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S.O.D. -  Speak English Or Die (Full Album)
S.O.D. - Speak English Or Die (Full Album)
Published: 2016/07/12
Channel: Fanis METAL
March Of The S.O.D.- Sargent
March Of The S.O.D.- Sargent ''D'' & The S.O.D.
Published: 2012/07/04
Channel: Csaba Barlog
How to Lay Sod - This Old House
How to Lay Sod - This Old House
Published: 2015/01/02
Channel: This Old House
S.O.D. - Bigger Than The Devil [1999] Full Album
S.O.D. - Bigger Than The Devil [1999] Full Album
Published: 2012/10/25
Channel: skoolbus
SOD - Seasoning The Obese
SOD - Seasoning The Obese
Published: 2010/12/20
Channel: NuclearBlastVEVO
(HQ) S.O.D. - March of the S.O.D. and Sergeant D and the S.O.D.
(HQ) S.O.D. - March of the S.O.D. and Sergeant D and the S.O.D.
Published: 2016/11/24
Channel: Pony Clop
Stormtroopers of Death (S.O.D.) Live at Budokan 1992 DVD 1992 [Complete]
Stormtroopers of Death (S.O.D.) Live at Budokan 1992 DVD 1992 [Complete]
Published: 2013/01/16
Channel: Emosux
S.O.D. - Kill Yourself
S.O.D. - Kill Yourself
Published: 2016/06/24
Channel: Omega Serpent
How NOT to lay Sod
How NOT to lay Sod
Published: 2016/05/27
Channel: Stanley "Dirt Monkey" Genadek
System Of A Down - Chop Suey!
System Of A Down - Chop Suey!
Published: 2009/10/03
Channel: systemofadownVEVO
System Of A Down - Aerials
System Of A Down - Aerials
Published: 2009/10/03
Channel: systemofadownVEVO
S.O.D. - kill yourself the movie
S.O.D. - kill yourself the movie
Published: 2015/11/27
Channel: deadbuttdreaming
【サラ番】【SOD】チェリ男・楓☆ ノリ打ちトレジャー vol.2 《グランパ中野》 [BASHtv][パチスロ][スロット]
【サラ番】【SOD】チェリ男・楓☆ ノリ打ちトレジャー vol.2 《グランパ中野》 [BASHtv][パチスロ][スロット]
Published: 2017/03/06
Channel: BASHtv
S.O.D - Pussy Whipped
S.O.D - Pussy Whipped
Published: 2009/10/22
Channel: barbrick101
School of Dragons [SoD]: Willkommen in der Bruthöhle #1 | Let
School of Dragons [SoD]: Willkommen in der Bruthöhle #1 | Let's Play ★ [GERMAN/DEUTSCH]
Published: 2015/08/30
Channel: zaaap!
S.O.D. - March Of The S.O.D.
S.O.D. - March Of The S.O.D.
Published: 2016/02/29
Channel: Kasten Cola
How to Lay Sod in a Backyard
How to Lay Sod in a Backyard
Published: 2015/12/25
Channel: This Old House
S.O.D. - Free Dirty Needles
S.O.D. - Free Dirty Needles
Published: 2014/11/08
Channel: xrattleheadx
S.O.D. - Speak English Or Die
S.O.D. - Speak English Or Die
Published: 2017/06/28
Channel: Mad Mike
S.O.D. - Live at With Full Force Festival 1997 Full concert
S.O.D. - Live at With Full Force Festival 1997 Full concert
Published: 2014/05/24
Channel: Sepultura Community
Metal Allegiance - March Of The SOD-Sgt.D/Freddy Kreuger {Best Buy Theater NYC 9/17/15}
Metal Allegiance - March Of The SOD-Sgt.D/Freddy Kreuger {Best Buy Theater NYC 9/17/15}
Published: 2015/09/18
Channel: Paulieflix
Stormtroopers of Death - Sgt D and the SOD
Stormtroopers of Death - Sgt D and the SOD
Published: 2009/08/07
Channel: Blake Banks
มาทำความรู้จัก SOD เอนไซม์ คืออะไร  โดย นพ.สิทธวีร์ เกียรติชวนันต์
มาทำความรู้จัก SOD เอนไซม์ คืออะไร โดย นพ.สิทธวีร์ เกียรติชวนันต์
Published: 2017/08/30
Channel: แมค อธิวัฒน์ Tel.086-4542651
SOD - SOD 1971 (FULL ALBUM) [Jazz Rock, Funk Rock]
SOD - SOD 1971 (FULL ALBUM) [Jazz Rock, Funk Rock]
Published: 2015/05/03
Channel: Black Swan
S.O.D. - Shenanigans
S.O.D. - Shenanigans
Published: 2011/06/17
Channel: moskeado
Teflon Mula & SOD Bankroll - Set The Record Straight
Teflon Mula & SOD Bankroll - Set The Record Straight
Published: 2016/11/02
Channel: DAVID G
סוד המזלות I עוזיה צדוק Live I רדינג 2016 Sod Hamazalot I Uziya Tzadok
