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Sheet Resistance - Series and Parallel Resistors

Published: 2012/04/21

Channel: booksofscience

SHEET RESISTANCE IN VLSI

Published: 2017/11/17

Channel: harsha mangipudi

EEVblog #732 - PCB Sheet Resistance

Published: 2015/04/10

Channel: EEVblog

Wafer Sheet Resistance and Ohms Per Square - Four Point Probes

Published: 2009/06/10

Channel: Jeri Ellsworth

Sheet resistance

Published: 2014/10/18

Channel: Audiopedia

Resistor, Resistance, Resistivity, Sheet Resistance

Published: 2016/09/09

Channel: eeKnowHow

sheet resistance

Published: 2014/03/17

Channel: Robert Murray-Smith

Four-Point Resistance Measurement? | When and Why, Yo? | Doc Physics

Published: 2017/07/20

Channel: Doc Schuster

Star Wars - March of the Resistance (Piano Tutorial) - FREE Sheet Music

Published: 2017/12/13

Channel: Adervae

sheet resistance -series and parallel resistor

Published: 2016/04/29

Channel: himayat raees

Non-Contact INLINE Sheet Resistance Testing solution by SURAGUS GmbH

Published: 2014/07/30

Channel: SURAGUS GmbH - Non-Contact Testing Solutions

What Is Sheet Resistance?

Published: 2017/07/26

Channel: sparky feel

How to measure surface resistivity of Linqstat plastic conductive films

Published: 2014/06/23

Channel: Caplinq Corporation

GATE 1995 ECE Sheet resistance of n type germanium film

Published: 2014/04/02

Channel: GATE paper

Non-Contact Inline Sheet Resistance Monitoring SURAGUS GmbH

Published: 2014/06/04

Channel: SURAGUS GmbH - Non-Contact Testing Solutions

Non-Contact INLINE Sheet resistance sensors SURAGUS

Published: 2016/04/08

Channel: SURAGUS GmbH - Non-Contact Testing Solutions

Wafer Sheet Resistance and Ohms Per Square - Four Point Probes

Published: 2009/06/10

Channel: GeorgeandJeri

Non-Contact Sheet Resistance Mapping Tool

Published: 2016/04/08

Channel: SURAGUS GmbH - Non-Contact Testing Solutions

March of the Resistance by John Williams/arr. Paul Murtha

Published: 2016/03/15

Channel: Hal Leonard Marching Band

Non-Contact Sheet Resistance Measurement - SURAGUS EddyCus TF lab 4040

Published: 2016/05/11

Channel: SURAGUS GmbH - Non-Contact Testing Solutions

EddyCus TF lab - Sheet Resistance Measurement Device

Published: 2013/07/17

Channel: suragusDE

Problem on Sheet Resistance (5 Mark) - GATE 1995 ECE (Electronic Devices) - www.egate.ws

Published: 2013/11/05

Channel: Raghu Nandan

Non-Contact Sheet Resistance Measurement Device SURAGUS EddyCus TF lab 2020

Published: 2016/04/08

Channel: SURAGUS GmbH - Non-Contact Testing Solutions

Sheet Resistance - Series and Parallel Resistors

Published: 2018/02/06

Channel: Livia Santibanez

What Is Sheet Resistance?

Published: 2017/10/26

Channel: Sri Tips

SRM1 - ESD Surface Resistance Checker

Published: 2013/01/02

Channel: BondlineESDProducts

Maximum absorption of lateral forces, oil resistance - ROBOT BENDING SHEET METAL | Schmalz Vietnam

