Share
VIDEOS 1 TO 50
SHAMPOO PRANK PART 10! | HoomanTV
SHAMPOO PRANK PART 10! | HoomanTV
Published: 2017/11/16
Channel: HoomanTV
SHAMPOO PRANK PART 7! | HoomanTV
SHAMPOO PRANK PART 7! | HoomanTV
Published: 2016/09/29
Channel: HoomanTV
SHAMPOO PRANK PART 1! | HoomanTV
SHAMPOO PRANK PART 1! | HoomanTV
Published: 2016/01/02
Channel: HoomanTV
SHAMPOO PRANK PART 9! | HoomanTV
SHAMPOO PRANK PART 9! | HoomanTV
Published: 2017/05/18
Channel: HoomanTV
After school(애프터스쿨) _ Shampoo MV
After school(애프터스쿨) _ Shampoo MV
Published: 2011/04/28
Channel: 1theK (원더케이)
Shampoo - Ding Dong (Official Video)
Shampoo - Ding Dong (Official Video)
Published: 2015/04/03
Channel: Terminal4Media
SHAMPOO PRANK PART 6! | HoomanTV
SHAMPOO PRANK PART 6! | HoomanTV
Published: 2016/07/01
Channel: HoomanTV
¡LA VERDAD SOBRE MI SHAMPOO!  TE LO CUENTO EN VIVO)
¡LA VERDAD SOBRE MI SHAMPOO! TE LO CUENTO EN VIVO)
Published: 2017/12/14
Channel: Yuya
SHAMPOO PRANK ON GIRLFRIEND! **PRANK WARS GONE WRONG**
SHAMPOO PRANK ON GIRLFRIEND! **PRANK WARS GONE WRONG**
Published: 2017/05/31
Channel: BookOfKen
SHAMPOO PRANK PART 8! | HoomanTV
SHAMPOO PRANK PART 8! | HoomanTV
Published: 2016/11/19
Channel: HoomanTV
Bones - Shampoo
Bones - Shampoo
Published: 2013/12/26
Channel: TeamSESH
HOMEMADE HERBAL HAIR SHAMPOO - GET LONG HAIR,THICK HAIR,SHINY HAIR,HEALTHY HAIR AT HOME
HOMEMADE HERBAL HAIR SHAMPOO - GET LONG HAIR,THICK HAIR,SHINY HAIR,HEALTHY HAIR AT HOME
Published: 2017/04/02
Channel: Priya Malik
I Tried Custom Shampoo & Conditioner
I Tried Custom Shampoo & Conditioner
Published: 2017/03/23
Channel: Safiya Nygaard
♚ Shampoos & Conditioners I Use ♚ | Sulfate/Silicone Free
♚ Shampoos & Conditioners I Use ♚ | Sulfate/Silicone Free
Published: 2016/03/09
Channel: Jordan Anne
3 CM EM 1 MÊS COM SHAMPOO DE HIBISCO ❤
3 CM EM 1 MÊS COM SHAMPOO DE HIBISCO ❤
Published: 2017/12/14
Channel: Daiane Nascimento
THE REAL SHAMPOO PRANK!
THE REAL SHAMPOO PRANK!
Published: 2016/04/20
Channel: BookOfKen
Shampoo - Trouble
Shampoo - Trouble
Published: 2007/11/28
Channel: cont0
SHAMPOO PRANK PART 5! | HoomanTV
SHAMPOO PRANK PART 5! | HoomanTV
Published: 2016/05/27
Channel: HoomanTV
How To Check Shampoo For Sulfates
How To Check Shampoo For Sulfates
Published: 2014/09/13
Channel: CurlyPenny
REAL !! Shampoo and Salt Slime, How to Make Slime with Only Shampoo and Salt , No Borax
REAL !! Shampoo and Salt Slime, How to Make Slime with Only Shampoo and Salt , No Borax
Published: 2017/05/05
Channel: Slime Masters
Quick Relaxing Shampoo Head Massage ASMR by Emily
Quick Relaxing Shampoo Head Massage ASMR by Emily
Published: 2017/12/11
Channel: CAM ASMR & Massage
Gusttavo Lima - Cheiro de Shampoo Part Esp Eduardo Costa - [Ao Vivo Em São Paulo] (Clipe Oficial)
Gusttavo Lima - Cheiro de Shampoo Part Esp Eduardo Costa - [Ao Vivo Em São Paulo] (Clipe Oficial)
Published: 2014/03/18
Channel: Gusttavo Lima Oficial
Dish Soap Shampoo and Salt Slime , No Glue, No Borax, No Liquid Starch Slime
Dish Soap Shampoo and Salt Slime , No Glue, No Borax, No Liquid Starch Slime
Published: 2017/06/03
Channel: Slime Masters
YOU WILL NEVER USE SHAMPOO,  AFTER WATCHING THIS VIDEO !!!
YOU WILL NEVER USE SHAMPOO, AFTER WATCHING THIS VIDEO !!!
Published: 2015/07/03
Channel: P B Works
TOP 3 SHAMPOO PRANKS 2017 (GONE WILD) December 2017 OMG!!
TOP 3 SHAMPOO PRANKS 2017 (GONE WILD) December 2017 OMG!!
Published: 2016/11/05
Channel: Key Fork Tv
SHAMPOO MANIPULADO DE CEBOLINHA TRANSFORMA OS CABELOS DE MÔNICA MAGALI E LUNA
SHAMPOO MANIPULADO DE CEBOLINHA TRANSFORMA OS CABELOS DE MÔNICA MAGALI E LUNA
Published: 2017/12/13
Channel: KidsFunTube
Slime With Shampoo,Salt and Shaving Foam, No Glue,No Borax Slime Recipe, 3 Ingredients Slime
Slime With Shampoo,Salt and Shaving Foam, No Glue,No Borax Slime Recipe, 3 Ingredients Slime
Published: 2017/06/06
Channel: Slime Masters
