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1
How to become a Muslim (How to recite the Shahada)
How to become a Muslim (How to recite the Shahada)
::2012/02/16::
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2
Emotional  Shahada with Sh Yusuf Estes
Emotional Shahada with Sh Yusuf Estes
::2013/12/24::
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3
Shahada On Halloween | Do You Believe In Jinn Ft Abu Ruqya
Shahada On Halloween | Do You Believe In Jinn Ft Abu Ruqya
::2014/05/18::
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4
4 Shahada
4 Shahada's Because of Qur'an Recitation!!! || #Da'wahMenInBrazil
::2014/07/01::
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5
2 Brothers take the Shahada after Jummah Prayer
2 Brothers take the Shahada after Jummah Prayer
::2012/04/28::
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6
Christian Sister Taking Shahada with Shaykh Hamza Yusuf
Christian Sister Taking Shahada with Shaykh Hamza Yusuf
::2012/10/12::
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7
My Husband is Muslim! SHAHADA - John Fontain - The Deen Show - Street Da
My Husband is Muslim! SHAHADA - John Fontain - The Deen Show - Street Da'wah
::2013/12/20::
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8
Crying Shahada. A christian take off his cross right away!
Crying Shahada. A christian take off his cross right away!
::2012/12/18::
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9
Shahada at World Cup Brazil | World Cup Dawah - Day 2
Shahada at World Cup Brazil | World Cup Dawah - Day 2
::2014/06/13::
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10
Why Islam || Interview & Shahada || Nick Purrer
Why Islam || Interview & Shahada || Nick Purrer
::2014/09/15::
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11
Shahadah: How To Become a Muslim
Shahadah: How To Become a Muslim
::2010/01/14::
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12
Learn Salat
Learn Salat's Arabic - Shahada - Video 5 - MyZikr.com
::2008/02/16::
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13
Shahada Trailer
Shahada Trailer
::2010/02/04::
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14
Que Es  El Shahada y  Como Lo Hago.
Que Es El Shahada y Como Lo Hago.
::2010/06/30::
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15
SHAHADA (Sub-English)-Part 1
SHAHADA (Sub-English)-Part 1
::2012/03/19::
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16
Ecco come si diventa musulmani - Shahada da vari posti nel mondo
Ecco come si diventa musulmani - Shahada da vari posti nel mondo
::2012/03/17::
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17
Amazing shahada with Yusuf Estes
Amazing shahada with Yusuf Estes
::2014/01/26::
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18
Milad Raza Qadri | Shahada | Official Video
Milad Raza Qadri | Shahada | Official Video
::2014/07/25::
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19
Shahada - Bande annonce
Shahada - Bande annonce
::2011/04/14::
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20
DYING UPON THE SHAHADA | AMAZING TRUE STORY | SHAYKH AHMAD JIBRIL
DYING UPON THE SHAHADA | AMAZING TRUE STORY | SHAYKH AHMAD JIBRIL
::2014/08/13::
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21
PRACHTIG: Shahada in gebarentaal | ICC Essalam |
PRACHTIG: Shahada in gebarentaal | ICC Essalam |
::2014/03/30::
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22
Night before Shahada
Night before Shahada
::2013/04/11::
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23
Scholar Cries Over Dying Gaza Man Making Shahada
Scholar Cries Over Dying Gaza Man Making Shahada
::2010/10/08::
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24
More than 1500 People in Germany saying the Shahada !The Shahada is the Muslim declaration of Faith.
More than 1500 People in Germany saying the Shahada !The Shahada is the Muslim declaration of Faith.
::2011/05/05::
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25
Shahada jeremy houston tx
Shahada jeremy houston tx
::2014/08/07::
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26
Two non muslim women took  Shahada also How to take Shahada.
Two non muslim women took Shahada also How to take Shahada.
::2011/05/07::
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Prononcer facilement l
Prononcer facilement l''attestation de foi(Shahada)en Phonetique Facile Easy
::2011/11/04::
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Nasheed Yebgha Ash Shahada Jihad
Nasheed Yebgha Ash Shahada Jihad
::2010/09/04::
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29
la "shahada"
la "shahada"
::2008/09/25::
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30
Milad Raza Qadri - Shahada [Messenger of Mercy Launch- Bradford]
Milad Raza Qadri - Shahada [Messenger of Mercy Launch- Bradford]
::2012/09/07::
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31
What Is the Shahada?
What Is the Shahada?
::2012/10/18::
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32
Dr.Zakir Naik new Live Shahada After Long Discussion Dubai Ramadan Prog
Dr.Zakir Naik new Live Shahada After Long Discussion Dubai Ramadan Prog
::2014/07/14::
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33
Shahada de Alvaro - Ibrahim
Shahada de Alvaro - Ibrahim
::2013/05/07::
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Shahada | Deutscher Kino-Trailer HD
Shahada | Deutscher Kino-Trailer HD
::2010/09/21::
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Chechen Mujahid dies with Shahada on his tongue SUBHANALLAH
Chechen Mujahid dies with Shahada on his tongue SUBHANALLAH
::2011/02/12::
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SHAHADA, NANDURBAR: KON HONAR CM ELECTION SPECIAL
SHAHADA, NANDURBAR: KON HONAR CM ELECTION SPECIAL
::2014/08/19::
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Filmtipp: Shahada
Filmtipp: Shahada
::2011/11/15::
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38
Reciting my Shahada
Reciting my Shahada
::2014/03/03::
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39
Shahada - Milad Raza Qadri | from album Messenger of Mercy
Shahada - Milad Raza Qadri | from album Messenger of Mercy
::2012/07/26::
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40
Death & Shahada (لا اله الا الله)
Death & Shahada (لا اله الا الله)
::2011/01/04::
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41
Sade
Sade's shahada
::2013/08/30::
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42
Shahada  , Conversão ao Islam .
Shahada , Conversão ao Islam .
::2011/06/24::
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43
Yabgha - Ash Shahada
Yabgha - Ash Shahada
::2012/12/20::
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Shahada de Pascual -- Harun Muñoz
Shahada de Pascual -- Harun Muñoz
::2013/02/22::
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45
Ash Shahada - Nasheed - *UmmahAnasheed*
Ash Shahada - Nasheed - *UmmahAnasheed*
::2009/09/23::
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46
How To Give Shahada in 10 Minutes (Part 2 of 8)
How To Give Shahada in 10 Minutes (Part 2 of 8)
::2009/03/22::
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47
Shahada - Trailer deutsch
Shahada - Trailer deutsch
::2010/10/07::
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48
Shahada van Jordy
Shahada van Jordy
::2014/07/19::
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49
Afgan Shaheed (Taleban Martyr) smiles during death & givies Shahada
Afgan Shaheed (Taleban Martyr) smiles during death & givies Shahada
::2014/01/29::
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Shahada van Niels
Shahada van Niels
::2014/07/11::
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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This article is about the Islamic creed. For other uses, see Shahada (disambiguation).
Not to be confused with Shahid.

