1988, pp.26-33
  3. ^ "Defense". Santos Human Inc. Retrieved January 2011.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)

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