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21 February 1703 (1114 Hijri)|
|Died||20 August 1762
(aged 59) (1176 Hijri)|
|Notable work(s)||Hujjat Allah al-baligha (The Conclusive Argument from God)|
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|Schools of Law|
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Qutb-ud-Dīn Ahmad ibn 'Abdul Rahīm (Arabic: قطب الدین احمد ابن عبدالرحیم), better known as Shāh Walīullāh (1703–1762 CE / 1114–1176 AH) was an Islamic scholar, reformer and founder of modern Islamic thought who attempted to reassess Islamic theology in the light of modern changes.
Shāh Walīullāh was born in 1703, four years before the death of Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. His genealogy can be traced back to the family of 'Umar ibn al-Khattab. He received a structured education and spiritual instruction at the madrasa (religious school) established by his father, Shah 'Abd al-Rahim, at Delhi. Along with the Qur'an, he studied Arabic and Persian grammar and literature and the higher philosophical, theological, metaphysical, mystical and juridical texts. He graduated from the school when he was barely fifteen years old; in the same year, his father initiated him into the famous Naqshbandi order. He began his career as a teacher at the Madrasa-e-Rahimia under the tutelage of his father; after the death of the latter in 1719, Shah Waliullah became the head of the madrasa, teaching all the current sciences at the school for about twelve years. During the same period he continued his own studies, growing in stature as a teacher and attracting students to his circle.
In 1724 he went to the Hijaz on a pilgrimage (Hajj) and stayed there for eight years studying Hadith and Fiqh under such distinguished scholars as Abu Tahir bin ibrahim al-Kurdi al-Madani, Wafd Allah al-Makki, and Taj al-Din al-Qali. During this period he came into contact with people from all parts of the Muslim world and, thus, obtained first-hand information about the conditions then prevailing in the various Muslim countries. During this time, he also saw the forty-seven spiritual visions which form the subject matter of his famous mystical work Fuyud al-haramayn (Emanations or Spiritual Visions of Makkah and Madina).
He returned to Delhi in 1733, where he spent the rest of his life in producing numerous works till his death in 1763 during the reign of Shah Alam II. The most important of Shah Waliullah's works is his Ḥujjat Allāh al-Bāligha in which he made an attempt to present the teachings of Islam in a spirit of scientific objectivity. The range of his works include: economic, political, social, meta-physical, as well as purely theological aspects.He presented what he considered pure and pristine Islam to the people.
He wrote letter to Ahmad Shah Abdali to come and conquer India from the rising Maratha domination. He also translated the Quran from Arabic to Persian, so that more Muslims could be able to understand the teachings of the Quran.
|Sufism and Tariqa|