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Snakehead: Game Fish of the Future
Snakehead: Game Fish of the Future
Published: 2016/12/09
Channel: noobangler
Invasion of the Snakeheads! | National Geographic
Invasion of the Snakeheads! | National Geographic
Published: 2007/11/30
Channel: National Geographic
How to catch snakehead fish - How to cook snakehead -  snakehead fishing
How to catch snakehead fish - How to cook snakehead - snakehead fishing
Published: 2016/07/16
Channel: Catfish and Carp
giant snake head destroys fish
giant snake head destroys fish
Published: 2009/12/27
Channel: tomasz malacha
Snakehead Fish: What You Need to Know About the "Fish From Hell"
Snakehead Fish: What You Need to Know About the "Fish From Hell"
Published: 2012/04/09
Channel: IBTimesTV
Wow! Amazing Catching Snakehead Fish With Plastic Bottle
Wow! Amazing Catching Snakehead Fish With Plastic Bottle
Published: 2017/08/04
Channel: TP Channel - amazing real life
Snakehead crawls on land and into the water
Snakehead crawls on land and into the water
Published: 2012/05/22
Channel: Bangkokhooker Fishing
Eating Florida
Eating Florida's Most Invasive Fish -Catch, Clean and Cook (Bullseye Snakehead)
Published: 2017/05/24
Channel: Landshark Fishing
Snakehead fishing with duckling 2014
Snakehead fishing with duckling 2014
Published: 2014/09/05
Channel: Ultimate Fishing 2014
Massive Snakehead!!! New Personal Best!!!
Massive Snakehead!!! New Personal Best!!!
Published: 2017/04/08
Channel: TallFishermanJ
Fishing giant snakehead fish at thailand attack jumpfrog lure
Fishing giant snakehead fish at thailand attack jumpfrog lure
Published: 2017/02/24
Channel: fishing in thailand
NEW SNAKE FISH LEVEL 700 - Feed and Grow Fish - Part 38 | Pungence
NEW SNAKE FISH LEVEL 700 - Feed and Grow Fish - Part 38 | Pungence
Published: 2017/05/11
Channel: Pungence
My boys aka giant snakeheads vs soffers
My boys aka giant snakeheads vs soffers
Published: 2012/09/25
Channel: crazy
Huge Snakehead Caught while Tournament Fishing on the Potomac River
Huge Snakehead Caught while Tournament Fishing on the Potomac River
Published: 2015/08/24
Channel: 1Rod1ReelFishing
snakehead vs kills Big ass 10 inch bass
snakehead vs kills Big ass 10 inch bass
Published: 2007/11/26
Channel: hit2hard27
CATCHING SNAKEHEAD FISH IN SEWER! @catch_em_all_fishing
CATCHING SNAKEHEAD FISH IN SEWER! @catch_em_all_fishing
Published: 2017/02/19
Channel: Catch Em All Fishing
Aggressive toman snakehead bites hand (Channa micropeltes)
Aggressive toman snakehead bites hand (Channa micropeltes)
Published: 2014/08/01
Channel: BubbleOfAwesome
Snakehead Catch And Cook! Caught By BOW!
Snakehead Catch And Cook! Caught By BOW!
Published: 2017/03/31
Channel: TallFishermanJ
Beautiful leisurely Giant snakehead fish and fry
Beautiful leisurely Giant snakehead fish and fry
Published: 2014/05/19
Channel: David OKY
Snakehead VS. 8 inch bass
Snakehead VS. 8 inch bass
Published: 2012/07/21
Channel: corunography
Memorable Snakehead Thailand 2013
Memorable Snakehead Thailand 2013
Published: 2013/09/02
Channel: TempleReef
Snakehead Identification
Snakehead Identification
Published: 2014/06/12
Channel: Jimmy Gretzinger
Big giant snakehead fishing videos I Giant  Snakehead fish attacks jump frog lure I fishing video
Big giant snakehead fishing videos I Giant Snakehead fish attacks jump frog lure I fishing video
Published: 2017/07/13
Channel: fishing in thailand
MEGA HAND NET Catches GIANT EXOTIC SNAKEHEAD FISH! Amazing!
MEGA HAND NET Catches GIANT EXOTIC SNAKEHEAD FISH! Amazing!
Published: 2017/10/31
Channel: Catch Em All Fishing
Baby snake head fish eating an earth worm.
Baby snake head fish eating an earth worm.
Published: 2016/10/27
Channel: lifeinthailand
McDonald
McDonald's Fishing Challenge! Caught My First Snakehead Fish!!
Published: 2017/06/30
Channel: FirstStateFishing
5 amazing snakehead fish attack jump frog lures  giant snakehead fishing videos I Fishing trips
5 amazing snakehead fish attack jump frog lures giant snakehead fishing videos I Fishing trips
Published: 2017/07/28
Channel: fishing in thailand