How To Make Slime With Body Wash, Shampoo and Salt! Slime To Make without glue, borax, cornstarch!
How To Make Slime With Body Wash, Shampoo and Salt! Slime To Make without glue, borax, cornstarch!
Published: 2017/01/13
Channel: JellyRainbow
10 SHAMPOO GARNIER APPROVATI SENZA SILICONI !!!! | Carlitadolce
10 SHAMPOO GARNIER APPROVATI SENZA SILICONI !!!! | Carlitadolce
Published: 2016/10/12
Channel: carlitadolce
Shampoo Slime No Glue Easy ! Diy Slime Only shampoo and Salt
Shampoo Slime No Glue Easy ! Diy Slime Only shampoo and Salt
Published: 2017/04/28
Channel: Slime Hack
Shampoo casero de bicarbonato para hacer crecer el cabello rápidoChampú casero de bicarbonato  par
Shampoo casero de bicarbonato para hacer crecer el cabello rápidoChampú casero de bicarbonato par
Published: 2016/11/19
Channel: Antidoto Natural
ASMR DEEP CLEAN Shampoo, SOOTHING Scalp Massage + INVIGORATING Scalp Scratching w. Gloves Cuz I❤️U
ASMR DEEP CLEAN Shampoo, SOOTHING Scalp Massage + INVIGORATING Scalp Scratching w. Gloves Cuz I❤️U
Published: 2017/12/13
Channel: RelaxWithReena
I Quit Using Shampoo
I Quit Using Shampoo
Published: 2017/12/11
Channel: Elsa Rhae
SHAMPOO QUE ALISA E FAZ CRESCER O CABELO ! MELHOR ALISAMENTO NATURAL, SEM QUIMICA!
SHAMPOO QUE ALISA E FAZ CRESCER O CABELO ! MELHOR ALISAMENTO NATURAL, SEM QUIMICA!
Published: 2017/12/14
Channel: J O S Y R E Z E N D E
Street Shampoo and Rinse - Loud cringy noises ASMR
Street Shampoo and Rinse - Loud cringy noises ASMR
Published: 2017/12/13
Channel: Sandrina
MARCAS DE SHAMPOOS libres de quimicos para SUS CABELLOS
MARCAS DE SHAMPOOS libres de quimicos para SUS CABELLOS
Published: 2016/05/10
Channel: COMUNIDAD DEL CABELLO LARGO
SHAMPOO PRANK PART 3! | HoomanTV
SHAMPOO PRANK PART 3! | HoomanTV
Published: 2016/02/12
Channel: HoomanTV
How To: Apply SHAMPOO & CONDITION HAIR Correctly | Hair Wash Routine For Thick / Healthy Hair
How To: Apply SHAMPOO & CONDITION HAIR Correctly | Hair Wash Routine For Thick / Healthy Hair
Published: 2017/01/17
Channel: Knot Me Pretty
Reseña del Shampoo y Acondicionador de Argan oil of Morocco de OGX
Reseña del Shampoo y Acondicionador de Argan oil of Morocco de OGX
Published: 2016/09/14
Channel: Eri Lo
OS MELHORES SHAMPOOS SEM SULFATO | Mari Morena
OS MELHORES SHAMPOOS SEM SULFATO | Mari Morena
Published: 2016/04/04
Channel: Mari Morena
The Best Shampoo, Body Wash and Salt Slime, Shampoo Slime No Glue, 3 INGREDIENTS Shampoo Slime!
The Best Shampoo, Body Wash and Salt Slime, Shampoo Slime No Glue, 3 INGREDIENTS Shampoo Slime!
Published: 2017/05/28
Channel: Slime Masters
How to make slime with body wash and shampoo
How to make slime with body wash and shampoo
Published: 2016/11/08
Channel: Bostyn Collins
SHAMPOO PRANK PART 2! | HoomanTV
SHAMPOO PRANK PART 2! | HoomanTV
Published: 2016/01/15
Channel: HoomanTV
Shampoos & Conditioners
Shampoos & Conditioners
Published: 2015/07/13
Channel: Embrace Natural Beauty
Time To Heal - Hosted By Shampoo
Time To Heal - Hosted By Shampoo
Published: 2017/12/09
Channel: SNITCH NETWORK
COME FARE LO SLIME CON LO SHAMPOO!SENZA COLLA SENZA ACIDO BORICO! 10 MODI! ANITA STORIES
COME FARE LO SLIME CON LO SHAMPOO!SENZA COLLA SENZA ACIDO BORICO! 10 MODI! ANITA STORIES
Published: 2017/12/09
Channel: Anita Stories
Top 10 Best Shampoos in India with Price | 2017
Top 10 Best Shampoos in India with Price | 2017
Published: 2017/02/24
Channel: Kini's Korner
Resenha: Shampoo e Condicionador OX Liso Absoluto
Resenha: Shampoo e Condicionador OX Liso Absoluto
Published: 2017/04/28
Channel: Juciele Batista
Shampoo Trailer 1975
Shampoo Trailer 1975
Published: 2014/06/09
Channel: Video Detective
How to make shampoo slime(no borax,liquid starch, glue or detergent)
How to make shampoo slime(no borax,liquid starch, glue or detergent)
Published: 2016/11/14
Channel: Mickle Pickle
NEXT
GO TO RESULTS [51 .. 100]

WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Shampoo lather in hair
Bottles of shampoo and lotions manufactured in the early 20th century by the C.L. Hamilton Co. of Washington, D.C.

Shampoo (/ʃæmˈp/) is a hair care product, typically in the form of a viscous liquid, that is used for cleaning hair. Less commonly, shampoo is available in bar form, like a bar of soap. Shampoo is used by applying it to wet hair, massaging the product into the hair, and then rinsing it out. Some users may follow a shampooing with the use of hair conditioner.

The goal of using shampoo is to remove the unwanted build-up in the hair without stripping out so much sebum as to make hair unmanageable. Shampoo is generally made by combining a surfactant, most often sodium lauryl sulfate or sodium laureth sulfate, with a co-surfactant, most often cocamidopropyl betaine in water.

Specialty shampoos are available for people with dandruff, color-treated hair, gluten or wheat allergies, an interest in using an "all-natural", "organic", "botanical" or "plant-derived" product, and infants and young children ("baby shampoo" is less irritating). There are also shampoos intended for animals that may contain insecticides or other medications to treat skin conditions or parasite infestations such as fleas.

History[edit]

The word shampoo entered the English language from India during the colonial era.[1] It dates to 1762, and is derived from Hindi chāmpo (चाँपो [tʃãːpoː]),[2][3] itself derived from the Sanskrit root chapayati (चपयति, which means to press, knead, soothe).[4][5]

India[edit]

In India, a variety of herbs and their extracts were used as shampoos since ancient times. A very effective early shampoo was made by boiling Sapindus with dried Indian gooseberry (aamla) and a few other herbs, using the strained extract. Sapindus, also known as soapberries or soapnuts, is called Ksuna (Sanskrit: क्षुण)[6] in ancient Indian texts and its fruit pulp contains saponins which are a natural surfactant. The extract of soapberries, a tropical tree widespread in India, creates a lather which Indian texts called phenaka (Sanskrit: फेनक).[7] It leaves the hair soft, shiny and manageable. Other products used for hair cleansing were shikakai (Acacia concinna), soapnuts (Sapindus), hibiscus flowers,[8][9] ritha (Sapindus mukorossi) and arappu (Albizzia amara).[10] Guru Nanak, the founding prophet and the first Guru of Sikhism, made references to soapberry tree and soap in the 16th century.[11]

