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Simulated Reality
Simulated Reality
Published: 2016/02/19
Channel: LEMMiNO
Is Reality Real? The Simulation Argument
Is Reality Real? The Simulation Argument
Published: 2017/09/21
Channel: Kurzgesagt – In a Nutshell
We Are Living In A Simulation - New Evidence!
We Are Living In A Simulation - New Evidence!
Published: 2017/05/31
Channel: REAL SPIRIT DYNAMICS
COINCIDENCE proves we live in a Simulated Reality
COINCIDENCE proves we live in a Simulated Reality
Published: 2017/06/27
Channel: Parallel Portal
The Simulation Hypothesis - FULL PROGRAM - HD (Original)
The Simulation Hypothesis - FULL PROGRAM - HD (Original)
Published: 2015/10/07
Channel: Fair Wind Films
Simulated Reality - EARTH: Ultra Advanced A.I. Supercomputer, Virtual Holographic Matrix Environment
Simulated Reality - EARTH: Ultra Advanced A.I. Supercomputer, Virtual Holographic Matrix Environment
Published: 2017/06/14
Channel: Joe Fusko
Simulated Reality: US war game imagines West Africa invasion after NY attack
Simulated Reality: US war game imagines West Africa invasion after NY attack
Published: 2017/10/23
Channel: RT
6 Things That Might Prove We Are Living in A Simulated Reality
6 Things That Might Prove We Are Living in A Simulated Reality
Published: 2015/11/06
Channel: Esoteric Detective
NEW Mandela Effect - Mr. Rogers
NEW Mandela Effect - Mr. Rogers' Neighborhood is Merged! + Simulated Reality: Created on the Fly
Published: 2017/10/22
Channel: Mandela Effect Awareness
MATHEMATICS BEHIND REALITY | Best Universe Documentary | Simulation Hypothesis
MATHEMATICS BEHIND REALITY | Best Universe Documentary | Simulation Hypothesis
Published: 2016/12/17
Channel: Cosmic Documentary
Simulation Theory 2017, We are waking up!!!!
Simulation Theory 2017, We are waking up!!!!
Published: 2017/10/02
Channel: Nick Mercer
Are You In A Simulation?
Are You In A Simulation?
Published: 2017/09/21
Channel: Vsauce3
Mastering Simulated Reality Like Christ In The 4th Dimension
Mastering Simulated Reality Like Christ In The 4th Dimension
Published: 2017/10/08
Channel: Jayson Wiggins
YOU ARE BORN TWICE. simulation reality. how can so many people keep this a secret for so long!?
YOU ARE BORN TWICE. simulation reality. how can so many people keep this a secret for so long!?
Published: 2017/08/30
Channel: United And Awake
Why Elon Musk says we
Why Elon Musk says we're living in a simulation
Published: 2016/08/15
Channel: Vox
Are You Living in a Simulated Reality?
Are You Living in a Simulated Reality?
Published: 2017/10/10
Channel: MorgueOfficial
Mandela Effect, DMT, Simulation Reality, I-Ching and Much More.
Mandela Effect, DMT, Simulation Reality, I-Ching and Much More.
Published: 2016/09/24
Channel: Felipe Alexander
What If the Earth Does Not Exist?
What If the Earth Does Not Exist?
Published: 2017/08/16
Channel: Ridddle
Are We Living in an Ancestor Simulation? ft. Neil deGrasse Tyson | Space Time
Are We Living in an Ancestor Simulation? ft. Neil deGrasse Tyson | Space Time
Published: 2017/05/04
Channel: PBS Space Time
EVIDENCE WE ARE IN A SIMULATION - SHOCKING (MATRIX, ELON MUSK, VIRTUAL REALITY, QUANTUM PHYSICS)
EVIDENCE WE ARE IN A SIMULATION - SHOCKING (MATRIX, ELON MUSK, VIRTUAL REALITY, QUANTUM PHYSICS)
Published: 2016/10/13
Channel: dakotawint
Are we living in a Simulated Reality? The Game of Life and How to Play It!
Are we living in a Simulated Reality? The Game of Life and How to Play It!
Published: 2016/08/05
Channel: Higher Self
The Universe - Solved : Simulated Reality
The Universe - Solved : Simulated Reality
Published: 2015/12/13
Channel: Global Explorers
Are We Living In a Simulated Reality? Tom Campbell & Bruce Lipton
Are We Living In a Simulated Reality? Tom Campbell & Bruce Lipton
Published: 2017/10/12
Channel: REAL SPIRIT DYNAMICS
Do We Live in a Simulation?
Do We Live in a Simulation?
Published: 2017/04/21
Channel: Second Thought
Neil deGrasse Tyson: We
Neil deGrasse Tyson: We're likely living in a simulation | Larry King Now | Ora.TV
Published: 2017/07/03
Channel: Larry King
Simulated Reality Theory *Debunked?*
Simulated Reality Theory *Debunked?*
Published: 2017/09/12
Channel: Shill Stoppers
Holographic Reality   Do we live in a Computer Simulation? Evidence Says Yes!
Holographic Reality Do we live in a Computer Simulation? Evidence Says Yes!
Published: 2016/05/20
Channel: Leak Project
3 Reasons Why We Are Living in a Simulation
3 Reasons Why We Are Living in a Simulation
Published: 2017/01/20
Channel: Strange Mysteries
BREAKING: Elite Admit Reality Is A Simulation
BREAKING: Elite Admit Reality Is A Simulation
