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Caught a huge snakehead fish after draining the water in the lake
Caught a huge snakehead fish after draining the water in the lake
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Invasion of the Snakeheads!
Invasion of the Snakeheads!
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giant snake head destroys fish
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How To Catch Snakehead "Class 101''
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Beautiful leisurely Giant snakehead fish and fry
Beautiful leisurely Giant snakehead fish and fry
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Memorable Snakehead Thailand 2013
Memorable Snakehead Thailand 2013
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Snakehead Fish: What You Need to Know About the "Fish From Hell"
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Snakehead Catching and Killing Florida
Snakehead Catching and Killing Florida
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Terrorist Attack (Snake head fish vs Catfish)
Terrorist Attack (Snake head fish vs Catfish)
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หรั่งพยุหะ GIANT SNAKEHEAD FISH THAILAND.03
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Play Fish 12c, Ditch Snakehead Fishing 溝呆小搞搞
Play Fish 12c, Ditch Snakehead Fishing 溝呆小搞搞
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Goldfish Gets Beheaded By A Crazy Snakehead Fish
Goldfish Gets Beheaded By A Crazy Snakehead Fish
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snakehead fish feeding goldfish eindhoven
snakehead fish feeding goldfish eindhoven
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Snakehead Fishing Palm Beach County, Florida with Captain Sh
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Snakehead Fish in Virginia
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Giant snakehead fish and fry
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Florida Snakehead Fishing in Urban South Florida
Florida Snakehead Fishing in Urban South Florida
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POTOMAC RIVER SNAKEHEAD "BIG ONE!!!"
POTOMAC RIVER SNAKEHEAD "BIG ONE!!!"
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SnakeHead VS Red-Fish
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Snake Head Fish bites when Fishing at the countryside lake | Fishing Cambodia on the weekend
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Preserved Snake Head Fish - FAIL - Mild Vomit Alert
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Play Fish 9, Snakehead Fishing in Heaven 雷強 後花園走走
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Sleepy Snakehead fish, turtle annoys
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Play Fish 15, Snakehead at 70970 Taiwan 曾文大排巡禮
Play Fish 15, Snakehead at 70970 Taiwan 曾文大排巡禮
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Street fishing With Sexy Ladies
Street fishing With Sexy Ladies
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Fishing Time at the Countryside | Fishing for Snake head fish and got a baby crocodile
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Night of the Snakehead Fish: Full Movie
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Snakehead fishing in canals (SINGAPORE)
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Nice snake head fish at kinarut kk malaysia
Nice snake head fish at kinarut kk malaysia
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Thousand of Snake head fishes on the truck for selling to customers | Fish farming in Cambodia
Thousand of Snake head fishes on the truck for selling to customers | Fish farming in Cambodia
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snakehead vs. tiger fish
snakehead vs. tiger fish
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ตกปลาช่อนหมายแถวบ้าน #5 ( Fishing striped snakehead fish Finesse)
ตกปลาช่อนหมายแถวบ้าน #5 ( Fishing striped snakehead fish Finesse)
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unscale and cut  fresh water  snakehead  fish
unscale and cut fresh water snakehead fish
::2013/07/03::
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Play Fish 14, Snakehead Fishing this way  雷強這樣玩
Play Fish 14, Snakehead Fishing this way 雷強這樣玩
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Fresh Water Fishes Live in Cambodia | Snake head fish & Cat Fish in Cambodia
Fresh Water Fishes Live in Cambodia | Snake head fish & Cat Fish in Cambodia
::2014/10/09::
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Snakehead fish: Can invasive species be eaten out of existence?
Snakehead fish: Can invasive species be eaten out of existence?
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SNAKE HEAD - A COMMON FISH IN ASIA
SNAKE HEAD - A COMMON FISH IN ASIA
::2012/09/09::
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Snakehead fish and Tilapia Red Fish pasted salt and grill for our dinner tonight | Khmer food 2015
Snakehead fish and Tilapia Red Fish pasted salt and grill for our dinner tonight | Khmer food 2015
::2015/01/16::
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Massive MAMA Toman !!! Giant Snakehead !!! Wild Fishing Thailand By BKKGUY
Massive MAMA Toman !!! Giant Snakehead !!! Wild Fishing Thailand By BKKGUY
::2011/09/01::
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Snakehead + Arowana + Jaguar fishing (SINGAPORE)
Snakehead + Arowana + Jaguar fishing (SINGAPORE)
::2012/09/17::
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Original snakehead video taken  in a Burnaby, BC pond 1 of 2.MOV
Original snakehead video taken in a Burnaby, BC pond 1 of 2.MOV
::2012/05/14::
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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For other uses, see Snakehead.
Snakehead
Snakehead - Channa argus 2.jpg
Northern snakehead, Channa argus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Suborder: Channoidei
Family: Channidae
Fowler, 1934
Genera

