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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Sindhi
सिन्धी / Sindhi khudabadi.svg / سنڌي / ਸਿੰਧੀ
Sindhi in Arabic script.jpg
word Sindhi in Arabic Sindhi
Native to Sindh
Region South Asia
Ethnicity Sindhis
Native speakers
25 million (2015)[1]
Arabic, Devanagari, Khudabadi, Laṇḍā, Roman Sindhi, Gurmukhi[2]
Official status
Official language in
Pakistan (Sindh)
India
Regulated by Sindhi Language Authority (Pakistan),
National Council For Promotion Of Sindhi Language (India)
Language codes
ISO 639-1 sd
ISO 639-2 snd
ISO 639-3 Variously:
snd – Sindhi
lss – Lasi
sbn – Sindhi Bhil
Glottolog sind1272  (Sindhi)[3]
sind1270  (Sindhi Bhil)[4]
lasi1242  (Lasi)[5]
Linguasphere 59-AAF-f
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Sindhi /ˈsɪndi/[6] (سنڌي, सिन्धी, Sindhi khudabadi.svg, ਸਿੰਧੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the historical Sindh region, spoken by the Sindhi people. It is the official language of the Pakistani province of Sindh.[7][8][9] In India, Sindhi is one of the scheduled languages officially recognized by the federal government.

Most Sindhi speakers are concentrated in Pakistan in the Sindh province, and in India, the Kutch region of the state of Gujarat and in the Ulhasnagar region of the state of Maharashtra. The remaining speakers in India are composed of the Sindhi Hindus who migrated from Sindh, which became a part of Pakistan and settled in India after the independence of Pakistan in 1947 and the Sindhi diaspora worldwide. Sindhi language is spoken in Sindh, Balochistan and Punjab provinces of Pakistan as well as the states of Rajasthan, Punjab and Gujarat in India as well as immigrant communities in Hong Kong, Oman, Indonesia, Singapore, UAE, UK and the United States.[10]

Contemporary status[edit]

The Sindhi language and other native languages of Pakistan are struggling to be officially given the status of national language in Pakistan. Before the inception of Pakistan, Sindhi was the national language of Sindh.[11][12][13][14] There are many Sindhi language television channels broadcasting in Pakistan such as KTN, Sindh TV, Awaz Television Network, Mahrantv and Dhartitv. Besides this, Indian television Doordarshan have been asked by the Indian court to start a news channel for Hindu Sindhis of India.[15][16]

Sindhi Computing[edit]

Sindhi Computing is the term used for the Software developed for the Sindhi language, these software are intended for the users to read, write and learn Sindhi language online or offline.[17]

Sindhi language Software[edit]

Sindhi language software such as Sindhi language keyboards have been developed for the Windows OS, Android smartphones. Various other online websites provide Sindhi keyboard such as (Keymanweb.org),[18][19] M.B Sindhi keyboard by Majid Bhurgri. A software have been developed by the Sindhi Language Authority which will end the barrier between the Arabic-Sindhi script or Perso-Sindhi script and Devanagari Sindhi script; such software have also been developed by the Punjabi researchers at Punjabi University and Manchester University for the Sindhi.[20][21]

Etymology[edit]

The name "Sindhi" is derived from Sindhu, the local name of the Indus River.[22]

Significance[edit]

When Sindh was occupied by British army and was annexed with Bombay, governor of the province Sir George Clerk ordered to make Sindhi the official language in the province in 1848. Sir Bartle Frere, the then commissioner of Sindh, issued orders on August 29, 1857 advising civil servants in Sindh to qualify examination in Sindhi. He also ordered Sindhi to be used in all official communication. Seven-grade education system commonly known as Sindhi-Final was introduced in Sindh. Sindhi Final was made a prerequisite for employment in revenue, police and education departments.[23]

History[edit]

Cover of a book containing the epic Dodo Chanesar written in the Khudabadi script

Like other languages of this family, Sindhi has passed through Old Indo-Aryan (Sanskrit) and Middle Indo-Aryan (Pali, secondary Prakrits, and Apabhramsha) stages of growth, and it entered the New Indo-Aryan stage around the 10th century CE.[24][25]