Cleansing with hair and body massage (champu) during daily strip wash was an indulgence of early colonial traders in India. When they returned to Europe, they introduced the newly learnt habits, including hair treatment they called shampoo.[12]

Europe[edit]

Swedish advertisement for toiletries, 1905/1906

Sake Dean Mahomed, a Bengali traveller, surgeon, and entrepreneur, is credited with introducing the practice of champooi or "shampooing" to Britain. In 1814, Mahomed, with his Irish wife Jane Daly, opened the first commercial "shampooing" vapour masseur bath in England, in Brighton. He described the treatment in a local paper as "The Indian Medicated Vapour Bath (type of Turkish bath), a cure to many diseases and giving full relief when every thing fails; particularly Rheumatic and paralytic, gout, stiff joints, old sprains, lame legs, aches and pains in the joints".[13]

During the early stages of shampoo in Europe, English hair stylists boiled shaved soap in water and added herbs to give the hair shine and fragrance. Commercially made shampoo was available from the turn of the 20th century. A 1914 advertisement for Canthrox Shampoo in American Magazine showed young women at camp washing their hair with Canthrox in a lake; magazine advertisements in 1914 by Rexall featured Harmony Hair Beautifier and Shampoo.[14]

In 1927, liquid shampoo was invented by German inventor Hans Schwarzkopf in Berlin, whose name created a shampoo brand sold in Europe.

Originally, soap and shampoo were very similar products; both containing the same naturally derived surfactants, a type of detergent. Modern shampoo as it is known today was first introduced in the 1930s with Drene, the first shampoo using synthetic surfactants instead of soap.[15]

Indonesia[edit]

Early shampoos used in Indonesia were made from the husk and straw (merang) of rice. The husks and straws were burned into ash, and the ashes (which have alkaline properties) are mixed with water to form lather. The ashes and lather were scrubbed into the hair and rinsed out, leaving the hair clean, but very dry. Afterwards, coconut oil was applied to the hair in order to moisturize it.[16]

Pre-Columbian North America[edit]

Certain Native American tribes used extracts from North American plants as hair shampoo; for example the Costanoans of present-day coastal California used extracts from the coastal woodfern, Dryopteris expansa,[17]

Pre-Columbian South America[edit]

Before quinoa can be eaten the saponin must be washed out from the grain prior to cooking. Pre-Columbian Andean civilizations used this soapy by-product as a shampoo.[18]

Composition[edit]

Typical liquid shampoo

Shampoo is generally made by combining a surfactant, most often sodium lauryl sulfate or sodium laureth sulfate, with a co-surfactant, most often cocamidopropyl betaine in water to form a thick, viscous liquid. Other essential ingredients include salt (sodium chloride), which is used to adjust the viscosity, a preservative and fragrance.[19][20] Other ingredients are generally included in shampoo formulations to maximize the following qualities:

Many shampoos are pearlescent. This effect is achieved by addition of tiny flakes of suitable materials, e.g. glycol distearate, chemically derived from stearic acid, which may have either animal or vegetable origins. Glycol distearate is a wax. Many shampoos also include silicone to provide conditioning benefits.

Commonly used ingredients[edit]

  • Ammonium Chloride
  • Ammonium lauryl sulfate
  • Glycol
  • Sodium laureth sulfate is derived from coconut oils and is used to soften water and create a lather. There was some concern over this particular ingredient circa 1998 as evidence suggested it might be a carcinogen, and this has yet to be disproved, as many sources still describe it as irritating to the hair and scalp.[22]
  • Sodium lauryl sulfate
  • Sodium lauroamphoacetate is naturally derived from coconut oils and is used as a cleanser and counter-irritant. This is the ingredient that makes the product tear-free.
  • Polysorbate 20 (abbreviated as PEG(20)) is a mild glycol-based surfactant that is used to solubilize fragrance oils and essential oils; meaning it causes liquid to spread across and penetrate the surface of a solid (i.e. your hair).
  • Polysorbate 80 (abbreviated as PEG(80)) is a glycol used to emulsify (or disperse) oils in water (so the oils do not float on top like Italian salad dressing).
  • PEG-150 distearate is a simple thickener.
  • Citric acid is produced biochemically and is used as an antioxidant to preserve the oils in the product. While it is a severe eye-irritant, the sodium lauroamphoacetate counteracts that property. Citric acid is used to adjust the pH down to approximately 5.5. It is a fairly weak acid which makes the adjustment easier. Shampoos usually are at pH 5.5 because at slightly acidic pH, the scales on a hair follicle lie flat, making the hair feel smooth and look shiny. It also has a small amount of preservative action. Citric acid as opposed to any other acid will prevent bacterial growth.[citation needed]
  • Quaternium-15 is used as a bacterial and fungicidal preservative.
  • Polyquaternium-10 has nothing to do with the chemical quaternium-15; it acts as the conditioning ingredient, providing moisture and fullness to the hair.
  • Di-PPG-2 myreth-10 adipate is a water-dispersible emollient that forms clear solutions with surfactant systems
  • Methylisothiazolinone, or MIT, is a powerful biocide and preservative.

