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The Politics Of Social Media In 2016 Election | Morning Joe | MSNBC
The Politics Of Social Media In 2016 Election | Morning Joe | MSNBC
Published: 2016/04/07
Channel: MSNBC
How Social Media Impacted the U.S. Election
How Social Media Impacted the U.S. Election
Published: 2016/11/10
Channel: Bloomberg Technology
Rep. Schiff discusses Russian manipulation on social media in the 2016 election
Rep. Schiff discusses Russian manipulation on social media in the 2016 election
Published: 2017/09/24
Channel: Face The Nation
Best Social Media Moments of the 2016 Election
Best Social Media Moments of the 2016 Election
Published: 2016/11/08
Channel: Good Morning America
US Presidential elections: the best (and the worst) of social media on #ElectionNight
US Presidential elections: the best (and the worst) of social media on #ElectionNight
Published: 2016/11/09
Channel: FRANCE 24 English
U.S. Analyst Jason Johnson on Social Media and the Presidential Elections 2016
U.S. Analyst Jason Johnson on Social Media and the Presidential Elections 2016
Published: 2016/03/14
Channel: U.S. Embassy Berlin Videos
Social media
Social media's role in the 2016 election
Published: 2017/09/07
Channel: CBS News
US Election 2016: Donald Trump uses social media to power campaign
US Election 2016: Donald Trump uses social media to power campaign
Published: 2016/04/06
Channel: CCTV English
The Role of Social Media in the 2016 Presidential Election
The Role of Social Media in the 2016 Presidential Election
Published: 2016/10/03
Channel: SaintLouisUniversity
Social media and the 2016 election
Social media and the 2016 election
Published: 2015/07/30
Channel: Fox Business
U.S Presidential election debate: Social media reaction
U.S Presidential election debate: Social media reaction
Published: 2017/02/24
Channel: The National
Social media
Social media's huge role in the 2016 presidential election
Published: 2015/04/13
Channel: CBSN
How social media impacts the 2016 presidential election
How social media impacts the 2016 presidential election
Published: 2015/08/08
Channel: Fox Business
US 2016 Presidential Election #1 Social Media
US 2016 Presidential Election #1 Social Media
Published: 2016/11/11
Channel: Peter Fisher
Social Media and the 2016 Presidential Election
Social Media and the 2016 Presidential Election
Published: 2017/08/11
Channel: Maria Vera
RUSSIA WEAPONIZED SOCIAL MEDIA TO INTERFERE IN U.S. ELECTION
RUSSIA WEAPONIZED SOCIAL MEDIA TO INTERFERE IN U.S. ELECTION
Published: 2017/09/24
Channel: Jey Hana
US Elections: Social Media react to "crazy night" and Donald Trump
US Elections: Social Media react to "crazy night" and Donald Trump's results
Published: 2016/11/09
Channel: FRANCE 24 English
Social media and the 2016 election
Social media and the 2016 election
Published: 2016/10/10
Channel: Channel 8 KLKN-TV
The 2016 Presidential election - a social media race | FT World
The 2016 Presidential election - a social media race | FT World
Published: 2015/07/17
Channel: Financial Times
We the Voters: How does social media change the election?
We the Voters: How does social media change the election?
Published: 2016/10/04
Channel: CBS News
Social media
Social media's role in 2016 elections
Published: 2015/05/04
Channel: Fox Business
Social media’s role in the election
Social media’s role in the election
Published: 2016/11/10
Channel: NBRbizrpt
Election social media reaction
Election social media reaction
Published: 2016/11/09
Channel: WTHR
Influence of Social Media on 2016 US Presidential Elections - Bets2sport
Influence of Social Media on 2016 US Presidential Elections - Bets2sport
Published: 2015/09/23
Channel: Bets2Sport .com
US Election 2016  Donald Trump uses social media to power campaign
US Election 2016 Donald Trump uses social media to power campaign
Published: 2016/04/07
Channel: LaTesT NeWs
US Elections 2016: Donald Trump Dominating Social Media To Become Next President?
US Elections 2016: Donald Trump Dominating Social Media To Become Next President?
Published: 2016/10/04
Channel: Weekly Marketing Tips
Social media revealing it
Social media revealing it's Trump's election to lose?
Published: 2016/08/09
Channel: Fox Business
Donald Trump on Social Media and Election 2016 - Part 2