In the year 1868, the Bombay Presidency assigned Narayan Jagannath Vaidya to replace the Abjad used in Sindhi, with the Khudabadi script. The script was decreed a standard script by the Bombay Presidency thus inciting anarchy in the Muslim majority region. A powerful unrest followed, after which Twelve Martial Laws were imposed by the British authorities.[26]

According to Islamic Sindhi tradition, the first translation of the Quran into Sindhi was completed in the year 883 CE / 270 AH in Mansura, Sindh. The first extensive Sindhi translation was done by Akhund Azaz Allah Muttalawi (1747–1824 CE / 1160–1240 AH) and first published in Gujarat in 1870. The first to appear in print was by Muhammad Siddiq (Lahore 1867).[27]

Phonology[edit]

Sindhi has a relatively large inventory of both consonants and vowels compared to other languages. Sindhi has 46 consonant phonemes and 16 vowels. The consonant to vowel ratio is around average for world's languages at 2.8.[28] All plosives, affricates, nasals, the retroflex flap and the lateral approximant /l/ have aspirated or breathy voiced counterparts. The language also features four implosives.

Consonants[edit]

Sindhi consonants[29]
Labial Dental
Alveolar
Retroflex Post-al.
/Palatal
Velar Glottal
Nasal m
n
ɳ
ɳʱ
ɲ
 
ŋ
 
Stop/Affricate p
b

t̪ʰ

d̪ʱ
ʈ
ʈʰ
ɖ
ɖʱ
t̠ɕ
t̠ɕʰ
d̠ʑ
d̠ʑʱ
k
g
Implosive ɓ ɗ ʄ~jˀ ɠ
Fricative f s z ʂ x ɣ h
Approximant ʋ
 

l̪ʱ
j
 
Rhotic r
 
ɽ
ɽʱ

The retroflex consonants are apical postalveolar and do not involve curling back of the tip of the tongue,[30] so they could be transcribed /t̠, t̠ʰ, d̠, d̠ʱ n̠ n̠ʱ s̠ ɾ̠ ɾ̠ʱ/. The dental implosive is sometimes realized as retroflex [ɗ̠]~[ᶑ] The affricates /t̠ɕ, t̠ɕʰ, d̠ʑ, d̠ʑʱ/ are laminal post-alveolars with a relatively short release. It is not clear if /ɲ/ is similar, or truly palatal.[31] /ʋ/ is realized as labiovelar [w] or labiodental [ʋ] in free variation occurs, but is not common, except before a stop.

Vowels[edit]

The vowel phonemes of Sindhi on a vowel chart

The vowels are modal length /i e æ ɑ ɔ o u/ and short /ɪ̆ ʊ̆ ɐ̆/. (Note /æ ɑ ɐ̆/ are imprecisely transcribed as /ɛ a ə/ in the chart.) Consonants following short vowels are lengthened: [pɐ̆tˑo] 'leaf' vs. [pɑto] 'worn'.

Grammar[edit]

Ernest Trumpp authored the first Sindhi grammar entitled Sindhi Alphabet and Grammar.[32]

Vocabulary[edit]

Sindhi has borrowed from English and Hindustani. Today, Sindhi in Pakistan is heavily influenced by Urdu, with more borrowed Perso-Arabic elements, while Sindhi in India is influenced by Hindi, with more borrowed tatsam Sanskrit elements.[33][34]

Example extract[edit]

The following extract is from the Sindhi Wikipedia about the Sindhi language and is written in the 52-letter Sindhi-Arabic script, Devanagari and transliterated to Latin.

Sindhi-Arabic script: سنڌي ٻولي انڊو يورپي خاندان سان تعلق رکندڙ آريائي ٻولي آھي، جنھن تي عربي ٻوليءَ جو بہ تمام وڏو اثر آهي. هن وقت سنڌي ٻولي سنڌ جي مک ٻولي ۽ دفتري زبان آھي.

Devanagari script: सिन्धी ॿोली इण्डो यूरपी ख़ान्दान सां ताल्लुक़ु रखन्दड़ आर्याई ॿोली आहे, जिंहन ते कुझ द्राविड़ी उहुञाण पण मौजूद आहिनि। हिन वक़्तु सिन्धी ॿोली सिन्ध जी मुख ॿोली ऐं दफ़्तरी ज़बान आहे।

Transliteration (IAST): sindhī b̤olī iṇḍo yūrapī khāndān sā̃ taʿlluqu rakhandaṛ āryāī b̤olī āhe, janhin te arbi boli-a jo tamaam waddo asar-u aahe. hin-a vaqtu sindhī b̤olī sindh jī mukh b̤olī ãĩ daftarī zabānā āhe.