Ingredient and functional claims[edit]

In the USA, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandates that shampoo containers accurately list ingredients on the products container. The government further regulates what shampoo manufacturers can and cannot claim as any associated benefit. Shampoo producers often use these regulations to challenge marketing claims made by competitors, helping to enforce these regulations. While the claims may be substantiated however, the testing methods and details of such claims are not as straightforward. For example, many products are purported to protect hair from damage due to ultraviolet radiation. While the ingredient responsible for this protection does block UV, it is not often present in a high enough concentration to be effective. The North American Hair Research Society has a program to certify functional claims based on third party testing. Shampoos made for treating medical conditions such as dandruff,[23] itchy scalp are regulated as OTC drugs[24] in the US marketplace. In other parts of the world such as the EU, there is a requirement for the anti-dandruff claim to be substantiated, but it is not considered to be a medical problem.

Health risks[edit]

A number of contact allergens are used as ingredients in shampoos, and contact allergy caused by shampoos is well known.[25] Patch testing can identify ingredients to which patients are allergic, after which a physician can help the patient find a shampoo that is free of the ingredient to which they are allergic.[25][26] The US bans 11 ingredients from shampoos, Canada bans 587, and the EU bans 1328.[27]

Specialized shampoos[edit]

Dandruff[edit]

Cosmetic companies have developed shampoos specifically for those who have dandruff. These contain fungicides such as ketoconazole, zinc pyrithione and selenium sulfide, which reduce loose dander by killing Malassezia furfur. Coal tar and salicylate derivatives are often used as well.

Despite a big success of medicated shampoos there are also other alternatives for people who dislike using a lot of chemicals. Organic, natural shampoos can be a suitable alternative. These shampoos often use tea tree oil, essential oils and extracts.[28][verification needed]

Colored hair[edit]

Many companies have also developed color-protection shampoos suitable for colored hair; some of these shampoos contain gentle cleansers according to their manufacturers.

Gluten-free or wheat-free[edit]

Many people suffer from eczema on their palms and their head.[29] Some find that wheat or gluten (the protein found in many grains including wheat) is the cause, particularly if they are sensitive to this in food; e.g. celiac disease wheat allergy. Shampoo can often go into the mouth, particularly for children, so all individuals who are on gluten-free diets may prefer to find a gluten-free shampoo. Shampoo manufacturers are starting to recognize this and there are now gluten-free and wheat-free products available.

Wheat derivatives and ingredients from the other gluten grains are commonly used as binders to help the shampoo stick together and are also used as emollients in the form of oils. Following is a list of grain-derived shampoo ingredients.[30] Most of these ingredients do not theoretically contain any intact wheat proteins, but may do so due to incomplete processing or contamination.

  • Triticum vulgare (wheat), hordeum vulgare (barley), secale cereale (rye), or avena sativa (oats), including any oil, protein, hydrosylate, or other extract from any part of the plant.
  • Tocopherol/Tocopheryl acetate (Vitamin E), which may be derived from wheat
  • Hydrolyzed wheat protein or hydrolyzed wheat starch, also sometimes listed as hydrolyzed vegetable protein, stearyldimoniumhydroxypropyl or hydroxypropyltrimonium
  • Cyclodextrin, which may be produced from starch by means of enzymatic conversion
  • Amino peptide complex
  • Maltodextrin, dextrin, dextrin palmitate, or (hydrolyzed) malt extract
  • Phytosphingosine extract
  • Amino peptide complex
  • prolamine
  • Beta glucan
  • Disodium wheat Germamido PEG-2-Sulfosuccinat
  • Fermented grain extract
  • AMP-Isostearoyl
  • PG-Propyl Silanetriol
  • PVP crosspolymer
  • Ethyldimonium ethosulfate
  • Yeast extract
  • Phytospingosine extract
  • "Fragrance" is a broad category that may contain many chemicals that are otherwise unlisted on the label.[31]

All-natural[edit]

Some companies use "all-natural", "organic", "botanical", or "plant-derived" ingredients (such as plant extracts or oils), combining these additions with one or more typical surfactants. The use of the term "natural" is not regulated in any form, leading many companies to "green-wash" (convince) consumers into buying shampoos with chemicals that might not meet each individual’s expectation for what constitutes “natural”. A company may also slightly change the name of a chemical to another acceptable form to make the chemical sound better to these consumers. org[32]

Baby[edit]

Shampoo for infants and young children is formulated so that it is less irritating and usually less prone to produce a stinging or burning sensation if it were to get into the eyes. For example, Johnson's Baby Shampoo advertises under the premise of "No More Tears". This is accomplished by one or more of the following formulation strategies.