Donald Trump on Social Media and Election 2016 - Part 2
Published: 2015/10/18
Channel: Social Media Patriots
DNI James Clapper on Russia weaponized Social Media to interfere in U.S. Election. #Russia #Facebook
DNI James Clapper on Russia weaponized Social Media to interfere in U.S. Election. #Russia #Facebook
Published: 2017/09/23
Channel: Almutaz Bur News Network
US election special: Social media explodes in wake of Trump win
US election special: Social media explodes in wake of Trump win
Published: 2016/11/09
Channel: FRANCE 24 English
Election 2016- Student Panel: Social media usage in campaigns
Election 2016- Student Panel: Social media usage in campaigns
Published: 2016/11/22
Channel: TV-Marywood
Social Media Use in the 2016 Presidential Election
Social Media Use in the 2016 Presidential Election's Influence
Published: 2017/02/17
Channel: Hofstra University
Social Media and Politics  – Closer with Skype. Elections 2016
Social Media and Politics – Closer with Skype. Elections 2016
Published: 2016/05/05
Channel: Skype
#AskJemila: Social Media & America
#AskJemila: Social Media & America's Election
Published: 2016/11/28
Channel: Jemila Abdulai
Social Media and the 2016 Presidential Election
Social Media and the 2016 Presidential Election
Published: 2015/07/13
Channel: Shelby Prestage
Presidential Debate | Biggest Moments on Social Media
Presidential Debate | Biggest Moments on Social Media
Published: 2016/09/27
Channel: Good Morning America
Social Media, Digital Strategy and the 2016 Elections
Social Media, Digital Strategy and the 2016 Elections
Published: 2016/04/30
Channel: Organizing 2.0
Social media in US elections
Social media in US elections
Published: 2012/10/25
Channel: Rappler
Election Day 2016 -- Social Media Reaction
Election Day 2016 -- Social Media Reaction
Published: 2016/11/10
Channel: Will Boling
Reaction on social media to election results
Reaction on social media to election results
Published: 2016/11/10
Channel: FOX 5 Atlanta
Which Social Media Platform Is "Winning" The 2016 Election
Which Social Media Platform Is "Winning" The 2016 Election
Published: 2016/08/19
Channel: FastCompany
What
What's New in the 2016 Presidential Election?
Published: 2015/10/20
Channel: SNHU
Catholics Discuss the 2016 US Presidential Election
Catholics Discuss the 2016 US Presidential Election
Published: 2016/07/26
Channel: New Catholic Generation
How Did Social Media Change the 2016 Presidential Race?
How Did Social Media Change the 2016 Presidential Race?
Published: 2017/02/16
Channel: Hofstra University
How Social Media Affected the 2016 Election
How Social Media Affected the 2016 Election
Published: 2017/01/27
Channel: MultiSmashFilms
The Stream - Reporter
The Stream - Reporter's notebook: US presidential election
Published: 2016/06/29
Channel: Al Jazeera English
RIT on TV: Social Media and the Election
RIT on TV: Social Media and the Election
Published: 2016/10/19
Channel: Rochester Institute of Technology
The Impact of Media on the US Presidential Elections of 2016
The Impact of Media on the US Presidential Elections of 2016
Published: 2016/09/27
Channel: School of Global Affairs and Public Policy, AUC
The State of the 2016 Presidential Election, the Role of the Media, and Obama’s Legacy
The State of the 2016 Presidential Election, the Role of the Media, and Obama’s Legacy
Published: 2016/10/11
Channel: HooverInstitution
2016 election relies on social media more than ever
2016 election relies on social media more than ever
Published: 2015/06/05
Channel: ABC7 WJLA
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Social media played a predominant role in shaping the course of major events leading up to, during, and after the United States presidential election of 2016. It enabled people to have a greater interaction with the political landscape, controversies, and news surrounding the candidates involved. Unlike traditional news platforms, such as newspapers, radio, and magazines, social media gave people the ability to share, comment, and post below a candidates advertisement, news surrounding the candidates, or articles regarding the policy of the candidates. This accessibility, in turn, would have a great influence on the events that ultimately led to its outcome.