Dialects[edit]

The dialects of Sindhi include Vicholi, Lari, Lasi, Kathiawari Katchi, Thareli, Macharia, Dukslinu and Muslim Sindhi.[35] The "Siraiki" dialect in northern Sindh is distinct from the Saraiki language of South Punjab[36] and has variously been treated either as a dialect of it, or as a dialect of Sindhi.[37] The Sindhi dialects previously known as "Siraiki" are nowadays more commonly referred to as "Siroli".[38]

Writing system[edit]

Written Sindhi is mentioned in the 8th century, when references to a Sindhi version of the Mahabharata appear. However, the earliest attested records in Sindhi are from the 15th century.[24]

Before the standardisation of Sindhi orthography, numerous forms of the Devanagari and Lunda (Laṇḍā) scripts were used for trading. For literary and religious purposes, an Arabic-Persian alphabet known as Ab-ul-Hassan Sindhi and Gurmukhi (a subset of Laṇḍā) were used. Another two scripts, Khudabadi and Shikarpuri, were reforms of the Landa script.[39][40] During British rule in the late 19th century, a Persian alphabet was decreed standard over Devanagari.[41]

Medieval Sindhi devotional literature (1500–1843) comprises Sufi poetry and Advaita Vedanta poetry. Sindhi literature flourished during the modern period (since 1843), although the language and literary style of contemporary Sindhi writings in Pakistan and India were noticeably diverging by the late 20th century; authors from the former country were borrowing extensively from Persian and Arabic vocabulary, while those from the latter were highly influenced by Hindi.[24]

Laṇḍā scripts[edit]

Laṇḍā- based scripts, such as Gurmukhi, Khojki and the Khudabadi script were used historically to write Sindhi.

Khudabadi[edit]

Khudabadi
or Sindhi
Direction Left-to-right
ISO 15924 Sind, 318
Unicode alias
Khudawadi
U+112B0–U+112FF

The Khudabadi alphabet was invented in 1550 CE, and was used alongside the Arabic script by the Hindu community until the colonial era, where the sole usage of the Arabic script for official purposes was legislated.

The script continued to be used in a smaller scale by the trader community until the independence of Pakistan in 1947.[42]

Vowel 1 a.svg Vowel 2 aa.svg Vowel 3 i.svg Vowel 4 ii.svg Vowel 5 u.svg Vowel 6 uu.svg Vowel 7 e.svg Vowel 8 ai.svg Vowel 9 o.svg Vowel 10 au.svg
ə a ɪ i ʊ e ɛ o ɔ
Consonant 1 ka.svg Consonant 2 kha.svg Consonant 3 ga.svg Consonant 4 gga.svg Consonant 5 gha.svg Consonant 6 nga.svg
k ɡ ɠ ɡʱ ŋ
Consonant 7 ca.svg Consonant 8 cha.svg Consonant 9 ja.svg Consonant 10 jja.svg Consonant 11 jha.svg Consonant 12 nya.svg
c ɟ ʄ ɟʱ ɲ
Consonant 13 tta.svg Consonant 14 ttha.svg Consonant 15 dda.svg Consonant 16 ddda.svg Consonant 18 ddha.svg Consonant 17 rra.svg Consonant 19 nna.svg
ʈ ʈʰ ɖ ɗ ɽ ɳ
Consonant 20 ta.svg Consonant 21 tha.svg Consonant 22 da.svg Consonant 23 dha.svg Consonant 24 na.svg
t d n
Consonant 25 pa.svg Consonant 26 pha.svg Consonant 27 ba.svg Consonant 28 bba.svg Consonant 29 bha.svg Consonant 30 ma.svg
p f b ɓ m
Consonant 31 ya.svg Consonant 32 ra.svg Consonant 33 la.svg Consonant 34 va.svg
j r l ʋ
Consonant 35 sha.svg Consonant 36 sa.svg Consonant 37 ha.svg
ʃ s h

Khojiki[edit]

Khojiki was employed primarily to record Muslim Shia Ismaili religious literature, as well as literature for a few secret Shia Muslim sects.[43]

Gurmukhi[edit]

