1
How to become a Muslim (How to recite the Shahada)
How to become a Muslim (How to recite the Shahada)
DATE: 2012/02/16::
2
Emotional  Shahada with Sh Yusuf Estes
Emotional Shahada with Sh Yusuf Estes
DATE: 2013/12/24::
3
2 Brothers take the Shahada after Jummah Prayer
2 Brothers take the Shahada after Jummah Prayer
DATE: 2012/04/28::
4
Razi - Shahata Official Music Video 2014
Razi - Shahata Official Music Video 2014
DATE: 2014/06/11::
5
4 Shahada
4 Shahada's Because of Qur'an Recitation!!! || #Da'wahMenInBrazil
DATE: 2014/07/01::
6
Shahada Trailer
Shahada Trailer
DATE: 2010/02/04::
7
Learn Salat
Learn Salat's Arabic - Shahada - Video 5 - MyZikr.com
DATE: 2008/02/16::
8
Shahada van Niels
Shahada van Niels
DATE: 2014/07/11::
9
How to say the Shahada in Arabic?? ♡
How to say the Shahada in Arabic?? ♡
DATE: 2013/08/27::
10
Shahada - لَا إِلَّهَ إِلَّا الله مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ الله
Shahada - لَا إِلَّهَ إِلَّا الله مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ الله
DATE: 2013/01/20::
11
Converting to Islam, and becoming Muslim: Taking Shahada @ Islamic Foundation
Converting to Islam, and becoming Muslim: Taking Shahada @ Islamic Foundation
DATE: 2009/12/21::
12
Crying Shahada. A christian take off his cross right away!
Crying Shahada. A christian take off his cross right away!
DATE: 2012/12/18::
13
My Husband is Muslim! SHAHADA - John Fontain - The Deen Show - Street Da
My Husband is Muslim! SHAHADA - John Fontain - The Deen Show - Street Da'wah
DATE: 2013/12/20::
14
More than 1500 People in Germany saying the Shahada !The Shahada is the Muslim declaration of Faith.
More than 1500 People in Germany saying the Shahada !The Shahada is the Muslim declaration of Faith.
DATE: 2011/05/05::
15
Shahada Irmã Cynthia Reverted to Islam
Shahada Irmã Cynthia Reverted to Islam
DATE: 2015/06/29::
16
SHAHADA
SHAHADA
DATE: 2015/01/27::
17
What Is the Shahada?
What Is the Shahada?
DATE: 2012/10/18::
18
Amazing shahada with Yusuf Estes
Amazing shahada with Yusuf Estes
DATE: 2014/01/26::
19
☪ The Journey Of An American Revert • Reflecting On Taking My Shahada
☪ The Journey Of An American Revert • Reflecting On Taking My Shahada
DATE: 2014/07/02::
20
Shahada at World Cup Brazil | World Cup Dawah - Day 2
Shahada at World Cup Brazil | World Cup Dawah - Day 2
DATE: 2014/06/14::
21
Nasheed Yebgha Ash Shahada Jihad
Nasheed Yebgha Ash Shahada Jihad
DATE: 2010/09/04::
22
How to say the Shahada in Arabic 2 ♡(how become a muslim)
How to say the Shahada in Arabic 2 ♡(how become a muslim)
DATE: 2013/09/24::
23
Death & Shahada (لا اله الا الله)
Death & Shahada (لا اله الا الله)
DATE: 2011/01/04::
24
Shahada - Milad Raza Qadri | from album Messenger of Mercy
Shahada - Milad Raza Qadri | from album Messenger of Mercy
DATE: 2012/07/26::
25
la "shahada"
la "shahada"
DATE: 2008/09/25::
26
Eryn
Eryn's Shahada