Candidates would often use multiple social media accounts, such as YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram.[1] There, they would post, create support videos, link to news articles, and challenge other candidates via fact-checking, discrediting, and response. In turn, users could share, like, or comment on these actions, furthering the candidates outreach. By doing so, candidates and users both would influence or change peoples views on a specific issue.[2] With candidates using different combinations of these actions, they built a unique style of communication with the public, influencing the portrayal of themselves in the news, and in their own accounts.[3] These accounts then would help build electoral coalitions, which identify voters and, in turn, raise money. As a result, they ultimately aided in voter mobilization and electoral impact.[4] Researchers from Stanford have found that that 62% of U.S. adults get their news on social media and that people are more likely to believe in news favoring their choice of candidate, especially if they have ideologically segregated social networks[5]

Throughout the campaign, candidates have debated over immigrational, foreign, economic, healthcare, criminal, domestic, educational, environmental, and electoral policy.[6] Using social media, they expanded their base further beyond the broadcast debates, both in the Republican and Democratic primary, and in the general election. In one instance, former Florida Governor Jeb Bush and former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton feuded over economic and educational policy in a series of tweets.[7] In another, Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump feuded over Obama's endorsement of Hillary Clinton, and the deletion of Twitter accounts.[8] Overall, these and many other events on social media contributed to the outcome of the 2016 election by endorsement, controversy, or other exhibits providing discussion for political discourse.[9]

Background[edit]

As the campaign began, analysts assumed that, because of the increased reach and capacity of social media sites of all kinds since the last election cycle, social media would be used in potentially powerful new ways. The Wall Street Journal predicted that the use of campaign advertisements targeted at individuals using newly available data would be among the more notable innovations.[10]

The political newspaper, The Hill, concluded not only that "[s]ocial media's influence in this presidential election is stronger than it has ever been," but that it "will shape campaigns for years to come."[11] According to The Wall Street Journal, the "traditional media" and the Democratic and Republican parties have lost "dominance" of public opinion to the "digital revolution."[12]

Frank Speiser, co-founder of SocialFlow, said, "This is the first true social media election." He added that before the 2016 presidential primaries, social media were a mere "auxiliary method of communication," but in this new era, "folks on social media to act on your behalf by just sharing it around. You don't have to buy access to reach millions of people anymore." According to Republican political strategist Patrick Ruffini, in the 2012 election cycle, candidates would make short statements, and re-tweet or thank followers.[11] The candidates were able to use social media to get free advertising from their supporters. Attendees of political rallies would take photos with the candidates that would then be shared on social media platforms such as Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook. This generates more visibility for the candidate at no cost to them.[13]

The Guardian compared Internet memes to political cartoons, arguing, "For the first time in a US election cycle, community-generated memes have grown to play a significant role in political discourse, similar to the classic printed cartoon." While an Internet meme is unlikely to destroy a political career, lots of memes targeting a candidate might.[14]

Donald Trump campaign[edit]

Donald Trump's tweet activity from his first tweet in May 2009 to September 2017. His tweet activity pattern has changed from 2013.

The Trump presidential campaign benefited from large numbers of supporters who were active on social media from the beginning of the campaign. Donald Trump was perhaps one of the most provocative presidents in recent times, creating a strong divide within the country as there seemed to be very few people who felt only moderate feelings for him. With such a large divide created, it is no surprise that issues would arise on the Internet from both the supporters, who would call themselves “Centipedes” online [15] and the liberals (who sometimes refer to each other as comrades online).