סוד המזלות I עוזיה צדוק Live I רדינג 2016 Sod Hamazalot I Uziya Tzadok
Published: 2017/04/19
Channel: uziya tzadok
S.O.D-United Forces
S.O.D-United Forces
Published: 2013/09/21
Channel: REKOJ DANGEROS
S.O.D-Speak English or Die-Full Album
S.O.D-Speak English or Die-Full Album
Published: 2016/07/23
Channel: Víctor Hugo Calderon Brizuela
How to Install Sod - MISTAKES - Things you Don
How to Install Sod - MISTAKES - Things you Don't know & How to do it right, Lawncare, Seeding, DIY
Published: 2017/09/15
Channel: Stanley "Dirt Monkey" Genadek
Let
Let's play (прохождение) по игре School of dragons (sod)/1 серия
Published: 2017/01/22
Channel: Marina Dragon
School of Dragons Missões #132 - A Ultima Missão do SOD - Escola de Dragões
School of Dragons Missões #132 - A Ultima Missão do SOD - Escola de Dragões
Published: 2017/08/07
Channel: Dawn of Games
Successmore S.O.D. สารต้านอนุมูลอิสระดีที่สุดในโลก คลิปเดียวจบ
Successmore S.O.D. สารต้านอนุมูลอิสระดีที่สุดในโลก คลิปเดียวจบ
Published: 2016/11/17
Channel: Successmore Online Marketing
S.O.D. - Kill Yourself (Live At Budokan)
S.O.D. - Kill Yourself (Live At Budokan)
Published: 2007/03/18
Channel: iamathrashmetaller
S.O.D. - Milk
S.O.D. - Milk
Published: 2014/03/29
Channel: TonyHawk'sSoundtracks
S.O.D. - Speak English or Die (LIVE) Billy Millano/Scott Ian.
S.O.D. - Speak English or Die (LIVE) Billy Millano/Scott Ian.
Published: 2017/04/06
Channel: Punk Lives
S.O.D. - Seasoning The Obese [Full Maxi Single CD 1999]
S.O.D. - Seasoning The Obese [Full Maxi Single CD 1999]
Published: 2014/07/14
Channel: Metal 'n' Core Mosh Pit
SoD - быстрое выращивание драконов
SoD - быстрое выращивание драконов
Published: 2016/03/09
Channel: Captain Foxico
Classen Sod Cutter
Classen Sod Cutter
Published: 2016/05/23
Channel: diy collaborative
S.O.D - Bigger Than the Devil (Full Album)
S.O.D - Bigger Than the Devil (Full Album)
Published: 2015/07/30
Channel: JustAMetalHead
SoD: Legends - The Dusk Lightning (Episode III)
SoD: Legends - The Dusk Lightning (Episode III)
Published: 2017/04/21
Channel: SilverWeed San
Georgian SOD Special Forces
Georgian SOD Special Forces
Published: 2007/11/12
Channel: ILDASM
ЧАСТЬ 6|SCHOOL OF DRAGONS|SOD|ОСТРОВ ПЕСНИ СМЕРТИ  :0
ЧАСТЬ 6|SCHOOL OF DRAGONS|SOD|ОСТРОВ ПЕСНИ СМЕРТИ :0
Published: 2016/09/24
Channel: Wild Horse.WH.
SOD คืออะไร กับ 10 คำถามข้อสงสัย โดยคุณชลลี่
SOD คืออะไร กับ 10 คำถามข้อสงสัย โดยคุณชลลี่
Published: 2017/07/29
Channel: รพีพัทธ์ SUCCESSMORE Tel 097-2464964
SUCCESSMORE BEING :S.O.D Story
SUCCESSMORE BEING :S.O.D Story
Published: 2016/11/12
Channel: SUCCESSMORE แรงบันดาลใจที่เปลี่ยนชีวิตคุณ
Suporting a Thai wife or girlfriend and her Family (sin-sod)
Suporting a Thai wife or girlfriend and her Family (sin-sod)
Published: 2017/04/11
Channel: notime2bsad
(Episode#62)"Sod Cutter Machine" & Pricing - Landscaping Employee Trap | VLOG
(Episode#62)"Sod Cutter Machine" & Pricing - Landscaping Employee Trap | VLOG
Published: 2017/07/17
Channel: Landscaping Employee Trap & Window Cleaning
Eevil (Mvda-Fvkin) Stö - S.O.D.
Eevil (Mvda-Fvkin) Stö - S.O.D.
Published: 2011/11/15
Channel: jiiteee
Ġorġ u Pawlu - Futur fis-Sod
Ġorġ u Pawlu - Futur fis-Sod
Published: 2013/03/04
Channel: TV HEMM
VENTRAC Sod Cutter EC240
VENTRAC Sod Cutter EC240
Published: 2011/11/07
Channel: Ventrac
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Rolled sod
Golf course turf
Harvesting sod
Harvesting sod
A typical roller mower operating on a sod grass farm
A typical roller mower operating on a sod grass farm.