Published: 2016/10/07
Channel: The Alex Jones Channel
The Holographic Principle: Are we sentient programs inside a computer simulation?
The Holographic Principle: Are we sentient programs inside a computer simulation?
Published: 2017/04/12
Channel: Paul Sandhu
Physicist Tom Campbell: Virtual Reality, Simulation Theory, OBE
Physicist Tom Campbell: Virtual Reality, Simulation Theory, OBE's and Beyond! 1/2
Published: 2017/08/22
Channel: Tom Campbell
You live in a simulated reality but you’re the one who has  master it
You live in a simulated reality but you’re the one who has master it
Published: 2017/08/11
Channel: Jayson Wiggins
2016 Isaac Asimov Memorial Debate: Is the Universe a Simulation?
2016 Isaac Asimov Memorial Debate: Is the Universe a Simulation?
Published: 2016/04/08
Channel: American Museum of Natural History
You are a Simulation & Physics Can Prove It: George Smoot at TEDxSalford
You are a Simulation & Physics Can Prove It: George Smoot at TEDxSalford
Published: 2014/02/12
Channel: TEDx Talks
# 94 | Are We Living in the Matrix? Simulation Theory, OBE
# 94 | Are We Living in the Matrix? Simulation Theory, OBE's, & More with Physicist Tom Campbell
Published: 2017/08/03
Channel: Matthew Belair
Soul Matrix, We live in a Computer Simulation - Ancient Texts, Quantum Physics, Sacred Geometry
Soul Matrix, We live in a Computer Simulation - Ancient Texts, Quantum Physics, Sacred Geometry
Published: 2016/07/21
Channel: William Wallace
Compelling evidence that we live in a computer generated simulation!!!
Compelling evidence that we live in a computer generated simulation!!!
Published: 2017/07/07
Channel: Planet Nibiru
THE WORLD IS SIMULATED, PROOF OF A VIRTUAL REALITY EXISTENCE? 2017
THE WORLD IS SIMULATED, PROOF OF A VIRTUAL REALITY EXISTENCE? 2017
Published: 2017/10/15
Channel: Proving Demons
You
You're in a Simulated Computer Reality & Exist on the Flat Earth Circuit
Published: 2017/02/12
Channel: Sourcerer of the Black Sun
How To Observe The Matrix Simulated Reality
How To Observe The Matrix Simulated Reality
Published: 2017/06/16
Channel: Reprogram The Matrix
Is life a video game? | Elon Musk | Code Conference 2016
Is life a video game? | Elon Musk | Code Conference 2016
Published: 2016/06/02
Channel: Recode
Elon Musk. Best Simulation Hypothesis Video. 2017 1080p Quantum, Technology, Reality Universe Theory
Elon Musk. Best Simulation Hypothesis Video. 2017 1080p Quantum, Technology, Reality Universe Theory
Published: 2017/04/01
Channel: Schizo Qubit
Reality is a Simulation Within a Simulation Etc..., A Matrix, Singularity, Artificial Intelligence
Reality is a Simulation Within a Simulation Etc..., A Matrix, Singularity, Artificial Intelligence
Published: 2016/02/24
Channel: Higher Balance Institute
Can You Prove REALITY Is REAL?
Can You Prove REALITY Is REAL?
Published: 2017/06/22
Channel: Strange Mysteries
Intelligent British Woman explains This Reality is a Computer Simulation
Intelligent British Woman explains This Reality is a Computer Simulation
Published: 2017/02/15
Channel: MatrixBreak
YOUR LIFE IS A COMPUTER SIMULATION
YOUR LIFE IS A COMPUTER SIMULATION
Published: 2014/11/02
Channel: Orwellian Eye
Anonymous What We Know About The Use Of Virtual Reality To Control Us
Anonymous What We Know About The Use Of Virtual Reality To Control Us
Published: 2017/08/11
Channel: History Repeats Itself
Elon Musk Speaks About Simulation Theory
Elon Musk Speaks About Simulation Theory
Published: 2015/10/26
Channel: Jacob Abravanel
Strange Matters Podcast - LIFE IN THE MATRIX: SIMULATED REALITY - July 10, 2016
Strange Matters Podcast - LIFE IN THE MATRIX: SIMULATED REALITY - July 10, 2016
Published: 2017/07/25
Channel: Mystick Warrior
your life is a simulated reality proof !
your life is a simulated reality proof !
Published: 2016/03/10
Channel: Twisted Mind
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Simulated reality is the hypothesis that reality could be simulated — for example by quantum computer simulation — to a degree indistinguishable from "true" reality. It could contain conscious minds which may or may not be fully aware that they are living inside a simulation. This is quite different from the current, technologically achievable concept of virtual reality. Virtual reality is easily distinguished from the experience of actuality; participants are never in doubt about the nature of what they experience. Simulated reality, by contrast, would be hard or impossible to separate from "true" reality. There has been much debate over this topic, ranging from philosophical discourse to practical applications in computing.