Snakehead fish care and basic information in Hindi Urdu with English subtitles
Snakehead fish care and basic information in Hindi Urdu with English subtitles
Published: 2017/10/26
Channel: Syed Shah5001
Jump frog lure action I Snakehead fish attacks jump frog lure I fishing video I
Jump frog lure action I Snakehead fish attacks jump frog lure I fishing video I
Published: 2017/07/11
Channel: fishing in thailand
baby snakehead fish
baby snakehead fish
Published: 2014/07/07
Channel: Boss lo
Biggest snakehead fish in the world | snakehead fish found in pond
Biggest snakehead fish in the world | snakehead fish found in pond
Published: 2016/07/23
Channel: 1,000,000 Videos
giant snakeheads vs bass part two
giant snakeheads vs bass part two
Published: 2012/12/02
Channel: crazy
Two Boys Catch Snakehead Fish And Catfish By Hand Near My Village After A Heavy Rain
Two Boys Catch Snakehead Fish And Catfish By Hand Near My Village After A Heavy Rain
Published: 2017/04/02
Channel: KH Daily
Jump frog casting snakehead fish I snakehead fishing in thailand I Fishing trip  thailand
Jump frog casting snakehead fish I snakehead fishing in thailand I Fishing trip thailand
Published: 2017/08/18
Channel: fishing in thailand
Starting a snakehead fish farm, 100 fish in a 500L tank.
Starting a snakehead fish farm, 100 fish in a 500L tank.
Published: 2017/06/14
Channel: lifeinthailand
Snakehead Aquariums
Snakehead Aquariums
Published: 2014/11/04
Channel: 1998ReisAntonio
Catch Big Snakehead Fish Using Khmer Traditional Fishing Tools (Chhneang) - Playing On Hay
Catch Big Snakehead Fish Using Khmer Traditional Fishing Tools (Chhneang) - Playing On Hay
Published: 2017/01/03
Channel: KH Daily
Giant Snakehead Eating With Speed of Light
Giant Snakehead Eating With Speed of Light
Published: 2013/09/16
Channel: George F van Hutten
How to fish for snakeheads with the Zeezar Frogs
How to fish for snakeheads with the Zeezar Frogs
Published: 2016/01/09
Channel: Bangkokhooker Fishing
Happy Evening To Make A Bamboo Spear For Catching Snakehead Fish - Spearfishing - Catch n Cook
Happy Evening To Make A Bamboo Spear For Catching Snakehead Fish - Spearfishing - Catch n Cook
Published: 2017/07/14
Channel: KH Daily
DOG FIGHTS TO THE DEATH WITH GIANT SNAKEHEAD FISH!!
DOG FIGHTS TO THE DEATH WITH GIANT SNAKEHEAD FISH!!
Published: 2011/07/05
Channel: Danny Martin
Snakehead Fish Farm Update 6, we have problems, moving the fish to a bigger tank.
Snakehead Fish Farm Update 6, we have problems, moving the fish to a bigger tank.
Published: 2017/09/07
Channel: lifeinthailand
HUGE SNAKEHEAD!!  SNAKEHEAD CAUGHT FISHING IN MARYLAND! River Fishing for Catfish/Fallfish/Snakehead
HUGE SNAKEHEAD!! SNAKEHEAD CAUGHT FISHING IN MARYLAND! River Fishing for Catfish/Fallfish/Snakehead
Published: 2017/04/29
Channel: BassBitesFishing
Excessively crowded Snakehead fish in a thin film of water
Excessively crowded Snakehead fish in a thin film of water
Published: 2016/05/29
Channel: FishConsultGroup
Bowfishing HUGE Snakehead Fish - Fishing For Survival
Bowfishing HUGE Snakehead Fish - Fishing For Survival
Published: 2017/03/27
Channel: We Cooking Fishing
Amazing casting big size giant snakehead fish on the boat IGiant Snakehead fish attacks jump frog
Amazing casting big size giant snakehead fish on the boat IGiant Snakehead fish attacks jump frog
Published: 2017/10/03
Channel: fishing in thailand
Giant snakehead fish and fry
Giant snakehead fish and fry
Published: 2014/09/13
Channel: David OKY
Snakehead Fish VS Frog
Snakehead Fish VS Frog
Published: 2015/07/25
Channel: Kurtis B
Snakehead Catching and Culling in Florida
Snakehead Catching and Culling in Florida
Published: 2012/03/18
Channel: Captain Shane
Amazing intelligent monkeys playing fish | The intelligent monkeys catch Snakehead fish
Amazing intelligent monkeys playing fish | The intelligent monkeys catch Snakehead fish
Published: 2017/06/09
Channel: Fish Wildlife
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Snakehead
Snakehead - Channa argus 2.jpg
Northern snakehead, Channa argus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Suborder: Channoidei
Family: Channidae
Fowler, 1934
General