Sod or turf is grass and the part of the soil beneath it held together by its roots or another piece of thin material.

In British English, such material is more usually known as turf, and the word "sod" is limited mainly to agricultural senses.

Uses[edit]

Sod is typically used for lawns, golf courses, and sports stadiums around the world. In residential construction, it is sold to landscapers, home builders or home owners who use it to establish a lawn quickly and avoid soil erosion. Sod can be used to repair a small area of lawn,[1] golf course, or athletic field that has died. Sod is also effective in increasing cooling, improving air and water quality, and assisting in flood prevention by draining water.[2]

Scandinavia has a long history of employing sod roofing and a traditional house type is the Icelandic turf house.

Following the passage of the Homestead Act by Congress in 1862, settlers in the Great Plains used sod bricks to build entire sod houses.[3] This was effective because the prairie sod of the Great Plains was so dense and difficult to cut it earned the nickname "Nebraska marble". Blacksmith John Deere made his fortune when he became the first to make a plow that could reliably cut the prairie sod.[4]

Cultivation[edit]

Sod is grown on specialist farms. For 2009, the United States Department of Agriculture reported 1,412 farms had 368,188 acres (149,000.4 ha) of sod in production.[5]

It is usually grown locally (within 100 miles of the target market)[6] to minimize both the cost of transport and also the risk of damage to the product. The farms that produce this grass may have many varieties of grass grown in one location to best suit the consumer's use and preference of appearance.

It is usually harvested 10 to 18 months after planting, depending on the growing climate. On the farm, it undergoes fertilization, frequent mowing, watering, and subsequent vacuuming to remove the clippings. It is harvested using specialized equipment, precision cut to standardized sizes. Sod is typically harvested in small square or rectangular slabs, or large 4-foot-wide (1.2 m) rolls.

