The Zhansi Lun of the East Asian Mādhyamaka identifies two different individuals given the name "Shantideva": the founder of the Avaivartika Sangha in the 6th century and a later Shantideva who studied at Nalanda in the 8th century and appears to be the source of the Tibetan biographies. Archaeological discoveries support this thesis. Two Tibetan sources of the life of Shantideva are the historians Buton Rinchen Drub and Tāranātha. Recent scholarship has brought to light a short Sanskrit life of Shantideva in a 14th-century Nepalese manuscript. An accessible account that follows the Butön closely can be found in Kunzang Pelden, The Nectar of Manjushri's speech.
Shantideva was born in the Saurastra (in modern Gujarat), son of King Kalyanavarman, and he went by the name Śantivarman.
The Śikṣāsamuccaya (“Training Anthology”) is a prose work in nineteen chapters. It is organized as a commentary on twenty-seven short mnemonic verses known as the Śikṣāsamuccaya Kārikā. It consists primarily of quotations (of varying length) from sūtras, authoritative texts considered to be the word of the Buddha — generally those sūtras associated with Mahāyāna tradition, including the Samadhiraja Sutra.
Shantideva is particularly renowned as the author of the Bodhisattvacaryāvatāra. An English translation is available online, as well as in print in a variety of translations, sometimes glossed as "A Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life" or "Entering the Path of Enlightenment." It is a long poem describing the process of enlightenment from the first thought to full buddhahood and is still studied by Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhists today.
An introduction to and commentary on the Bodhisattvacaryāvatāra by the 14th Dalai Lama called A Flash of Lightning in the Dark of Night was printed in 1994. A commentary on the Patience chapter was provided by the Dalai Lama in Healing Anger (1997), and his commentaries on the Wisdom chapter can be found in Practicing Wisdom (2004). Kunzang Pelden has written a commentary based on that given by Patrul Rinpoche, translated by the Padmakara Translation Group. Patrul Rinpoche was a wandering monk of great scholarship, who dedicated his life to the propagation of the Bodhisattvacaryāvatāra.
Kelsang Gyatso, founder of the new religious movement known as the New Kadampa Tradition, published a translation titled Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life in 2002. His line-by-line commentary on the entire root text is entitled Meaningful to Behold – The Bodhisattva's Way of Life (1980). His extensive commentary to the patience chapter is called "How to Solve our Human Problems", 2005.
^Pezzali, Amalia (1968), Śāntideva Mystique buddhiste des VII et VIIIe siècles, Florence: Vallechi Edtore
^Shantideva (1997), The Way of the Bodhisattva, translated by the Padmakara Translation Group, Boston: Shambala, ISBN1-57062-253-1
^Kunzang Pelden (2007), The Nectar of Manjushri's Speech. A Detailed Commentary on Shantideva's Way of the Bodhisattva, Shambala Publications, p. 17, ISBN978-1-59030-439-6
^Amod Lele, "Śāntideva", Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
^Luis O. Gómez (1999). The Way of the Translators: Three Recent Translations of Śāntideva's Bodhicaryāvatāra, Buddhist Literature, Vol. 1, 262-354 PDF
^Kunzang Pelden (2007), The Nectar of Manjushri's Speech. A Detailed Commentary on Shantideva's Way of the Bodhisattva, Shambala Publications, ISBN978-1-59030-439-6
^Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life: A Buddhist Poem for Today – How to Enjoy a Life of Great Meaning and Altruism (a translation of Shantideva's Bodhisattvacharyavatara), translated by Neil Elliott and Kelsang Gyatso, Tharpa Publications, 2002, ISBN978-0-948006-88-3
Shantideva (1997), The Way of the Bodhisattva, translated by the Padmakara Translation Group, Boston: Shambala, ISBN1-57062-253-1
Shantideva (2002), Guide to the Bodhisattva's way of life : how to enjoy a life of great meaning and altruism, translation from Tibetan into English by Neil Elliot, Ulverston (UK); Glen Spey, N.Y.: Tharpa, ISBN978-0-948006-89-0
Pema Chödrön (2005), No Time to Lose: A Timely Guide to the Way of the Bodhisattva, commentary on Shantideva's Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life, Boston: Shambhala, ISBN1-59030-135-8
K. Crosby; A. Skilton (1996), The Bodhicaryāvatāra, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN0-19-282979-3
S. Batchelor (1979), A Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life, Dharamsala: Library of Tibetan Works and Archives
Kunzang Pelden (2007), The Nectar of Manjushri's Speech. A Detailed Commentary on Shantideva's Way of the Bodhisattva, Shambala Publications, ISBN978-1-59030-439-6
Śāntideva, Cecil Bendall and W. H. D. Rouse (trans): Śikshā-samuccaya: a compendium of Buddhist doctrine / compiled by Śāntideva chiefly from earlier Mahāyāna Sūtras. London: Murray, 1922 PDF (14.3 MB)
L. D. Barnett (trans): "The Path of light rendered for the first time into Engl. from the Bodhicharyāvatāra of Śānti-Deva: a manual of Mahā-yāna Buddhism, New York, Dutton, 1909 PDF (6.4 MB)