The Shahada (Arabic: الشهادةaš-šahādah About this sound audio  "the testimony"; also aš-šahādatān (الشَهادَتانْ, "the two testimonials")) is an Islamic creed declaring belief in the oneness of God and the acceptance of Muhammad as God's prophet. The declaration, in its shortest form, reads:

لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا الله مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ الله
lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāh, muhammadun rasūlu-llāh
There is no god but God, Muhammad is the messenger of God.[1]

Terminology[edit]

The noun shahādah (شَهادة) translates to "testimony", in legal contexts, shahādah is a testimony to the occurrence of events, such as debt, adultery, or divorce.[2] from the verbal root šahida (شَهِدَ) meaning "to observe, witness, testify"; The Islamic creed is also called, in the dual form, šahādatān (شَهادَتانْ, literally "two testimonials"). The person giving the testimony is called a shāhid ( شاهِد. The first statement of the shahada, lā ilāha illā-llāhu, is also known as the tahlīla.

In another meaning, shahādah or, more commonly, istišhād (إسْتِشْهادْ), means "martyrdom." The noun shahīd (شَهيد) may mean "martyr."[3]

Origin[edit]

Photo of a variation of the shahādah at Bab al-Futuh/Bab al-Nasr Fatimid Cairo with the phrase ʿalī walī allāh.
A mancus gold dinar of king Offa of Mercia, copied from the dinars of the Abbasid Caliphate (774); probably unintentionally, it still includes the Arabic text "Muhammad is the Apostle of God".
Qiblah of Imam Mustansir in the Mosque of Ibn Tulun of Cairo showing the Shi'i Kalima.

The tahlila (the phrase lā ilāha illā-llāh) is Quranic, but its combination with the additional "Muhammad is the messenger of God" is of uncertain origin. It seems to have been in use by the beginning of the 8th century, based on the occurrence in the fragment of a bilingual papyrus dated to the reign of al-Walid I (86–96 AH, 705–715 CE). In this document, the Greek is given first, as

Ούκ Έστιν [θεός εἰ μὴ ὁ θεὸς μόνος], Μααμε[τ ἀπόστολος θεοῦ]
Ouk estin theos ei mē ho theos monos; Maamet apostolos theou.

Followed by the Arabic equivalent.[4]

The 9th-century Sahih al-Bukhari attributes a longer variant of the statement to Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, who upon hearing the muezzin is said to have uttered:[5]

Ašhadu an lā ilāha illā-llāh waḥdahu lā šarīka lahu, wa ašhadu anna muḥammadan ʿabduhu wa rasūluhu.
"I testify that (there is) no god except God; One is He, no partner has He, and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and messenger."

This longer version is also known as the kalimat ash-shahādah ("word of testimony") and counted as the second of the Six Kalimas in modern Pakistani tradition.