The Gurmukhi script was also used to write Sindhi, mainly in the North of Sindh, and also by Hindu women.[42][44]

Arabic script[edit]

Historically, different versions of the Arabic script were used by the Hindu and Muslim communities.[45] During British rule in India, a variant of the Persian alphabet was adopted for Sindhi in the 19th century. The script is used in Pakistan today. It has a total of 64 letters, augmenting the Persian with digraphs and eighteen new letters (ڄ ٺ ٽ ٿ ڀ ٻ ڙ ڍ ڊ ڏ ڌ ڇ ڃ ڦ ڻ ڱ ڳ ڪ) for sounds particular to Sindhi and other Indo-Aryan languages. Some letters that are distinguished in Arabic or Persian are homophones in Sindhi.

جھ ڄ ج پ ث ٺ ٽ ٿ ت ڀ ٻ ب ا
ɟʱ ʄ ɟ p s ʈʰ ʈ t ɓ b ɑː ʔ
ڙ ر ذ ڍ ڊ ڏ ڌ د خ ح ڇ چ ڃ
ɽ r z ɖʱ ɖ ɗ d x h c ɲ
ڪ ق ڦ ف غ ع ظ ط ض ص ش س ز
k q f ɣ ɑː ʔ ʕ z t z s ʃ s z
ي ء ھ و ڻ ن م ل ڱ گھ ڳ گ ک
j h ʋ ʊ ɔː ɳ n m l ŋ ɡʱ ɠ ɡ
Sindhi alphabet with equivalent characters in English, Urdu and Hindi.

Devanagari script[edit]

In India, the Devanagari script is also used to write Sindhi. A modern version was introduced by the government of India in 1948; however, it did not gain full acceptance, so both the Sindhi-Arabic and Devanagari scripts are used. In India a person may write a Sindhi language paper for a Civil Services Examination in either script [1]. Diacritical bars below the letter are used to mark implosive consonants, and dots called nukta are used to form other additional consonants.

ə a ɪ i ʊ e ɛ o ɔ
ख़ ग़
k x ɡ ɠ ɣ ɡʱ ŋ
ज़
c ɟ ʄ z ɟʱ ɲ
ड़ ढ़
ʈ ʈʰ ɖ ɗ ɽ ɖʱ ɽʱ ɳ
t d n
फ़ ॿ
p f b ɓ m
j r l ʋ
ʃ ʂ s h

Gujarati script[edit]

The Gujarati script is used to write the Kutchi dialect in India.[46]

Roman Sindhi Script[edit]

The Sindhi-Roman script or Roman-Sindhi script is the contemporary Sindhi script usually used by the Sindhis during texting messages on their mobile phones. A Sindhi writer Haleem Brohi was the staunch advoacate of the Roman-Sindhi script and he also wrote book for that script.[47][48]

Education[edit]

Indian Government has legislated Sindhi as a language of option and as medium of study in India, so that students can choose to learn Sindhi. Sindhi is an optional third language in the Indian states of Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.[49]