DATE: 2013/06/17::
27
Shahada Event 2015
Shahada Event 2015
DATE: 2015/03/17::
28
Christian Sister Taking Shahada with Shaykh Hamza Yusuf
Christian Sister Taking Shahada with Shaykh Hamza Yusuf
DATE: 2012/10/12::
29
#SHAHADA Nederlandse zuster bekeerd tot de Islam
#SHAHADA Nederlandse zuster bekeerd tot de Islam
DATE: 2014/12/17::
30
Dr Patricia takes Shahada with Yusuf Estes and Dr Kazi
Dr Patricia takes Shahada with Yusuf Estes and Dr Kazi
DATE: 2015/04/17::
31
Reciting my Shahada
Reciting my Shahada
DATE: 2014/03/03::
32
Ash Shahada - Nasheed - *UmmahAnasheed*
Ash Shahada - Nasheed - *UmmahAnasheed*
DATE: 2009/09/23::
33
Sieg oder Shahada (Victory or Shahada) [Part 1 of 3]
Sieg oder Shahada (Victory or Shahada) [Part 1 of 3]
DATE: 2009/10/02::
34
Yabgha Shahada (ST français)
Yabgha Shahada (ST français)
DATE: 2009/10/25::
35
How to Give Shahada in 10 Minutes (Part 1 of 8)
How to Give Shahada in 10 Minutes (Part 1 of 8)
DATE: 2009/03/22::
36
The Brave Girl is taking Shahada .. Alhamdulillah :-)
The Brave Girl is taking Shahada .. Alhamdulillah :-)
DATE: 2012/10/14::
37
Shahada, Right Before Ramadhan!
Shahada, Right Before Ramadhan!
DATE: 2015/06/18::
38
Mike Tyson - Muslim, Shahada
Mike Tyson - Muslim, Shahada
DATE: 2008/01/09::
39
Converting to Islam - 2 Sisters(Brazil) Saying The Shahada
Converting to Islam - 2 Sisters(Brazil) Saying The Shahada
DATE: 2013/09/01::
40
Street Dawah. A girl Gives Shahada (The decleration of being muslim)
Street Dawah. A girl Gives Shahada (The decleration of being muslim)
DATE: 2012/12/18::
41
AMAZING SHAHADA! iERA MISSION DAWAH WIMBLEDON
AMAZING SHAHADA! iERA MISSION DAWAH WIMBLEDON
DATE: 2014/09/30::
42
SHAHADA (Sub-English)-Part 1
SHAHADA (Sub-English)-Part 1
DATE: 2012/03/19::
43
New Shahada with Yusuf Estes Ricki accepts Islam
New Shahada with Yusuf Estes Ricki accepts Islam
DATE: 2015/01/24::
44
La shahada : un cadeau d
La shahada : un cadeau d'Allah ᴴᴰ | Nouman Ali Khan
DATE: 2015/06/24::
45
Islam Kalima Shahada / Shahadat
Islam Kalima Shahada / Shahadat
DATE: 2010/09/27::
46
[AMAZING STORY] Saying the shahada before you die!! - Abdul Bary Yayha
[AMAZING STORY] Saying the shahada before you die!! - Abdul Bary Yayha
DATE: 2010/07/16::
47
Muhammad Bin Yahya al Ninowy - Shahada
Muhammad Bin Yahya al Ninowy - Shahada
DATE: 2015/03/29::
48
Shahada de Cleber Santos - Mesquita Brasil - 06/12/2013
Shahada de Cleber Santos - Mesquita Brasil - 06/12/2013
DATE: 2013/12/06::
49
Mike takes Shahada & reverts to Islam
Mike takes Shahada & reverts to Islam
DATE: 2010/08/24::
50
RIS-2013: Nauman Ali Khan- A girl wants to take Shahada
RIS-2013: Nauman Ali Khan- A girl wants to take Shahada
DATE: 2013/12/30::
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This article is about the Islamic creed. For other uses, see Shahada (disambiguation).
Not to be confused with Shahid.