Arguments[edit]

Simulation argument[edit]

The simulation hypothesis was first published by Hans Moravec.[1][2][3] Later, the philosopher Nick Bostrom developed an expanded argument examining the probability of our reality being a simulation.[4] His argument states that at least one of the following statements is very likely to be true:

1. Human civilization is unlikely to reach a level of technological maturity capable of producing simulated realities or such simulations are physically impossible to construct.
2. A comparable civilization reaching aforementioned technological status will likely not produce a significant number of simulated realities (one that might push the probable existence of digital entities beyond the probable number of "real" entities in a Universe) for any of a number of reasons, such as, diversion of computational processing power for other tasks, ethical considerations of holding entities captive in simulated realities, etc.
3. Any entities with our general set of experiences are almost certainly living in a simulation.

In greater detail, Bostrom is attempting to prove a tripartite disjunction, that at least one of these propositions must be true. His argument rests on the premise that given sufficiently advanced technology, it is possible to represent the populated surface of the Earth without recourse to digital physics; that the qualia experienced by a simulated consciousness are comparable or equivalent to those of a naturally occurring human consciousness; and that one or more levels of simulation within simulations would be feasible given only a modest expenditure of computational resources in the real world.

If one assumes first that humans will not be destroyed nor destroy themselves before developing such a technology, and, next, that human descendants will have no overriding legal restrictions or moral compunctions against simulating biospheres or their own historical biosphere, then it would be unreasonable to count ourselves among the small minority of genuine organisms who, sooner or later, will be vastly outnumbered by artificial simulations.

Epistemologically, it is not impossible to tell whether we are living in a simulation. For example, Bostrom suggests that a window could pop up saying: "You are living in a simulation. Click here for more information." However, imperfections in a simulated environment might be difficult for the native inhabitants to identify and for purposes of authenticity, even the simulated memory of a blatant revelation might be purged programmatically. Nonetheless, should any evidence come to light, either for or against the skeptical hypothesis, it would radically alter the aforementioned probability.