Published: 2017/12/15

Channel: Thiết bị chân không Schmalz Vietnam

Four Point Probe Training

Published: 2016/12/21

Channel: Minnesota Nano Center

March of the Resistance (from "Star Wars: The Force Awakens") Trumpet Cover

Published: 2016/07/22

Channel: The Trumpet Man

VK-PA-25 PV Power Analyzer Sheet Resistance Measurement Software Demonstration

Published: 2015/09/10

Channel: Viraj Vishwakantha Jayaweera Piyankarage

Handheld Sheet Resistance Tester SURAGUS EddyCus TF Portable

Published: 2016/10/07

Channel: SURAGUS GmbH - Non-Contact Testing Solutions

Copper Sheet Resistance Welds

Published: 2013/12/04

Channel: Sunstone Welders

How to Demonstrate Air Resistance | Science Projects

Published: 2013/06/03

Channel: Howcast

4-point resistance measurement (4-point probe + KEITHLEY 2400 SourceMeter)

Published: 2017/03/21

Channel: Jinho Bae

Microfabrication: Resistance Calculation

Published: 2011/04/06

Channel: Hans Mikelson

Mechatronics Sher-10-9000 ShereScan 4 Point Probe Sheet Resistance Measurement System #57777

Published: 2015/01/30

Channel: Bid Servicellc

Miller Resistance Spot Welder- Clean Metal

Published: 2014/09/16

Channel: prudhommejc

Copper to Copper Resistance Sheet Welding

Published: 2013/12/02

Channel: Sunstone Welders

John Williams - March of the Resistance (Audio Only)

Published: 2015/12/18

Channel: DisneyMusicVEVO

Support & Resistance and Pivot Point Calculation in Share Market with Excel Sheet - Share Market -

Published: 2017/12/23

Channel: ASHOK ETUTOR

March of the Resistance - Star Wars The Force Awakens

Published: 2017/02/26

Channel: leibniz154

[2/3] "March of the Resistance" - Star Wars VII: The Force Awakens (Score Reduction & Analysis)

Published: 2016/05/12

Channel: FilmScoreAnalysis

02 - "Play" & Surface Resistance - The Spyder 360™

Published: 2017/06/26

Channel: The Spyder 360™

Size Presses

Published: 2015/07/27

Channel: Convergence Training

ON Resistance of MOSFETs, W/L Ratio, NMOS, PMOS

Published: 2016/09/18

Channel: eeKnowHow

Inserting Test Leads in the Prostat PRS-812 Resistance Meter

Published: 2014/04/15

Channel: Prostat

ACC Tube surface resistance (outlet)

Published: 2016/09/22

Channel: NIAC TIC robin

How To Make A Probe For Square Resistance

Published: 2018/02/10

Channel: Working Ink

Online tutorial on how to find resistance and resistivity of a conductor

Published: 2012/05/02

Channel: techtrainingonline

NC-80MAP

Published: 2014/12/02

Channel: Napson【ナプソン株式会社】 Resistivity measurement

This article includes a list of references, but
its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (September 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) |

**Sheet resistance** is a measure of resistance of thin films that are nominally uniform in thickness. It is commonly used to characterize materials made by semiconductor doping, metal deposition, resistive paste printing, and glass coating. Examples of these processes are: doped semiconductor regions (e.g., silicon or polysilicon), and the resistors that are screen printed onto the substrates of thick-film hybrid microcircuits.

The utility of sheet resistance as opposed to resistance or resistivity is that it is directly measured using a four-terminal sensing measurement (also known as a four-point probe measurement) or indirectly by using a non-contact eddy current based testing device. Sheet resistance is invariable under scaling of the film contact and therefore can be used to compare the electrical properties of devices that are significantly different in size.

Sheet resistance is applicable to two-dimensional systems in which thin films are considered two-dimensional entities. When the term sheet resistance is used, it is implied that the current is along the plane of the sheet, not perpendicular to it.

In a regular three-dimensional conductor, the resistance can be written as

where is the resistivity, is the cross-sectional area, and is the length. The cross-sectional area can be split into the width and the sheet thickness .