In the first Republican Presidential debate, held on August 6, 2015, the moderator asked candidate Jeb Bush if he stood by a statement made the previous April that illegal entry into the U.S. by undocumented migrants is "an act of love."[16] Bush replied that he did and the Trump campaign immediately posted his comment as part of a video showing mugshots of illegal immigrants who committed violent crimes in the US, alternating with footage of Bush saying, "Yeah, they broke the law, but it's not a felony… It's an act of love."[17][18] According to Eric Fehrnstrom, political analyst and media strategist, the video marked a crucial turning point in the campaign for the Republican nomination.[16] Political analyst Michael Barone regarded the ad as a key moment in Trump's political rise.[19] The San Francisco Chronicle described the ad as pivotal in transforming Instagram from a personal photo-sharing app that some celebrities and politicians used to enhance their images, into a propaganda tool.[20]

"The Great Meme War" was an Internet campaign conducted by supporters of Donald Trump and opponents of Hillary Clinton between June 2015 and November 2016 in an effort to sway the election.[21] During this time period users of social media, especially Reddit and 4chan, conducted numerous "operations" to sway public opinion using Internet memes, Internet posts and online media.[22][23][24]

Right Side Broadcasting Network frequently uploaded live streams of Donald Trump rallies on YouTube. As of September 2016, the channel has received over 210 thousand subscribers, exceeding the subscribers of MSNBC's YouTube channel.[25]

On Reddit, /r/The Donald is a pro-Trump subforum (termed a subreddit on Reddit) which ranks consistently as the most active on the site.[26][27] Due to the very active community that outpaced the rest of the website, the algorithm that dictated what content reached the "/r/all" page of the website resulted in the significant portion of the page being /r/The_Donald content. In response, Reddit made changes to its algorithms on June 15 in an attempt to preserve variety of /r/all.[28] On July 27, 2016, Trump participated in an Ask Me Anything (AMA) on /r/The_Donald, answering thirteen questions from his supporters.[29] /r/The_Donald is more active and has a higher subscriber count than the subreddit for Hillary Clinton, /r/HillaryClinton.

Trump has become well-documented in his frequent Twitter posts.[30] With social media acting as free media and publicity, Trump harnessed Twitter as a platform to respond quickly to his opponents and tweet about his stance on various issues. Before the Republican National Convention where Trump was named the Republican candidate,[31] he would relentlessly target his fellow Republican candidates when their poll numbers would rise.[32] President-elect Donald Trump utilized Twitter frequently both during and after the 2016 presidential election, explaining that social media helped him win the primary and general elections even though his opponents spent "much more money than [he] spent".[33] While Slate explains that Trump succeeded because he retained his "vulgar vigor and translated it into the political arena",[34] the Washington Post has called his Twitter account "prolific, populist, and self-obsessed".[32]

Hillary Clinton campaign[edit]

Twitter activity of Hillary Clinton from her first tweet in June 2013 to September 2017. Her tweet activity pattern has changed in 2015.

In April 2016, Correct the Record, a pro-Clinton super PAC, announced a program called "Barrier Breakers" intended to rival the largely online volunteer efforts of Sanders and Trump supporters. With $1 million in funding, Correct the Record employed paid staff described as "former reporters, bloggers, public affairs specialists, designers" to post "exclusively positive content."[35]

On June 9, 2016, as a response to Donald Trump's tweet regarding Obama's endorsement to Clinton, she wrote with a three word tweet: "Delete your account". This tweet has become her most retweeted tweet of all time.[36][37] After the Democratic National Convention, Clinton began campaigning with running mate, Tim Kaine, and while on the campaign trail, she made the statement of "I don't know who created Pokémon Go ... I try to get them to have Pokémon Go to the polls."[38]

Clinton began using social media platform Snapchat to chronicle her campaign across America.[39] One of her videos, where she proclaimed that she was, "Just chillin', in Cendar Rapids," quickly became a meme on video-sharing app Vine.[40]

Ted Cruz campaign[edit]

According to The Guardian, Cruz was "skewered by social media memes". His run for the Presidency was ended by a series of memes, including a viral video of an unusually awkward attempt to shake hands with his running mate Carly Fiorina, which was edited to emphasize his awkwardness in reality. The video was viewed 3.5 million times online. In addition, a mock-conspiracy theory faux-asserted that Cruz was actually the Zodiac Killer, an unidentified serial killer active in northern California from the late 1960s to the early 1970s.[14]

Bernie Sanders campaign[edit]

Twitter activity of Bernie Sanders from his first tweet in November 2010 to September 2017. His twitter activity has increased during his presidential campaign.