  1. dilution, in case the product comes in contact with eyes after running off the top of the head with minimal further dilution
  2. adjusting pH to that of non-stress tears, approximately 7, which may be a higher pH than that of shampoos which are pH adjusted for skin or hair effects, and lower than that of shampoo made of soap
  3. use of surfactants which, alone or in combination, are less irritating than those used in other shampoos
  4. use of nonionic surfactants of the form of polyethoxylated synthetic glycolipids and polyethoxylated synthetic monoglycerides, which counteract the eye sting of other surfactants without producing the anesthetizing effect of alkyl polyethoxylates or alkylphenol polyethoxylates

The distinction in 4 above does not completely surmount the controversy over the use of shampoo ingredients to mitigate eye sting produced by other ingredients, or the use of the products so formulated. The considerations in 3 and 4 frequently result in a much greater multiplicity of surfactants being used in individual baby shampoos than in other shampoos, and the detergency or foaming of such products may be compromised thereby. The monoanionic sulfonated surfactants and viscosity-increasing or foam stabilizing alkanolamides seen so frequently in other shampoos are much less common in the better baby shampoos.

Animal[edit]

Shampoo intended for animals may contain insecticides or other medications for treatment of skin conditions or parasite infestations such as fleas or mange. These must never be used on humans. While some human shampoos may be harmful when used on animals, any human haircare products that contain active ingredients or drugs (such as zinc in anti-dandruff shampoos) are potentially toxic when ingested by animals. Special care must be taken not to use those products on pets. Cats are at particular risk due to their instinctive method of grooming their fur with their tongues. Shampoos that are especially designed to be used on pets, commonly dogs and cats, are normally intended to do more than just clean the pet's coat or skin. Most of these shampoos contain ingredients which act differently and are meant to treat a skin condition or an allergy or to fight against fleas. The main ingredients contained by pet shampoos can be grouped in insecticidals, antiseborrheic, antibacterials, antifungals, emollients, emulsifiers and humectants. Whereas some of these ingredients may be efficient in treating some conditions, pet owners are recommended to use them according to their veterinarian's indications because many of them cannot be used on cats or can harm the pet if it is misused. Generally, insecticidal pet shampoos contain pyrethrin, pyrethroids (such as permethrin and which may not be used on cats) and carbaryl. These ingredients are mostly found in shampoos that are meant to fight against parasite infestations. Antifungal shampoos are used on pets with yeast or ringworm infections. These might contain ingredients such as miconazole, chlorhexidine, providone iodine, ketoconazole or selenium sulfide (which cannot be used on cats). Bacterial infections in pets are sometimes treated with antibacterial shampoos. They commonly contain benzoyl peroxide, chlorhexidine, povidone iodine, triclosan, ethyl lactate, or sulfur. Antipruritic shampoos are intended to provide relief of itching due to conditions such as atopy and other allergies.[33] These usually contain colloidal oatmeal, hydrocortisone, Aloe vera, pramoxine hydrochloride, menthol, diphenhydramine, sulfur or salicylic acid. These ingredients are aimed to reduce the inflammation, cure the condition and ease the symptoms at the same time while providing comfort to the pet. Antiseborrheic shampoos are those especially designed for pets with scales or those with excessive oily coats. These shampoos are made of sulfur, salicylic acid, refined tar (which cannot be used on cats), selenium sulfide (cannot be used on cats) and benzoyl peroxide. All these are meant to treat or prevent seborrhea oleosa, which is a condition characterized by excess oils. Dry scales can be prevented and treated with shampoos that contain sulfur or salicylic acid and which can be used on both cats and dogs. Emollient shampoos are efficient in adding oils to the skin and relieving the symptoms of a dry and itchy skin. They usually contain oils such as almond, corn, cottonseed, coconut, olive, peanut, Persia, safflower, sesame, lanolin, mineral or paraffin oil. The emollient shampoos are typically used with emulsifiers as they help distributing the emollients. These include ingredients such as cetyl alcohol, laureth-5, lecithin, PEG-4 dilaurate, stearic acid, stearyl alcohol, carboxylic acid, lactic acid, urea, sodium lactate, propylene glycol, glycerin, or polyvinylpyrrolidone. Although some of the pet shampoos are highly effective, some others may be less effective for some condition than another. Yet, although natural pet shampoos exist, it has been brought to attention that some of these might cause irritation to the skin of the pet. Natural ingredients that might be potential allergens for some pets include eucalyptus, lemon or orange extracts and tea tree oil.[34] On the contrary, oatmeal appears to be one of the most widely skin-tolerated ingredients that is found in pet shampoos. Most ingredients found in a shampoo meant to be used on animals are safe for the pet as there is a high likelihood that the pets will lick their coats, especially in the case of cats. Pet shampoos which include fragrances, deodorants or colors may harm the skin of the pet by causing inflammations or irritation. Shampoos that do not contain any unnatural additives are known as hypoallergenic shampoos and are increasing in popularity.