Upon combining the resistivity with the thickness, the resistance can then be written as

where is the sheet resistance. If the film thickness is known, the bulk resistivity (in Ω·cm) can be calculated by multiplying the sheet resistance by the film thickness in cm:

Sheet resistance is a special case of resistivity for a uniform sheet thickness. Commonly, resistivity (also known as bulk resistance, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is in units of Ω·m, which is more completely stated in units of Ω·m^{2}/m (Ω·area/length). When divided by the sheet thickness (m), the units are Ω·m·(m/m)/m = Ω. The term "(m/m)" cancels, but represents a special "square" situation yielding an answer in ohms. An alternative, common unit is "ohms square" (denoted "") or "ohms per square" (denoted "Ω/sq" or ""), which is dimensionally equal to an ohm, but is exclusively used for sheet resistance. This is an advantage, because sheet resistance of 1 Ω could be taken out of context and misinterpreted as bulk resistance of 1 ohm, whereas sheet resistance of 1 Ω/sq cannot thus be misinterpreted.

The reason for the name "ohms per square" is that a square sheet with sheet resistance 10 ohm/square has an actual resistance of 10 ohm, regardless of the size of the square. (For a square, , so .) The unit can be thought of as, loosely, "ohms · aspect ratio". Example: A 3-unit long by 1-unit wide (aspect ratio = 3) sheet made of material having a sheet resistance of 21 Ω/sq would measure 63 Ω (since it is composed of three 1-unit by 1-unit squares), if the 1-unit edges were attached to an ohmmeter that made contact entirely over each edge.

For semiconductors doped through diffusion or surface peaked ion implantation we define the sheet resistance using the average resistivity of the material:

which in materials with majority-carrier properties can be approximated by (neglecting intrinsic charge carriers):

where is the junction depth, is the majority-carrier mobility, is the carrier charge, and is the net impurity concentration in terms of depth. Knowing the background carrier concentration and the surface impurity concentration, the *sheet resistance-junction depth* product can be found using Irvin's curves, which are numerical solutions to the above equation.

A four-point probe is used to avoid contact resistance, which can often have the same magnitude as the sheet resistance. Typically a constant current is applied to two probes, and the potential on the other two probes is measured with a high-impedance voltmeter. A geometry factor needs to be applied according to the shape of the four-point array. Two common arrays are square and in-line. For more details see Van der Pauw method.

Measurement may also be made by applying high-conductivity bus bars to opposite edges of a square (or rectangular) sample. Resistance across a square area will be measured in Ω/sq. For a rectangle an appropriate geometric factor is added. Bus bars must make ohmic contact.

Inductive measurement is used as well. This method measures the shielding effect created by eddy currents. In one version of this technique a conductive sheet under test is placed between two coils. This non-contact sheet resistance measurement method also allows to characterize encapsulated thin-films or films with rough surfaces.^{[1]}

A very crude two-point probe method is to measure resistance with the probes close together and the resistance with the probes far apart. The difference between these two resistances will be of the order of magnitude of the sheet resistance.

Sheet resistance measurements are very common to characterize the uniformity of conductive or semiconductive coatings and materials, e.g. for quality assurance. Typical applications include the inline process control of metal, TCO, conductive nanomaterials or other coatings on architectural glass, wafers, flat panel displays, polymer foils, OLED, ceramics, etc. The contacting four-point probe is often applied for single-point measurements of hard or coarse materials. Non-contact eddy current systems are applied for sensitive or encapsulated coatings, for inline measurements and for high-resolution mapping.

**^**Overview on non-contact eddy current sheet resistance measurement techniques and benefits, retrieved 22 November 2013.

- Van Zant, Peter (2000).
*Microchip Fabrication*. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 431–2. ISBN 0-07-135636-3.

- Jaeger, Richard C. (2002).
*Introduction to Microelectronic Fabrication*(2nd ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall. pp. 81–88. ISBN 0-201-44494-1.

- Schroder, Dieter K. (1998).
*Semiconductor Material and Device Characterization*. New York: J Wiley & Sons. pp. 1–55. ISBN 0-471-24139-3.

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