Social media is widely acknowledged to have played a crucial role in the Bernie Sanders presidential campaign. As of May 2016, 450,000 people belong to the Facebook group Bernie Sanders' Dank Meme Stash, one of the several online groups supporting Sanders. Memes were used as the primary means of starting conversational topics in groups such as Bernie Sanders' Dank Meme Stash and Bernie Sanders is my HERO, which were primarily devoted to debating & educating, and praising Bernie whilst pointing out flaws in rival candidates Ted Cruz, Donald Trump, and Hillary Clinton in comical ways. Another group, Bernie or Hillary?, dedicated to creating mock-campaign posters comparing Sanders to Clinton.[14] Sanders supporters who succeeded in closing down a planned Trump rally in Chicago in March 2016 were organized via Facebook.[41]

Bernie or Hillary[edit]

"Bernie or Hillary?"[42][43][44] (or "Bernie vs. Hillary"[44] [45]) was an Internet meme made popular during the 2016 Democratic Party presidential nomination in the United States 2016 election, in which Internet users who mostly favored Bernie Sanders over Hillary Clinton compared the two candidates in faux political posters.

Other candidates[edit]

Gary Johnson campaign[edit]

The humorous Balanced Rebellion video in which "Dead Abe Lincoln" endorses Johnson has been the most widely viewed viral video of any candidate the 2016 campaign.[46] The advertisement shows the many negative aspects of both Hillary and Trump, and states that Johnson will protect our freedoms.[47] Another video that made headlines shows the former New Mexico governor[48] faking a heart attack during a debate on the legalization of marijuana.[49] Johnson also received a 5,000 percent increase in Google searches when Ted Cruz dropped out of the race for the Republican presidential nomination.[50] As a third party candidate, one of Johnson's main focuses was to convince dissatisfied Republicans and Democrats to vote for him.[51] One way to attract more voters was to go to the Democratic National Convention to persuade disheartened Bernie Sanders supporters to vote for him. This method proved to be somewhat effective as Johnson had a surge in online interactions about the former Governor during the two days of the convention, July 26 and 27.[52]

Jill Stein campaign[edit]