Rajasthan Sindhi Academy has been set up for the promotion of Sindhi Language in Rajasthan.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nationalencyklopedin "Världens 100 största språk 2007" The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007
  2. ^ "Script". Sindhilanguage.com. 
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Sindhi". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  4. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Sindhi Bhil". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  5. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Lasi". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  6. ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh
  7. ^ Gulshan Majeed. "Ethnicity and Ethnic Conflict in Pakistan" (PDF). Journal of Political Studies. Retrieved December 27, 2013. 
  8. ^ "Sindhi". The Languages Gulper. Retrieved December 27, 2013. 
  9. ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica". Sindhi Language. Retrieved December 29, 2013. 
  10. ^ "English to Sindhi Dictionary & Sindhi to English Dictionary". KhandBhale.org. Retrieved 24 August 2015. 
  11. ^ Language and Politics in Pakistan. "THE SINDHI LANGUAGE MOVEMENT 103 103 7The Sindhi Language Movement". academia.edu. Retrieved 12 September 2015. 
  12. ^ "The Imposition Of Urdu". NAWAIWAQT GROUP OF NEWSPAPERS. September 10, 2015. Retrieved 12 September 2015. 
  13. ^ http://www.apnaorg.com/research-papers-pdf/rahman-3.pdf
  14. ^ http://www.tariqrahman.net/content/scholorly_articles/sindhi_lang_mov.pdf
  15. ^ "24hr news channel for Sindhis: HC seeks Centre's response". Business Standard Private Ltd. Press Trust of India. September 4, 2015. Retrieved 12 September 2015. 
  16. ^ "Sindhi". Accredited Language Services. Retrieved 7 May 2016. 
  17. ^ "HYDERABAD: Breakthrough in Sindhi computing achieved". The Dawn. Dawn. July 1, 2003. Retrieved 7 May 2016. 
  18. ^ "Sindhi - Keyboards - Tavultesoft". 
  19. ^ "KeymanWeb.com - Type to the world in your language". 
  20. ^ Z .Ali (September 19, 2014). "Transcending barriers: Software to break down the wall within the Sindhi language". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 7 May 2016. 
  21. ^ Amaninder Sharma (September 3, 2014). "Software to melt India, Pakistan’s Sindhi script barrier". Times of India. Retrieved 7 May 2016. 
  22. ^ "Sindhi". The Languages Gulper. Retrieved January 29, 2013. 
  23. ^ Naseer Memon (April 13, 2014). "The language link". The News on Sunday. Retrieved April 13, 2014. 
  24. ^ a b c "Encyclopædia Britannica". Retrieved May 11, 2013. 
  25. ^ "Sindhi - About World Languages". 
  26. ^ "Sindhi alphabets, pronunciation and language". Omniglot.com. 
  27. ^ "The Holy Qur'an and its Translators -- Imam Reza (A.S.) Network". imamreza.net. Retrieved 29 March 2015. 
  28. ^ Nihalani, Paroo. (1999). Handbook of the International Phonetic Association (Sindhi). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  29. ^ Paroo Nihalani (December 1, 1995). "Illustration of the IPA - Sindhi". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. Retrieved April 19, 2014. 
  30. ^ Nihalani 1974, p. 207.
  31. ^ The IPA Handbook uses the symbols c, cʰ, ɟ, ɟʱ, but makes it clear this is simply tradition and that these are neither palatal nor stops, but "laminal post-alveolars with a relatively short release". Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:83) confirm a transcription of [t̠ɕ, t̠ɕʰ, d̠ʑ, d̠ʑʱ] and further remarks that "/ʄ/ is often a slightly creaky voiced palatal approximant" (caption of table 3.19).
  32. ^ Ernest Trumpp (1872). "Grammar of the Sindhi Language". Google Books. Retrieved April 13, 2014. 
  33. ^ Cole (2001:652–653)
  34. ^ Khubchandani (2003:624–625)
  35. ^ Sindhi language at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
  36. ^ Masica, Colin P. (1991). The Indo-Aryan languages. Cambridge language surveys. Cambridge University Press. p. 443. ISBN 978-0-521-23420-7. 
  37. ^ Rahman, Tariq (1995). "The Siraiki Movement in Pakistan". Language Problems & Language Planning. 19 (1): 3. doi:10.1075/lplp.19.1.01rah. 
  38. ^ Shackle 2007, p. 114.
  39. ^ Khubchandani (2003:633)
  40. ^ "Ancient Scripts: Landa". 
  41. ^ Cole (2001:648)
  42. ^ a b "Sindhi Language: Script". Retrieved 15 May 2012. 
  43. ^ http://std.dkuug.dk/jtc1/sc2/wg2/docs/n3978.pdf
  44. ^ http://std.dkuug.dk/JTC1/SC2/WG2/docs/n3871.pdf
  45. ^ p.14 Proposal to Encode the Sindhi Script in ISO/IEC 10646
  46. ^ "Gujarati alphabet, pronunciation and language". omniglot.com. Retrieved 29 March 2015. 
  47. ^ "Romanized Sindhi". Romanized Sindhi.org. Retrieved 7 May 2016. 
  48. ^ "CHOICE OF SCRIPT FOR OUR SINDHI LANGUAGE". Chandi Ramani. Retrieved 7 May 2016. 
  49. ^ [nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/NCLM47thReport.pdf National Committee for Linguistic Minorities]

Sources[edit]

For further reading:

  • Chopra, R. M., The Rise, Growth And Decline of Indo-Persian Literature, 2012, Iran Culture House, New Delhi, Chapter on"Persian in Sindh".

External links[edit]

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