This longer variant, i.e. inserting the claim that God is "alone, without partner", is also found in Arabic writing on the Anglo-Saxon gold dinar coined by Offa, copied from a non-extant Abbasid dinar dated AH 157 (AD 773/4), indicating that by that time this longer phrase had risen to the status of a kind of standard "creed". The coin faces read:

obverse: lā ilāh illā-llāh waḥdah lā šarīk lahu
reverse: muḥammad rasūl llāh; interspersed with the inscription OFFA REX.[6]

In Twelver Shia Islam, the shahada is expanded with the addition of a phrase concerning Ali:

وعليٌ وليُّ الله
wa ʿalīyyun walīyyu-llāh
"and Ali is the wali ("friend", "viceregent") of God".

And early variation of this phrase is found inscribed at Bab al-Futuh built by the Fatimid minister Al-Afdal Shahanshah (d. 975). The inscription reads:

( لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له محمد رسول الله علي ولي الله
bismi -llāhi -r-rahmāni -r-rahīm lā ʾilāha ʾilā -llāh waḥdahu lā sharīk lahu muḥammad rasūlu -llāh ʿalī walī allāh
"In the name of God the Merciful the Compassionate, there is no god but God the One, no partner has he, Muhammad is the Messenger of God, Ali is the walī of God").


Recitation[edit]

audio recording of the shahada
prefaced by the phrase ašhadu ʾan "I testify, that"

Problems playing this file? See media help.

Recitation of the shahādah is the most common statement of faith for Muslims. In Sunni Islam, it is counted as the first of the Five Pillars of Islam, while the Twelver and Ismaili Shi'a connect it to their respective lists of pillars of the faith.[clarification needed][7] Non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam do so by a public recitation of this creed.[8]

The shahada has been used as a shibboleth in Islamic terror attacks to separate Muslim from non-Muslim civilians (in order to kill the latter but not the former), e.g. in the 2013 Westgate shopping mall attack in Nairobi, Kenya.[9]

Use on flags[edit]

Further information: Islamic flags and Jihadist flag
Flag of Hamas.
Flag of the Idrisid Emirate of Asir (1906)

The shahada is frequently found on modern Islamic flags. The Wahhabi religious movement used the shahada on their flags from the 18th century.[10] In 1902 Abdulaziz Abdulrahman Al-Saud, leader of the Al Saud and the future founder of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, added a sword to this flag.[10] From this derives the modern flag of Saudi Arabia, introduced in 1973. The Flag of Somaliland (introduced in 1991, current design 1996) bases its design on the Saudi flag.

Between 1997 and 2001, the Taliban used a white flag with the shahada inscribed in black as the flag of their Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. The various jihadist flags used by Islamic insurgents since the 2000s have often followed this example. The shahada written on a green background has been used by supporters of Hamas since about 2000. The 2004 draft constitution of Afghanistan proposed a flag featuring the shahada in white script centered on a red background.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ N Mohammad (1985), The doctrine of jihad: An introduction, Journal of Law and Religion, 3(2): 381-397
  2. ^ The New Encyclopedia of Islam, Cyril hi tom Alta Mira Press, 2001, p. 416.
  3. ^ The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Volume IX, Klijkebrille, 1997, p. 201.
  4. ^ A. Grohmann, Arabic Papyri In The Egyptian Library, Volume I, 1934, Egyptian Library Press: Cairo, No. 2, pp. 10-11. "A Bilingual Papyrus Of A Protocol - Egyptian National Library Inv. No. 61, 86-96 AH / 705-715 CE". Islamic-awareness.org. 2005-12-20. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  5. ^ [page needed] islamweb.net: المستدرك على الصحيحين[clarification needed]
  6. ^ Dīnār Minted By King Offa Full inscription:
    • obverse field: lā-ilaha illā-llāh waḥdahu la sharīkalahu
    • obverse margin: Muḥammadun rasūlu llāh arsalahu bi-l-huda wa dīn al-ḥaqq liyudhhiru ʿala al-dini kullahi wa-law karih-al-mushrikūn ("Muhhammad is the messenger of God whom He sent with guidance and the religion of truth that He might make it prevail over all religions even if the associators are averse""
    • reverse field: Muḥammad rasūlu llāh
    • reverse margin: bismi llāhi ḍuriba hadhā al-dīnār fī sanat mi' khamsa wa sabaʿun "in the name of God, this dinar was struck in the year 157"
  7. ^ "Seeking the Straight Path: Reflections of a New Muslim". Retrieved 2007-07-09. 
  8. ^ Farah (1994), p. 135
  9. ^ "Explosions inside mall as stand-off nears end". The New Zealand Herald. Agence France-Presse. 25 September 2013. Retrieved 25 September 2013.  To Associated Press, the al-Shabab called it "a meticulous vetting process ... to separate the Muslims from the Kuffar". Associated Press (26 September 2013). "Al-Shabab: foreigners in Kenya mall were 'legitimate target;' let Muslims leave after vetting". Washington Post.[dead link]
  10. ^ a b Firefly Guide to Flags of the World. 2003. p. 165. ISBN 978-1552978139. Retrieved 12 September 2012. 
  11. ^ The classical calligraphy is replaced by more artless and emphatically archaic Kufic script and the second part of the shahada is given in the form of the (supposedly) historical seal of Muhammad to express the fundamentalist aim of returning to the foundational principles of the caliphate.

External links[edit]

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