Jill Stein has made extensive use of Twitter for her presidential campaign. She used the social media platform to communicate with Americans before, during, and after the presidential debate at Hofstra University.[53] Stein used her Twitter influence in hopes that it would demonstrate a "changing political landscape" where voters weren't only faced with two options for president.[54] Stein was trending for the first time on Twitter the week of July 20, 2016 and gained 27,000 new followers.[55] Stein also had the same idea as Gary Johnson to sway discouraged Bernie Sanders supporters to vote for her in the election. This led to a boost in online conversation about Stein during the DNC, just as it did with Johnson.[52] After the end of the election, Stein requested a recount in Wisconsin.[56] She used her social media influence to raise millions of dollars for recounts in not only Wisconsin, but also Pennsylvania and Michigan.[57] Stein stated that the reason for the recount is to assure that no hacking of voting machines or voter results occurred.[58]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sternberg, Josh. "How Local Politicians Are Using Social Media". Mashable. Retrieved 2017-04-12. 
  2. ^ "Social media causes some users to rethink their views on an issue". Pew Research Center. 2016-11-07. Retrieved 2017-04-12. 
  3. ^ "Election 2016: Campaigns as a Direct Source of News [Pg. 2-3]". Pew Research Center's Journalism Project. 2016-07-18. Retrieved 2017-04-12. 
  4. ^ "Ten Ways Social Media Can Improve Campaign Engagement and Reinvigorate American Democracy | Brookings Institution". Brookings. 2017-04-12. Retrieved 2017-04-12. 
  5. ^ H.Allcott & M.Gentzkow (2017). Social Media and Fake News in the 2016 election. Journal of Economic Perspectives—Volume 31, Number 2—Spring 2017—Pages 211–236. Accessed 03.05.2017. https://web.stanford.edu/~gentzkow/research/fakenews.pdf
  6. ^ "The Big Issues Of The 2016 Campaign". FiveThirtyEight. 2015-11-19. Retrieved 2017-04-12. 
  7. ^ Harvey, Kerric; author; Media, the Encyclopedia of Social; Politics. "Did Social Media Ruin Election 2016?". NPR.org. Retrieved 2017-04-12. 
  8. ^ Yilek, Caitlin (2016-06-09). "Trump responds to Clinton’s ‘delete your account’ tweet". TheHill. Retrieved 2017-04-12. 
  9. ^ "How social platforms influenced the 2016 election". The Verge. 2016-11-14. Retrieved 2017-04-12. 
  10. ^ Andrews, Natalie (August 5, 2015). "Candidates Poised to Spread Their Message Through Social Media Ads". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 18, 2016. 
  11. ^ a b Lang, Marissa (April 5, 2016). "2016 Presidential Election Circus: Is Social Media the Cause?". The Hill. Retrieved May 18, 2016. 
  12. ^ Powers, William (February 9, 2016). "Who’s Influencing Election 2016?". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 18, 2016. 
  13. ^ http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/eds/detail/detail?vid=4&sid=7993e5b9-0a6e-4600-8201-e885b8cfb0c5@sessionmgr4008&hid=4111&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmU=#AN=112057883&db=f5h[full citation needed]
  14. ^ a b c Alexander, Leigh (May 4, 2016). "Blame it on the Zodiac killer: did social media ruin Ted Cruz's campaign?". The Guardian. Retrieved May 18, 2016. 
  15. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2016/11/20/opinion/sunday/reddit-and-the-god-emperor-of-the-internet.html?_r=0.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  16. ^ a b Fehrnstrom, Eric (February 10, 2016). "A punch-drunk Jeb Bush carries on". Boston Globe. Retrieved February 25, 2016. 
  17. ^ Richardson, Bradford (August 31, 2015). "Trump rips Bush over 'act of love' remarks on illegal immigration". The Hill. Retrieved February 24, 2016. 
  18. ^ Warren, Michael (August 31, 2015). "Trump Hits Jeb on 'Act of Love'". The Weekly Standard. Retrieved February 24, 2016. 
  19. ^ Barone, Michael (March 3, 2016). "The five key ingredients of Donald Trump's soaraway success". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved March 23, 2016. 
  20. ^ Garafoli, Joe (September 4, 2015). "Trump and Bush attack ads turn Instagram into a battleground". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved February 24, 2016. 
  21. ^ "'Great Meme War' Could Hit the Media". The epoch times. 11 November 2016. 
  22. ^ ""Daddy, what did you do in ‘The Great Meme War’?" Dank memes become part of history". The daily Pakistan. 
  23. ^ Wallenhorst, Max (28 November 2016). "Rechte Rhetorik im Netz: Der sich selbst erhaltende Hass" [Right rhetoric on the net: self-preserving hatred]. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). 