Solid[edit]

Solid shampoos or shampoo bars use as their surfactants soaps or other surfactants formulated as solids. They have the advantage of being spill-proof. They are easy to apply; one may simply rub the bar over wet hair, and work the soaped hair into a low lather.

Jelly and gel[edit]

Stiff, non-pourable clear gels to be squeezed from a tube were once popular forms of shampoo, and can be produced by increasing a shampoo's viscosity. This type of shampoo cannot be spilled, but unlike a solid, it can still be lost down the drain by sliding off wet skin or hair.

Paste and cream[edit]

Shampoos in the form of pastes or creams were formerly marketed in jars or tubes. The contents were wet but not completely dissolved. They would apply faster than solids and dissolve quickly.

Antibacterial[edit]

Antibacterial shampoos are often used in veterinary medicine for various conditions,[35][36] as well as in humans before some surgical procedures.[37][38]

No Poo Movement[edit]

Closely associated with environmentalism, the "no poo" movement consists of people rejecting the societal norm of frequent shampoo use. Some adherents of the no poo movement use baking soda or vinegar to wash their hair, while others use diluted honey. Other people use nothing, rinsing their hair only with conditioner.[39][40]

Theory[edit]

In the 1970s, ads featuring Farrah Fawcett and Christie Brinkley asserted that it was unhealthy not to shampoo several times a week. This mindset is reinforced by the greasy feeling of the scalp after a day or two of not shampooing. Using shampoo every day removes sebum, the oil produced by the scalp. This causes the sebaceous glands to produce oil at a higher rate, to compensate for what is lost during shampooing. According to Michelle Hanjani, a dermatologist at Columbia University, a gradual reduction in shampoo use will cause the sebum glands to produce at a slower rate, resulting in less grease in the scalp.[41] Although this approach might seem unappealing to some individuals, many people try alternate shampooing techniques like baking soda and vinegar in order to avoid chemicals and ingredients used in many shampoos that make hair greasy over time.[42]

References[edit]