The snakeheads are members of the freshwater perciform fish family Channidae, native to Africa and Asia. These elongated, predatory fish are distinguished by their long dorsal fins, large mouths, and shiny teeth. They breathe air with gills, as well as with suprabranchial organs developing when they grow older,[2] which is a primitive form of a labyrinth organ. The two extant genera are Channa in Asia and Parachanna in Africa, consisting of about 35 species.

They are valuable as a food source and have become notorious as an intentionally released invasive species.

Description[edit]

The various species of snakeheads differ greatly in size. Dwarf snakeheads, such as Channa gachua, do not surpass 25 cm (9.8 in) in length. Most other snakeheads reach between 30 and 90 cm (12 and 35 in). Five species (C. argus, C. barca, C. marulius, C. micropeltes and C. striata) can reach 1 m (3 ft 3 in) or more.[3]

Snakeheads are thrust-feeders which consume plankton, aquatic insects, and mollusks when small. As adults, they mostly feed on other fish (such as carp) or on frogs. In rare cases, small mammals such as rats are taken.

History[edit]

The Channidae are well represented in the fossil record and known from numerous specimens. Research indicates snakeheads likely originated in the south Himalayan region of the Indian Subcontinent (modern-day northern India and eastern Pakistan) at least 50 million years ago (Mya), during the Early Eocene epoch. Two of the earliest known species, Eochanna chorlakkiensis Roe 1991 and Anchichanna kuldanensis Murray & Thewissen, 2008, have both been found in the Middle Eocene of Pakistan.[4][1] By 17 Mya, during the Early Miocene, Channidae had spread into western and central Eurasia, and by 8 Mya, during the late Tortonian, they could be found throughout Africa and East Asia.[5] As Channidae are adapted to climates of high precipitation with mean temperatures of 20°C (68°F), their migrations into Europe and Asia correspond to the development of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, which increased air humidity, and the intensification of the East Asian monsoon, respectively. Both weather patterns emerged due to greater vertical growth of the Alps, Pyrenees, and Himalayas, which affected Eurasian climatic patterns.[5]

Ecological concerns[edit]

Snakehead murrel, Channa striata, Java, Indonesia

Snakeheads can become invasive species and cause ecological damage because they are top-level predators, meaning they have no natural enemies outside of their native environment. Not only can they breathe atmospheric air, but they can also survive on land for up to four days, provided they are wet, and are known to migrate up to 1/4 mile on wet land to other bodies of water by wriggling with their body and fins. National Geographic has referred to snakeheads as "Fishzilla"[6] and the National Geographic Channel reported the "northern snakehead reaches sexual maturity by age two or three. Each spawning-age female can release up to 15,000 eggs at once. Snakeheads can mate as often as five times a year. This means in just two years, a single female can release up to 150,000 eggs."[6]

Since 2002, it has been illegal to possess a live snakehead in many US states, where they are considered a destructive invasive species.[7]

Intentional introductions[edit]

Humans have been introducing snakeheads to nonindigenous waters for over 100 years. In parts of Asia and Africa, the snakehead is considered a valuable food fish, and is produced in aquacultures (fisheries motivation) or by ignorance (as was the case in Crofton, Maryland). Some examples of the introduction of snakeheads to nonindigenous waters include:

Reported sightings[edit]

In the United States[edit]

Snakeheads became a national news topic in the United States because of the appearance of Channa argus, commonly known as northern snakeheads, spawning in a Crofton, Maryland, pond in 2002.[7] Northern snakeheads became permanently established in the Potomac River around 2004,[8] and possibly established in Florida.[7] Apparently, unestablished specimens have been found in Wawayanda, New York,[9] two ponds in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,[8] and reservoirs in North Carolina.[7]

From 2002 to 2003, one Los Angeles supermarket was found to have illegally sold $25,000 worth of live snakeheads, which caused breakouts in local ecosystems.[10]

In what was determined by the Army Corps of Engineers to be an isolated incident, a fisherman caught a single snakehead on October 2004 while fishing from Lake Michigan at Burnham Harbor in Chicago, Illinois.[11][12][13] According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, snakeheads have also been spotted in California, Florida, Hawaii, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island.[14]

On April 25, 2011, a northern snakehead was found above Virginia's Great Falls near Whites Ferry. Great Falls was supposedly a natural barrier that the fish had been unable to cross. It is apparently the first time a northern snakehead was found above the falls.[15]

In May 2011, a Brooklyn fish importer was arrested for importing 350 live snakeheads into New York. He had tried to pass the fish off as Chinese black sleepers (Bostrychus sinensis) in an effort to mislead customs. He also admitted to importing six more shipments in 2010. It is unknown if any of the fish had been released into local waterways.[16]

On August 16, 2011, Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control fisheries biologists captured a 25-inch snakehead in Beck's Pond, which they asserted had been illegally introduced.

On March 28, 2012, Don Cosden, from Maryland's Department of Natural Resources confirmed that they were offering prizes for catching and killing any snakehead fish. To enter the contest, anglers had to catch, kill, and then post a picture of themselves with a dead snakehead caught in Maryland on the DNR's web site.[17]

World record[edit]

According to the International Game Fish Association, Caleb Newton, a Spotsylvania County, Virginia resident, caught a world record 17 pound, 6 ounce northern snakehead at the junction of Aquia Creek and the Potomac River on June 1, 2013. The previous record, two ounces smaller, had been caught in 2004 in Miki, Kagawa, Japan.[18]

Elsewhere[edit]

The bowfin, a living fossil not to be confused with the snakehead

A report from Lincolnshire in the United Kingdom turned out to be a hoax.[19]

A reported catch from the Welland Canal in Canada turned out to be a misidentified specimen of Amia calva, the primitive North American bowfin.[20]

A snakehead in Central Park lagoon in Burnaby, British Columbia, was caught by city officials on June 8, 2012 after the lagoon was partially drained.[21]

The Bullseye Snakehead (Channa marulius) has become a major problem throughout South Florida waterways. It is an invasive threat to many of the native species. Largest one to be documented was 14 pounds, 3 ounces.[22]

As food[edit]

Snakeheads are considered valuable food fish. Called nga yant in Burmese, it is a prized fish eaten in a variety of ways. In Vietnam, they are called ca loc, ca qua, or ca chuoi; it is prized in clay pot dishes and pickled preparations. Larger species, such as Channa striata, Channa maculata, and Parachanna obscura, are farmed in aquaculture. In the United States, chefs have suggested controlling the snakehead invasion by serving them in restaurants.[23] In Indonesia, snakehead fish are called ikan gabus, served as the main parts of traditional dishes such as Betawi's pucung gabus, and considered to be a delicacy due to their rarity in wild and aquaculture, as they are harder to raise than other popular freshwater fish such as catfish and carp.