The snakeheads are members of the freshwater perciform fish family Channidae, native to parts of Africa and Asia. These elongated, predatory fish are distinguished by their long dorsal fins, large mouths, and shiny teeth. They breathe air with gills, which allows them to migrate short distances over land. They have suprabranchial organs developing when they grow older,[2] which is a primitive form of a labyrinth organ. The two extant genera are Channa in Asia and Parachanna in Africa, consisting of about 40 species.

They are valuable as a food source and have become notorious as an intentionally released invasive species.

Description[edit]

The various species of snakeheads differ greatly in size. Dwarf snakeheads, such as Channa gachua, do not surpass 25 cm (10 in) in length. Most other snakeheads reach between 30 and 90 cm (12 and 35 in). Five species (C. argus, C. barca, C. marulius, C. micropeltes and C. striata) can reach 1 m (3 ft 3 in) or more.[3]

Snakeheads are thrust-feeders that consume plankton, aquatic insects, and mollusks when small. As adults, they mostly feed on other fish (such as carp) or on frogs. In rare cases, small mammals such as rats are eaten.

History[edit]

The Channidae are well represented in the fossil record and known from numerous specimens. Research indicates snakeheads likely originated in the south Himalayan region of the Indian Subcontinent (modern-day northern India and eastern Pakistan) at least 50 million years ago (Mya), during the Early Eocene epoch. Two of the earliest known species, Eochanna chorlakkiensis Roe 1991 and Anchichanna kuldanensis Murray & Thewissen, 2008, have both been found in the Middle Eocene of Pakistan.[1][4] By 17 Mya, during the Early Miocene, Channidae had spread into western and central Eurasia, and by 8 Mya, during the late Tortonian, they could be found throughout Africa and East Asia.[5] As Channidae are adapted to climates of high precipitation with mean temperatures of 20 °C (68 °F), their migrations into Europe and Asia correspond to the development of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, which increased air humidity, and the intensification of the East Asian monsoon, respectively. Both weather patterns emerged due to greater vertical growth of the Alps, Pyrenees, and Himalayas, which affected Eurasian climatic patterns.[5]