The Shahada (Arabic: الشهادةaš-šahādah About this sound audio  "the testimony"; also aš-šahādatān (الشَهادَتانْ, "the two testimonials")) is an Islamic creed declaring belief in the oneness of God and the acceptance of Muhammad as God's prophet. The declaration, in its shortest form, reads:

لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله
lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāh, muḥammadur rasūlu-llāh
There is no god but God. Muhammad is the messenger of God.[1][2][3][4]

Terminology[edit]

The noun šahāda (شَهادة) translates to "testimony", from the verbal root šahida (شَهِدَ) meaning "to observe, witness, testify"; in legal contexts, šahāda is a testimony to the occurrence of events, such as debt, adultery, or divorce.[5] The Islamic creed is also called, in the dual form, šahādatān (شَهادَتانْ, literally "two testimonials"). The person giving the testimony is called a šāhid ( شاهِد). The first statement of the shahada, lā ilāha illā-llāhu, is also known as the tahlīla. In another meaning, šahāda or, more commonly, istišhād (إسْتِشْهادْ), means "martyrdom." The noun šahīd (شَهيد) may mean "martyr."[6] The word Shahada has been used in Quran as one of the "titles of God" – one is al-Ghayb (the knower of the unseen) and al-Shahada (witnessed).[7]

Shahada is a statement of both ritual and worship. The statement has two parts – la ilaha illa'llah (there is no god but God) and Muhammadun rasul Allah (Muhammad is the messenger of God).[8] Though these statements are both present in the Quran but not present side by side as in the Shahada formula, the shahada may be considered a "defining statement of what it means to be a Muslim".[8] In the Hadith, Angel Gabriel defines Islam to Muhammad that he should "witness there is no god but God" and he is God's messenger. He was also asked to pay the "purification tax", performing the ritual prayer, fast during the month of Ramadan and make a pilgrimage to the Kaaba – these five pillars "are inherent" in this "declaration of faith."[9]

The two parts of the shahada are sometimes referred to as the first shahada and the second shahada.[9] The first one is a symbol of the concept of Tawhid which means the belief in the oneness of God.[9] Islam's monotheistic nature is reflected in the first part of the shahada which declares God "is the only entity truly worthy of worship".[9]

The second part of the shahada is a revelation which means "God has offered guidance to human beings".[10] This verse "reminds Muslims" that they accept not only the "prophecy of Muhammad" but also the "long line of prophets" that preceded Islam.[10] While the first part is seen as a "cosmic truth", the second one is something limited to Islam only, as it is believed that members of other Abrahamic religions don't "view Muhammad as one of their prophets".[10]

Origin[edit]

Photo of a variation of the shahādah at Bab al-Futuh/Bab al-Nasr Fatimid Cairo with the phrase ʿalī walī allāh.
A mancus gold dinar of king Offa of Mercia, copied from the dinars of the Abbasid Caliphate (774); probably unintentionally, it still includes the Arabic text "Muhammad is the Apostle of God".
Qiblah of Imam Mustansir in the Mosque of Ibn Tulun of Cairo showing the Shi'i Kalima.

Shahada first appears in coins in the late seventh century. It then appears in the end of the first Islamic century which signifies the fact that it was not "officially established as a ritual statement of faith" till the mentioned time.[8][verification needed] In the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, there is inscription of "early sentiments" of shahada, with the writing "There is no god but God alone, He has no partner with him".[8] It also appears in coins minted during the reign of Abd Al-Malik (the fifth Umayyad caliph), with the inscription "Muhammad is the servant of God".[8]

In Shia Islam, the shahada is expanded with the addition of a phrase concerning Ali (the fourth Sunni caliph and the first Shia imam) وعليٌ وليُّ الله (wa ʿalīyyun walīyyu-llāh) which translates to "Ali is the wali (friend) of God.[11]

Recitation[edit]

audio recording of the shahada
prefaced by the phrase ašhadu ʾan "I testify, that"

Problems playing this file? See media help.