  1. ^ M.J. Campion, Hobson-Jobson: The words English owes to India BBC News, 11 July 2012
  2. ^ chāmpo (चाँपो [tʃãːpoː]) is the imperative of chāmpnā (चाँपना [tʃãːpnaː]), "to smear, knead the muscles, massage the head and hair"
  3. ^ American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition, See Shampoo; Also see Shampoo Hobson-Jobson (1903), University of Chicago
  4. ^ Sanskrit Lexicon, University of Koeln, Germany, see चपयति (2008)
  5. ^ Shampoo, Etymology Dictionary (2006)
  6. ^ kSuNa, Sanskrit Lexicon, Monier-Williams Dictionary (1872)
  7. ^ phenaka, Spoken Sanskrit, University of Koeln, Germany
  8. ^ Rahman, History of Indian Science, Technology and Culture at Google Books, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195646528, page 145
  9. ^ Tamil Nadu Medicinal plants board
  10. ^ Tamil Nadu Agricultural university – Albizzia amara
  11. ^ Khushwant Singh, Hymns of Guru Nanak, Orient Longman, ISBN 978-8125011613
  12. ^ Virginia Smith (2007), Clean: A History of Personal Hygiene and Purity, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199297795
  13. ^ Teltscher, Kate (2000). "The Shampooing Surgeon and the Persian Prince: Two Indians in Early Nineteenth-century Britain". Interventions: International Journal of Postcolonial Studies, 1469-929X. 2 (3): 409–23. doi:10.1080/13698010020019226. 
  14. ^ Victoria Sherrow, Encyclopedia of hair: a cultural history, 2006 s.v. "Advertising" p. 7.
  15. ^ "From Pert: Do You Wash and Go?". Company Science Behind the Brands. Procter and Gamble. Archived from the original on 2007-02-16. Retrieved 2007-03-26. 
  16. ^ "Agar RAMBUT Selalu Sehat". Kompas Cyber Media. 2004-04-11. Retrieved 2007-03-26. 
  17. ^ C. Michael Hogan. 2008. Coastal Woodfern (Dryopteris arguta), GlobalTwitcher, ed. N. Stromberg
  18. ^ Quinoa – March Grain of the Month
  19. ^ Robbins, Clarence R., Chemical and physical behavior of human hair, 4th ed (Springer Verlag: New York) 2002.
  20. ^ ChemViews Magazine, Shampoo Science, ChemistryViews 2013 "DOI: 10.1002/chemv.201200149".
  21. ^ (PDF) http://www.pg.com/en_US/downloads/innovation/factsheet_Head_and_Shoulders_final.pdf.  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  22. ^ http://sulfatefreeshampoos.org/why-are-sulfates-bad-for-hair/
  23. ^ http://www.headandshoulders.co.in/hair-clinic/understanding-scalp-issues/dandruff.  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  24. ^ See FDA OTC (Nonprescription) Drugs Approval Process for information.
  25. ^ a b [1]
  26. ^ [2]
  27. ^ Schlanger, Zoe (27 June 2017). "Will your shampoo make your hair fall out? The US government isn't sure". Quartz (publication). Retrieved 27 June 2017. 
  28. ^ "A Complete Guide to Choosing the Best Shampoo for Dandruff". Shampoo Truth. 2015-09-12. Retrieved 2015-09-12. 
  29. ^ "Atopic eczema – NHS Choices". Nhs.uk. Retrieved 2012-04-25. 
  30. ^ "A list of items with hidden gluten". 
  31. ^ "Campaign for Safe Cosmetics : Fragrance". Safecosmetics.org. Retrieved 2012-04-25. 
  32. ^ https://www.innersensebeauty.com/blog/post/your-sulfate-free-shampoo-really-sulfate-free
  33. ^ "Dog Shampoos: The Function of Common Ingredients". Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  34. ^ "Common Canine Skin Irritants". Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  35. ^ Guaguere, E. (1996). "Topical treatment of canine and feline pyoderma". Veterinary Dermatology. 7 (3): 145–151. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3164.1996.tb00239.x. 
  36. ^ Mueller, R. S. (2004). "Treatment protocols for demodicosis: an evidence-based review". Veterinary Dermatology. 15 (2): 75–89. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3164.2004.00344.x. PMID 15030556. 
  37. ^ Williams Iii, E. F.; Lam, S. M. (2003). "Midfacial Rejuvenation Via an Endoscopic Browlift Approach: A Review of Technique". Facial Plastic Surgery. 19 (2): 147–156. doi:10.1055/s-2003-40001. PMID 12825156. 
  38. ^ Raney, J. P.; Kirk, E. A. (1988). "The use of an Ommaya reservoir for administration of morphine sulphate to control pain in select cancer patients". Journal of Neuroscience Nursing. 20 (1): 23–29. doi:10.1097/01376517-198802000-00004. PMID 2963870. 
  39. ^ "How to Wash Your Hair Without Shampoo: 11 steps". wikiHow. 2012-03-20. Retrieved 2012-04-25. 
  40. ^ tubular (2008-03-19). "How to Go No Poo". Instructables.com. Retrieved 2012-04-25. 
  41. ^ "When It Comes To Shampoo, Less Is More". NPR. Retrieved 2012-04-25. 
  42. ^ http://thehairpin.com/2011/04/how-to-quit-shampoo-without-becoming-disgusting

External links[edit]

Disclaimer

None of the audio/visual content is hosted on this site. All media is embedded from other sites such as GoogleVideo, Wikipedia, YouTube etc. Therefore, this site has no control over the copyright issues of the streaming media.

All issues concerning copyright violations should be aimed at the sites hosting the material. This site does not host any of the streaming media and the owner has not uploaded any of the material to the video hosting servers. Anyone can find the same content on Google Video or YouTube by themselves.

The owner of this site cannot know which documentaries are in public domain, which has been uploaded to e.g. YouTube by the owner and which has been uploaded without permission. The copyright owner must contact the source if he wants his material off the Internet completely.

Powered by YouTube
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL and (CC) license