Sha'ar HaAmakim ( Hebrew: שַׁעַר הַעֲמָקִים, lit. Gate of the Valleys) is a kibbutz in northern Israel associated with the Hashomer Hatzair movement founded in 1935. Located near Kiryat Tiv'on, it falls under the jurisdiction of Zevulun Regional Council. In 2015 it had a population of 687. 
History [ edit ]
Antiquity [ edit ]
Hellenistic era site near the kibbutz
Human habitation in the area dates at least as far back as the
Hellenistic period. 
Crusader era [ edit ]
In 1283, during the
("truce") between the hudna Crusaders based in Acre and the Mamluk sultan al-Mansur Qalawun, this location was named el Harathiyah and was described as part of the domain of the Crusaders. 
Ottoman era [ edit ]
Ottoman era, a Muslim village at the site was called el Hâritheh. The village appeared as  El Harti on the map of Pierre Jacotin compiled in 1799. In 1859, the population was recorded as 120 with tillable land of 12  feddans. In 1875,  Victor Guérin reported about 40 houses. In 1882, the  Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine described it as an adobe hamlet. 
A population list from about 1887 showed that
Harithiyeh had about 120 inhabitants; all Muslims. 
British Mandate era [ edit ]
Horse-drawn and mechanical vehicles at the kibbutz'
in the 1950s
In 1925 a Zionist organisation purchased 50
feddans in Hartieh from the Sursock family of Beirut. At the time, there were 60 families living there. From 1931, and lasting several years, the  Jewish Agency struggled to evict the Arab tenant farmers from Hartiya.   According to Avneri,  Hartiya land was to become Sha'ar HaAmakim. According to the Department of Statistics, however, Sha'ar HaAmakim had previously been part of  Sheikh Bureik.  
Kibbutz Sha'ar HaAmakim was founded in 1935 by
immigrants from Romania and Yugoslavia. Its name was derived from the nearby confluence of the Jezreel and Zevulun valleys. By  1945 it had a population of 360, all Jews.  
State of Israel [ edit ]
Sha'ar HaAmakim hosted volunteers from around the world, including France and the United States, who worked at the kibbutz and participated in cultural exchanges.
In the 1960s, there were up to 100 volunteers each year.   Bernie Sanders, who later became a U.S. Senator, worked at the kibbutz for several months in 1963.  
Economy [ edit ]
According to a 2016 report, the kibbutz derives most of its income from its
solar water heater factory. It also makes money from agriculture, including dairy farming. For over five decades, the kibbutz has produced and processed  sunflower seeds which it markets under its name both in Israel and for export. It also has a  fish pond and orchards producing apples, peaches, and pears. 
References [ edit ]
^ a b "List of localities, in Alphabetical order" (PDF). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics . Retrieved . 16 October 2016
^ Segal, Arthur; Młynarczyk, Jolanta; Burdajewicz, Mariusz; Bar-Oz, Guy (2009). Excavations of the Hellenistic site in Kibbutz Sha'ar-Ha'Amakim. Haifa: Zinman Institute of Archaeology, University of Haifa. ISBN 9789659041879.
^ Barag, 1979, p. 204
^ ”the ploughed land”, Palmer, 1881, p. 109
^ Karmon, 1960, p. 163
^ a b Conder and Kitchener, 1881, SWP I, p. 270
^ Guérin, 1880, pp. 399-400
^ Schumacher, 1888, p. 175
^ List of villages sold by Sursocks and their partners to the Zionists since British occupation of Palestine Evidence to the Shaw Commission, 1930
^ a b Avneri, 1984, pp. 156-7
^ 26 February 1935, House of Commons
^ Bernie Sanders Stint at 'Stalinist' Kibbutz Draws Red-Baiting From Right, Nathan Guttman, February 5, 2016 The Forward
^ a b Department of Statistics, 1945, p. 15
^ a b Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 49
^ History Sha'ar HaAmakim Seeds
^ a b Erlanger, Steven (February 5, 2016). "Bernie Sanders's Kibbutz Found. Surprise: It's Socialist.". The New York Times . Retrieved . February 6, 2016
^ a b c Sales, Ben (February 8, 2016). "50 years on, Bernie Sanders still champions values of his Israeli kibbutz". Jewish Telegraphic Agency . Retrieved . February 8, 2016
^ Aderet, Ofer (4 February 2016). "Mystery Solved? Haaretz Archive Reveals Which Kibbutz Bernie Sanders Volunteered On". Haaretz . Retrieved . 5 February 2016
^ "Shaar Haamakim Seeds". Sha'ar Ha'amakim Seeds, Ltd . Retrieved . February 6, 2016
Bibliography [ edit ]
Avneri, Arieh L. (1984). . Transaction Publishers. The Claim of Dispossession: Jewish Land-settlement and the Arabs, 1878-1948 ISBN 0-87855-964-7.
Barag, Dan (1979). "A new source concerning the ultimate borders of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem". Israel Exploration Journal. 29: 197–217.
Barron, J. B., ed. (1923). . Government of Palestine. Palestine: Report and General Abstracts of the Census of 1922
Conder, Claude Reignier; Kitchener, H. H. (1881). . The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeology 1. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
Department of Statistics (1945). . Government of Palestine. Village Statistics, April, 1945
Guérin, Victor (1880). (in French). 3: Galilee, pt. 1. Paris: L'Imprimerie Nationale. Description Géographique Historique et Archéologique de la Palestine
Hadawi, Sami (1970). . Palestine Liberation Organization Research Center. Village Statistics of 1945: A Classification of Land and Area ownership in Palestine
Karmon, Y. (1960). "An Analysis of Jacotin's Map of Palestine" (PDF). . Israel Exploration Journal 10 (3,4): 155–173; 244–253.
Mills, E., ed. (1932). . Jerusalem: Government of Palestine. Census of Palestine 1931. Population of Villages, Towns and Administrative Areas
Palmer, E. H. (1881). . The Survey of Western Palestine: Arabic and English Name Lists Collected During the Survey by Lieutenants Conder and Kitchener, R. E. Transliterated and Explained by E.H. Palmer Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
Schumacher, G. (1888). "Population list of the Liwa of Akka". Quarterly statement - Palestine Exploration Fund. 20: 169–191.
External links [ edit ]