Recitation of the shahādah is the most common statement of faith for Muslims. In Sunni Islam, it is counted as the first of the Five Pillars of Islam,[7] while the Twelver and Ismaili Shi'a also contain the shahada as amongst their pillars of faith.[12] Fathers whisper the shahada in the ears of the newborn child so that the first thing heard by them is a "strict monotheist faith".[7] Reciting it loudly infront of witnesses is the first step for a non-Muslim to convert into Islam.[7]

For Muslim people reciting the shahada, it is a matter of expressing "what is in the heart"[7] as well as it reflects the "commitment to worship our creator".[9] The community recite it while during their five times prayer during the day.[10] For Non-Muslims, after they recite it, they became a member of Umma or the Muslim community which is followed by "a partylike atmosphere" with celebration.[9] The new convert "witnesses" when he takes the vow is the belief that "of one God" and agrees to submit to Him.[9] He also "testify"ies that "Muhammad is the messenger of God".[9]

The shahada has been used as a shibboleth in Islamic terror attacks to separate Muslim from non-Muslim civilians (in order to kill the latter but not the former), e.g. in the 2013 Westgate shopping mall attack in Nairobi, Kenya [13] and in the Garissa University College attack in Garissa, Kenya in 2015.[14] To Associated Press, the al-Shabab called it "a meticulous vetting process ... to separate the Muslims from the Kuffar". Associated Press (26 September 2013).[15]

Use on flags[edit]

Further information: Islamic flags and Jihadist flag

The shahada is found on Islamic flags. The Wahhabi religious movement used the shahada on their flags from the 18th century.[16] In 1902 Abdulaziz Abdulrahman Al-Saud, leader of the Al Saud and the future founder of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, added a sword to this flag.[16] The modern Flag of Saudi Arabia was introduced in 1973.[17] The Flag of Somaliland has a horizontal strip of green, white and red, with the shahada inscribed in white on the green strip.[18]

Between 1997 and 2001, the Taliban used a white flag with the shahada inscribed in black as the flag of their Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. The various jihadist flags used by Islamic insurgents since the 2000s have often followed this example. The shahada written on a green background has been used by supporters of Hamas since about 2000. The 2004 draft constitution of Afghanistan proposed a flag featuring the shahada in white script centered on a red background.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Malise Ruthven (January 2004). Historical Atlas of Islam. Harvard University Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-674-01385-8. 
  2. ^ Richard C. Martín. Encyclopedia of Islam & the Muslim World. Granite Hill Publishers. p. 723. ISBN 978-0-02-865603-8. 
  3. ^ Frederick Mathewson Denny (2006). An Introduction to Islam. Pearson Prentice Hall. p. 409. ISBN 978-0-13-183563-4. 
  4. ^ Mohammad, Noor (1985). "The Doctrine of Jihad: An Introduction". Journal of Law and Religion 3 (2): 381–397. doi:10.2307/1051182. JSTOR 1051182. 
  5. ^ The New Encyclopedia of Islam, Cyril Glassé, Alta Mira Press, 2001, p. 416.
  6. ^ The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Volume IX, Klijkebrille, 1997, p. 201.
  7. ^ a b c d e Cornell, p.8
  8. ^ a b c d e Lindsay, p.140
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Cornell, p.9
  10. ^ a b c d Cornell, p.10
  11. ^ The Later Mughals by William Irvine p.130
  12. ^ "Seeking the Straight Path: Reflections of a New Muslim". Retrieved 2007-07-09. 
  13. ^ "Explosions inside mall as stand-off nears end". The New Zealand Herald. Agence France-Presse. 25 September 2013. Retrieved 25 September 2013. 
  14. ^ "Kenya Attack: Al Shabab Targets Christians at Garissa University College". NBC news online. 2 March 2015. 
  15. ^ "Al-Shabab: foreigners in Kenya mall were 'legitimate target;' let Muslims leave after vetting". Washington Post.[dead link]
  16. ^ a b Firefly Guide to Flags of the World. 2003. p. 165. ISBN 978-1552978139. Retrieved 12 September 2012. 
  17. ^ "Saudi Arabia Flag and Description". World Atlas. Retrieved 22 June 2015. 
  18. ^ James B. Minahan. Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: Ethnic and National Groups Around the World A-Z. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 806. ISBN 9780313076961. 
  19. ^ The classical calligraphy is replaced by more artless and emphatically archaic Kufic script and the second part of the shahada is given in the form of the (supposedly) historical seal of Muhammad to express the fundamentalist aim of returning to the foundational principles of the caliphate.

External links[edit]

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