Computationalism[edit]

Computationalism is a philosophy of mind theory stating that cognition is a form of computation. It is relevant to the Simulation hypothesis in that it illustrates how a simulation could contain conscious subjects, as required by a "virtual people" simulation. For example, it is well known that physical systems can be simulated to some degree of accuracy. If computationalism is correct and if there is no problem in generating artificial consciousness or cognition, it would establish the theoretical possibility of a simulated reality. Nevertheless, the relationship between cognition and phenomenal qualia of consciousness is disputed. It is possible that consciousness requires a vital substrate that a computer cannot provide and that simulated people, while behaving appropriately, would be philosophical zombies. This would undermine Nick Bostrom's simulation argument; we cannot be a simulated consciousness, if consciousness, as we know it, cannot be simulated. The skeptical hypothesis remains intact, however, and we could still be envatted brains, existing as conscious beings within a simulated environment, even if consciousness cannot be simulated. It has been suggested that whereas virtual reality would enable a participant to experience only three senses (sight, sound and optionally smell), simulated reality would enable all five (including taste and touch).[citation needed]

Some theorists[5][6] have argued that if the "consciousness-is-computation" version of computationalism and mathematical realism (or radical mathematical Platonism)[7] are true then consciousnesses is computation, which in principle is platform independent and thus admits of simulation. This argument states that a "Platonic realm" or ultimate ensemble would contain every algorithm, including those which implement consciousness. Hans Moravec has explored the simulation hypothesis and has argued for a kind of mathematical Platonism according to which every object (including, for example, a stone) can be regarded as implementing every possible computation.[1]

Dreaming[edit]

A dream could be considered a type of simulation capable of fooling someone who is asleep. As a result, the "dream hypothesis" cannot be ruled out, although it has been argued that common sense and considerations of simplicity rule against it.[8] One of the first philosophers to question the distinction between reality and dreams was Zhuangzi, a Chinese philosopher from the 4th century BC. He phrased the problem as the well-known "Butterfly Dream," which went as follows:

Once Zhuangzi dreamt he was a butterfly, a butterfly flitting and fluttering around, happy with himself and doing as he pleased. He didn't know he was Zhuangzi. Suddenly he woke up and there he was, solid and unmistakable Zhuangzi. But he didn't know if he was Zhuangzi who had dreamt he was a butterfly or a butterfly dreaming he was Zhuangzi. Between Zhuangzi and a butterfly there must be some distinction! This is called the Transformation of Things. (2, tr. Burton Watson 1968:49)

The philosophical underpinnings of this argument are also brought up by Descartes, who was one of the first Western philosophers to do so. In Meditations on First Philosophy, he states "... there are no certain indications by which we may clearly distinguish wakefulness from sleep",[9] and goes on to conclude that "It is possible that I am dreaming right now and that all of my perceptions are false".[9]

Chalmers (2003) discusses the dream hypothesis and notes that this comes in two distinct forms:

  • that he is currently dreaming, in which case many of his beliefs about the world are incorrect;
  • that he has always been dreaming, in which case the objects he perceives actually exist, albeit in his imagination.[10]

Both the dream argument and the simulation hypothesis can be regarded as skeptical hypotheses; however in raising these doubts, just as Descartes noted that his own thinking led him to be convinced of his own existence, the existence of the argument itself is testament to the possibility of its own truth. Another state of mind in which some argue an individual's perceptions have no physical basis in the real world is called psychosis though psychosis may have a physical basis in the real world and explanations vary.

Perhaps some of those with psychosis have tapped into a part of the simulated reality that others have not; and for whatever reason are being punished, rewarded; or something else, for their actions in the simulated reality.