  24. ^ "Pizzagate: How a 4Chan conspiracy went mainstream". The new Statesman. 2016-12.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  25. ^ Tani, Maxwell (October 20, 2016). "We spoke to a key figure behind the Donald Trump Facebook Live event that fueled speculation about 'Trump TV'". Business Insider. Retrieved October 23, 2016. 
  26. ^ Jackson, Jasper (22 November 2016). "Moderators of pro-Trump Reddit group linked to fake news crackdown on posts". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 November 2016. 
  27. ^ Herrman, John (April 8, 2016). "Donald Trump Finds Support in Reddit’s Unruly Corners". The New York Times. 
  28. ^ Koebler, Jason (July 12, 2016). "How r/the_donald Became a Melting Pot of Frustration and Hate". Motherboard. VICE News. 
  29. ^ Dicker, Rachel (July 27, 2016). "People Got to Ask Donald Trump Anything – Sort of". U.S. News and World Report. 
  30. ^ Hess, Amanda (2016-02-18). "How Trump Wins Twitter". Slate. ISSN 1091-2339. Retrieved 2016-12-06. 
  31. ^ "Full text: Donald Trump’s 2016 Republican National Convention Speech". ABC News. 2016-07-22. Retrieved 2016-12-06. 
  32. ^ a b Phillips, Amber (2015-12-10). "The surprising genius of Donald Trump’s Twitter account". The Washington Post. Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  33. ^ Morin, Rebecca (2016-11). "Trump says social media was key to victory". Poltico. Retrieved 17 December 2016.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  34. ^ Hess, Amanda (2016-2). "How Trump Wins Twitter". Slate. Retrieved 17 December 2016.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  35. ^ Hampson, Rick (May 12, 2016). "Hillary Clinton, no fan of 'Bernie Bros,' could use their energy vs. Trump". USA Today. Retrieved May 18, 2016. 
  36. ^ Lang, Cady (9 June 2016). "Hillary Clinton Tweets 'Delete Your Account' to Donald Trump". TIME.com. Retrieved 9 June 2016. 
  37. ^ Victor, Daniel (9 June 2016). "Hillary Clinton to Donald Trump: ‘Delete Your Account’". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 June 2016. 
  38. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4LtTpZpGE6c.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  39. ^ Kearly, Kendyl. "Hillary Clinton Got A Snapchat (Finally) & She's Already Sending Silly Snaps To Her Supporters". Retrieved 2016-12-06. 
  40. ^ "Hillary Clinton Accidentally Became a Vine Meme". Motherboard. Retrieved 2016-12-06. 
  41. ^ Seitz-Wald, Alex (March 12, 2016). "How Bernie Sanders Supporters Shut Down Donald Trump's Rally in Chicago". MSNBC. Retrieved March 12, 2016. 
  42. ^ Ashkinaze, Josh (February 12, 2016). "Politicians Should Embrace Internet Memes". The Oberlin Review. WordPress. Retrieved May 5, 2016. 
  43. ^ Lewis, Gabriella (March 20, 2016). "We Asked an Expert if Memes Could Determine the Outcome of the Presidential Election". Vice. Vice Media. Retrieved May 5, 2016. 
  44. ^ a b Sanders, Sam (February 5, 2016). "#MemeOfTheWeek: Bernie Or Hillary. Sexist Or Nah?". NPR Politics. NPR. Retrieved May 5, 2016. 
  45. ^ Hess, Amanda (February 9, 2016). "The Bernie vs. Hillary meme is weird, ceaseless, and kind of sexist, just like the 2016 campaign.". Slate. The Slate Group. Retrieved May 5, 2016. 
  46. ^ By T.L. Stanley. "Gary Johnson Had the Most Viral Ad of the 2016 Election. Was It All for Nothing?". Adweek. Retrieved 2016-09-10. 
  47. ^ "In 'crazy election,' Gary Johnson strives for a spot in presidential debate...: Start Your Search!". eds.a.ebscohost.com. Retrieved 2016-12-05. 
  48. ^ OnTheIssues.org. "Gary Johnson on the Issues". www.ontheissues.org. Retrieved 2016-12-05. 
  49. ^ "Gary Johnson Heart Attack: Polls Plummet As Video Of Johnson Jokingly Clutching His Chest Surfaces". The Inquisitr News. Retrieved 2016-11-08. 
  50. ^ "Gary Johnson Asks You to Google Him.: Start Your Search!". eds.b.ebscohost.com. Retrieved 2016-12-05. 
  51. ^ "Gale - Enter Product Login". go.galegroup.com. Retrieved 2016-12-05. 
  52. ^ a b "Gary Johnson Surges On Social Media — How Do Facebook ‘Likes’ Turn Into Votes For Libertarian Candidate?". The Inquisitr News. Retrieved 2016-11-08. 
  53. ^ "Jill Stein to Participate Real-Time in First Presidential Debate, Using Social Media to Take Her Case Directly to the American People". Jill Stein 2016. Retrieved 2016-11-08. 
  54. ^ "Should You Vote for the Green Party?: Start Your Search!". eds.b.ebscohost.com. Retrieved 2016-11-08. 
  55. ^ "We broke the internet!". Jill Stein 2016. Retrieved 2016-11-08. 
  56. ^ "The Latest: Stein files recount request: Start Your Search!". eds.a.ebscohost.com. Retrieved 2016-12-05. 
  57. ^ "The Week: Start Your Search!". eds.a.ebscohost.com. Retrieved 2016-12-05. 
  58. ^ "Green Party's Stein files recount request in Wisconsin: Start Your Search!". eds.a.ebscohost.com. Retrieved 2016-12-05. 

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