Channa pleurophthalma

Classification[edit]

The snakeheads comprise two extant genera:

  • Channa (33 species native to Asia)
  • Parachanna (four African species, including one only known from fossil remains)

Two other genera are only known from fossils:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Murray, A. M. & Thewissen, J. G. M. (2008): Eocene actinopterygian fishes from Pakistan, with the description of a new genus and species of channid (channiformes). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 28 (1): 41-52
  2. ^ Pinter, H. (1986). Labyrinth Fish. Barron's Educational Series, Inc., ISBN 0-8120-5635-3.
  3. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2014). Species of Channa in FishBase. June 2014 version.
  4. ^ Roe, L. J. (1991): Phylogenetic and Ecological Significance of Channidae (Osteichthyes Teleostei) from the Early Eocene Kuldana Formation of Kohat, Pakistan. Contributions From The Museum Of Paleontology, The University Of Michigan, VOL. 28, NO. 5, PP. 93-10
  5. ^ a b Böhme, Madelaine (May 2004). "Migration history of air-breathing fishes reveals Neogene atmospheric circulation patterns". Geology 32 (5): 393–396. doi:10.1130/G20316.1. Retrieved 2008-07-09. 
  6. ^ a b Cruz, Elena (2007-12-03). "Snakehead Frenzy!". NGC Blog. National Geographic Channel. 
  7. ^ a b c d Courtenay, Jr., Walter R. and James D. Williams. USGS Circular 1251: Snakeheads (Pisces, Chinnidae) - A Biological Synopsis and Risk Assessment. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. 2004-04-01. Retrieved 2012-04-16.
  8. ^ a b Potomac snakeheads not related to others Associated Press, Baltimore Sun, 27 April 2007.
  9. ^ Yakin, Heather (August 6, 2008). "DEC sprays poison to kill snakeheads". The Times Herald Record. 
  10. ^ [1][dead link]
  11. ^ Canadian Press (October 17, 2004). "Great Lakes biologists worry about 'frankenfish'". CTV.ca. Retrieved April 29, 2011. 
  12. ^ "Chicago Angler nets Snakehead in Lake Michigan". Great Lakes Sport Fishing Council. October 18, 2004. Retrieved April 29, 2011. 
  13. ^ "Snakehead Fish Found In Lake Michigan". Life. Retrieved April 29, 2011. 
  14. ^ "History of introduction in the United States: Four species of snakeheads (Channa argus, C. marulius, C. micropeltes, and C. striata) have been recorded from open waters of the United States (California, Florida, Hawaii, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island), and two have become established as reproducing populations." Injurious Wildlife Species; Snakeheads Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
  15. ^ "Snakehead caught near White's Ferry". Fairfax Times. April 29, 2011. Retrieved May 10, 2011. 
  16. ^ Thomas Zambito (April 28, 2011). "Fish importer busted trying to smuggle fish-chomping 'fishzilla' snakeheads into New York". New York Daily News. Retrieved April 29, 2011. 
  17. ^ "Help Control The Spread Of Snakehead Fish | Maryland DNR Fisheries Service News". Dnr.state.md.us. 2012-03-28. Retrieved 2014-03-20. 
  18. ^ By RUSTY DENNEN THE FREE LANCE–STAR 6 August, 2013 http://news.fredericksburg.com/newsdesk/2013/08/06/local-mans-snakehead-catch-is-world-record/
  19. ^ Clarke, Matt (April 2008). "Snakehead catch 'a hoax'". Practical Fishkeeping. 
  20. ^ Carletti, Fabiola; Gillis, Wendy (2010-08-09). "Welland Canal safe from ‘Frankenfish'". The Star (Toronto). 
  21. ^ "B.C.'s snakehead caught after Burnaby pond drained. CBC News (Posted: June 8, 2012)". Cbc.ca. 2012-06-08. Retrieved 2014-03-20. 
  22. ^ Southern Fin (2014). "Bullseye Snakehead Fish aka “Frankenfish”" (Blog). www.southernfinapparel.com. Southern Fin. p. 1. Retrieved 24 September 2014. 
  23. ^ "Chefs' solution for invading 'Frankenfish'? Eat 'em". News.msn.com. Retrieved 2014-03-20. 

External links[edit]

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