Nested simulations[edit]

The existence of simulated reality is unprovable in any concrete sense: any "evidence" that is directly observed could be another simulation itself. In other words, there is an infinite regress problem with the argument. Even if we are a simulated reality, there is no way to be sure the beings running the simulation are not themselves a simulation and the operators of that simulation are not a simulation.[11]

"Recursive simulation involves a simulation or an entity in the simulation, creating another instance of the same simulation, running it and using its results" (Pooch and Sullivan 2000).[12]

The experience machine[edit]

In his 1974 book Anarchy, State and Utopia philosopher Robert Nozick discusses an "experience machine", a hypothetical device which can provide its users with any simulated reality they desire. If given the choice, would we want to plug ourselves into such a machine? If not, then according to Nozick there seems to be something wrong with hedonism, the view that pleasure and happiness are the primary or most important intrinsic goods and the proper aim of human life. Nozick's thought experiment has been widely debated since.[13]

In fiction[edit]

Simulated reality in fiction has been explored by many authors, game designers and film directors.

See also[edit]

Major contributing thinkers[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Moravec, Hans, Simulation, Consciousness, Existence
  2. ^ Moravec, Hans, Platt, Charles Superhumanism
  3. ^ Moravec, Hans Pigs in Cyberspace
  4. ^ Are You Living in a Computer Simulation? by Nick Bostrom. July 2002. Accessed 21 December 2006
  5. ^ Bruno Marchal
  6. ^ Russel Standish
  7. ^ Hut, P.; Alford, M.; Tegmark, M. (2006). "On Math, Matter and Mind". Foundations of Physics. 36 (6): 765–794. Bibcode:2006FoPh...36..765H. arXiv:physics/0510188Freely accessible. doi:10.1007/s10701-006-9048-x. 
  8. ^ "There is no logical impossibility in the supposition that the whole of life is a dream, in which we ourselves create all the objects that come before us. But although this is not logically impossible, there is no reason whatever to suppose that it is true; and it is, in fact, a less simple hypothesis, viewed as a means of accounting for the facts of our own life, than the common-sense hypothesis that there really are objects independent of us, whose action on us causes our sensations." Bertrand Russell, The Problems of Philosophy
  9. ^ a b René Descartes, Meditations on the First Philosophy, from Descartes, The Philosophical Works of Descartes, trans. Elizabeth S. Haldane and G.R.T. Ross (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1911 – reprinted with corrections 1931), Volume I, 145-46.
  10. ^ Chalmers, J., The Matrix as Metaphysics, Department of Philosophy, University of Arizona
  11. ^ Bostrom, Nick (2009). "The Simulation Argument: Some Explanations" (PDF). If each first-level ancestor-simulation run by the non-Sims requires more resources (because they contain within themselves additional second-level ancestor-simulations run by the Sims), the non-Sims might well respond by producing fewer first-level ancestor-simulations. Conversely, the cheaper it is for the non-Sims to run a simulation, the more simulations they may run. It is therefore unclear whether the total number of ancestor-simulations would be greater if Sims run ancestor-simulations than if they do not. 
  12. ^ Pooch, U.W.; Sullivan, F.J. (2000). "Recursive simulation to aid models of decisionmaking". Simulation Conference (Winter ed.). 1: 958. ISBN 0-7803-6579-8. doi:10.1109/WSC.2000.899898. 
  13. ^ Weijers, Dan (2011), "The Experience Machine Objection to Hedonism", in Michael Bruce and Steven Barbone, Just the Arguments: 100 of the Most Important Arguments in Western Philosophy, Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, doi:10.1002/9781444344431.ch58 
  14. ^ Chalmers, David (2005). "The Matrix as Metaphysics". In C. Grau. Philosophers Explore the Matrix. Oxford University Press. pp. 157–158. ISBN 9780195181067. LCCN 2004059977. Evil Genius Hypothesis: I have a disembodied mind and an evil genius is feeding me sensory inputs to give the appearance of an external world. This is René Descartes’s classical skeptical hypothesis... Dream Hypothesis: I am now and have always been dreaming. Descartes raised the question: how do you know that you are not currently dreaming? Morpheus raises a similar question: 'Have you ever had a dream, Neo, that you were so sure was real. What if you were unable to wake from that dream? How would you know the difference between the dream world and the real world?'... I think this case is analogous to the Evil Genius Hypothesis: it's just that the role of the “evil genius” is played by a part of my own cognitive system! If my dream-generating system simulates all of space-time, we have something like the original Matrix Hypothesis.  p.22

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