Ecological concerns[edit]

Snakehead murrel, Channa striata, Java, Indonesia

Snakeheads can become invasive species and cause ecological damage because in many areas to which they are not native the absence of natural enemies gives them apex predator status. Not only can they breathe air, but they can also survive on land for up to four days, provided they are wet, and are known to migrate up to 400 metres (1/4 mile) on wet land to other bodies of water by wriggling with their body and fins. National Geographic has referred to snakeheads as "Fishzilla"[6] and the National Geographic Channel reported the "northern snakehead reaches sexual maturity by age two or three. Each spawning-age female can release up to 15,000 eggs at once. Snakeheads can mate as often as five times a year. This means in just two years, a single female can release up to 150,000 eggs."[7]

"Since 2002, it has been illegal to possess a live snakehead in many US states, where they are considered a destructive invasive species."[8] Virginia has criminalized the "introduc[tion]" of snakeheads into the state without specific authorization, although the relevant statute does not explain whether mere importation is sufficient to constitute "introduc[tion] into the Commonwealth" or whether instead release into the environment is required.[9]

Intentional introductions[edit]

Humans have been introducing snakeheads to nonindigenous waters for over 100 years. In parts of Asia and Africa, the snakehead is considered a valuable food fish, and is produced in aquacultures (fisheries motivation) or by ignorance (as was the case in Crofton, Maryland). Some examples of the introduction of snakeheads to nonindigenous waters include:

Reported sightings[edit]

In the United States[edit]

Snakeheads became a national news topic in the United States because of the appearance of Channa argus, commonly known as northern snakeheads, spawning in a Crofton, Maryland, pond in 2002.[8] Northern snakeheads became permanently established in the Potomac River around 2004;[10] and possibly established in Florida.[8] in approximately 120 miles (190 km) of river, the population has surpassed 21,000 individuals.[11]

According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, snakeheads have also been spotted in California, Delaware, Florida, Hawaii, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island.[12] In particular, the bullseye snakehead (Channa marulius) has become a major problem throughout South Florida, growing larger than 14 pounds (6.4 kg).[13]

World record[edit]

According to the International Game Fish Association, Caleb Newton, a Spotsylvania County, Virginia resident, caught a world record 17 pound, 6 ounce northern snakehead at the junction of Aquia Creek and the Potomac River on June 1, 2013. The previous record, two ounces smaller, had been caught in 2004 in Miki, Kagawa, Japan.[14]

The bowfin, a living fossil not to be confused with the snakehead

As food[edit]

Snakeheads are considered valuable food fish. Called nga yant in Burmese, it is a prized fish eaten in a variety of ways. In Vietnam, they are called ca loc, ca qua, or ca chuoi; it is prized in clay pot dishes and pickled preparations. Larger species, such as Channa striata, Channa maculata, and Parachanna obscura, are farmed in aquaculture. In the United States, chefs have suggested controlling the snakehead invasion by serving them in restaurants.[15] In Indonesia, snakehead fish are called ikan gabus, served as the main parts of traditional dishes such as Betawi's pucung gabus, and considered to be a delicacy due to their rarity in wild and aquaculture, as they are harder to raise than other popular freshwater fish such as catfish and carp.

Channa pleurophthalma

Classification[edit]

The snakeheads comprise two extant genera:

  • Channa (36 species native to Asia)
  • Parachanna (four African species, including one only known from fossil remains)

Two other genera are only known from fossils:

In popular culture[edit]

After its release in non-native North American waters, either accidentally or intentionally, the aggressive and predator-free snakehead's reputation as a "Frankenfish"[16] or "monster fish" has become part of the culture[17] Besides mentions on TV shows such as The Sopranos,[18] the snakehead has been featured in three Sci-fi Channel original pictures entitled Snakehead Terror, Frankenfish, and Swarm of the Snakehead. In the Animal Planet TV series River Monsters, Jeremy Wade shows a dramatization of a snakehead, "the fish from hell", stalking an unsuspecting baby and Chihuahua. With the help of a snakehead researcher, however, Wade shows that although it is capable of living outside of water and is able to move on land, its weak pectoral muscles make movement difficult and render the snakehead an unlikely "stalker" on land.[19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ a b Murray, A. M. & Thewissen, J. G. M. (2008): Eocene actinopterygian fishes from Pakistan, with the description of a new genus and species of channid (channiformes). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 28 (1): 41-52
  2. ^ Pinter, H. (1986). Labyrinth Fish. Barron's Educational Series, Inc., ISBN 0-8120-5635-3.
  3. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2014). Species of Channa in FishBase. June 2014 version.
  4. ^ Roe, L. J. (1991): Phylogenetic and Ecological Significance of Channidae (Osteichthyes Teleostei) from the Early Eocene Kuldana Formation of Kohat, Pakistan. Contributions From The Museum Of Paleontology, The University Of Michigan, VOL. 28, NO. 5, PP. 93-10
  5. ^ a b Böhme, Madelaine (May 2004). "Migration history of air-breathing fishes reveals Neogene atmospheric circulation patterns". Geology. 32 (5): 393–396. doi:10.1130/G20316.1. Retrieved 2008-07-09. 
  6. ^ Cruz, Elena (2007-12-03). "Snakehead Frenzy!". NGC Blog. National Geographic Channel. 
  7. ^ "Fishzilla: Snakehead Invasion". Wild. National Geographic Channel. Archived from the original on 2008-05-15.  Video clip titled: "The Northern Snakehead fish wreaks havoc".
  8. ^ a b c Courtenay, Jr., Walter R. and James D. Williams. USGS Circular 1251: Snakeheads (Pisces, Chinnidae) - A Biological Synopsis and Risk Assessment. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. 2004-04-01. Retrieved 2012-04-16.
  9. ^ Code of Virginia § 18.2-313.2: "Any person who knowingly introduces into the Commonwealth any snakehead fish of the family Channidae[...] without a permit from the Director of Game and Inland Fisheries [...] is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor [punishable by up to twelve months in jail and/or a fine of up to $2,500]."
  10. ^ Potomac snakeheads not related to others Associated Press, Baltimore Sun, 27 April 2007.
  11. ^ 2016, Brian Clark Howard PUBLISHED Thu Mar 17 07:00:00 EDT. "Fishermen Battle Invasive 'Frankenfish' Snakeheads". National Geographic News. Retrieved 2016-03-18. 
  12. ^ "History of introduction in the United States: Four species of snakeheads (Channa argus, C. marulius, C. micropeltes, and C. striata) have been recorded from open waters of the United States (California, Florida, Hawaii, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island), and two have become established as reproducing populations." Injurious Wildlife Species; Snakeheads Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
  13. ^ Southern Fin (2014). "Bullseye Snakehead Fish aka "Frankenfish"" (Blog). www.southernfinapparel.com. Southern Fin. p. 1. Retrieved 24 September 2014. 
  14. ^ By RUSTY DENNEN THE FREE LANCE–STAR 6 August 2013 http://news.fredericksburg.com/newsdesk/2013/08/06/local-mans-snakehead-catch-is-world-record/
  15. ^ "Chefs' solution for invading 'Frankenfish'? Eat 'em". News.msn.com. Retrieved 2014-03-20. 
  16. ^ "B.C.'s snakehead caught after Burnaby pond drained. CBC News (Posted: June 8, 2012)". Cbc.ca. 2012-06-08. Retrieved 2014-03-20. 
  17. ^ "The Ultimate Monster Fish: The Frankenfish Snakehead", Carina Suarez, 28 July 2014, National Geographic
  18. ^ "Soprano Home Movies" episode 13, season 6, The Sopranos, 8 April 2007, HBO
  19. ^ http://animal.discovery.com/fish/river-monsters/giant-snakehead/

Sources

External links[edit]

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