Mississippi State University has developed a hydroponic method of cultivating sod. For the very few sod farms that export turf internationally, this soilless sod may travel both lighter and better than traditional sod. Additionally, since the sod is not grown in soil, it does not need to be washed clean of soil down to the bare roots (or sprigs), so time to export is shortened.[7]

Immediacy[edit]

In many applications, such as erosion control and athletic fields, immediacy is a key factor. Seed may be blown about by the wind, eaten by birds, or fail because of drought. It takes some weeks to form a visually appealing lawn and further time before it is robust enough for use. Turf largely avoids these problems, and with proper care, newly laid sod is usually fully functional within 30 days of installation and its root system is comparable to that of a seeding lawn two or three years older.[8] Sod reduces erosion by stabilizing the soil.[9]

Many prized cultivars (such as Bella Bluegrass) only reproduce vegetatively,[10] not sexually (via seed). Sod cultivation is the only means of producing additional plants. To grow these varieties for sale, turf farms use a technique called sprigging, where recently harvested sod mats are cut into slender rows and replanted in the field.

Cultivars used[edit]

Fescue Grass[edit]

Fescue grass is different from other blends because it stands up to hot weather well (while most cool season blends do not), and stands up to winter conditions (while most warm blends don’t). This grass type is a cool-season grass, which means it takes better to cooler weather, but don’t worry, it can tolerate the heat!. As long as you’re not living way up north, your fescue grass will withstand winter easily. Little to no winter maintenance is required for this grass, which is a huge plus  because no one wants to get out and do yard work in below freezing weather! Fescue grass can handle a lot of foot traffic without getting damaged, it is a very dense blend that is used popularly on sports fields[11]. This means it can totally stand up if you have children, dogs, or are planning on spending tons of time on your new grass. Not to mention, fescue grass is also weed resistant, this is due to the denseness of the grass. Fescue grass all around a great blend for those who are active in their yard or those who have families.

Bermuda Grass[edit]

Bermuda grass is quite commonly used for golf courses and sports fields across the southern portions of the United States. It tolerates a range of climates in the U.S., from hot and humid lagoons, inlets, and bays of the Gulf Coast, to the arid expanses of terrain like plains and deserts in the south and lower Midwest. "Established bermuda grass is a network of shoots, rhizomes, stolons, and crown tissue together that usually form a dense plant canopy. This dense plant canopy can be used to propagate clonal varieties by sod, sprigs, or plugs.[12] The aggressive and resilient nature of Bermuda grass makes it not only an excellent turfgrass but also, unfortunately, a challenging and invasive weed in land cultivated for other purposes. Its one noted weakness is its relatively low tolerance of shade. Given the economic importance of Bermuda grass (as a sod product, agricultural forage, and, at times, as an invasive weed), it has been the subject of numerous studies.

Celebration Bermuda Grass
"‘Celebration’ is a dark–green, fine–textured, aggressive, traffic–tolerant cultivar with high recuperative potential and drought tolerance."[13] The cultivar is a breed of Cynodon dactylon from Australia developed by turfgrass breeder Rod Riley.[14] The grass has a distinctive deep blue–green color which makes it popular on golf courses and for private home lawns throughout the southern United States. As a leading cultivar, the research on Celebration is extensive. Celebration was rated for the best shade tolerance by the United States Golf Association.[15] A researcher at the University of Florida report noted this cultivar's, "good wear tolerance, quality, and color ratings" in the Central Florida environment.[16] Celebration was the overall best–performing turfgrass in a 2–year drought resistance study commissioned by the San Antonio Water System and performed by Texas A & M extension service.[17] The cultivar was also the top–rated Bermuda grass for drought resistance in a test conducted in South Carolina.[18] Along with many golf courses across the southern United States, the Tampa Bay Buccaneers elected to install Celebration Bermuda grass in their stadium.[19]
Discovery Bermuda grass
Discovery is a Bermuda grass that has an exceptional dark blue-green color. It also has extremely slow vertical growth which means that it only needs to be mowed once a month. Discovery has the drought resistance of a Bermuda grass but does not need to be maintained as much as other varieties. It was developed in Europe. It was made available in the United States in 2011 by Sod Solutions which owns the right to market it in the United States.[20] It grows well in all of the southern United States.

Bluegrass[edit]

Bella Bluegrass
Bella Bluegrass was developed by the University of Nebraska as a drought–resistant grass that would help states conserve water. It was immediately embraced by schools and homeowners in the state of Utah who are voluntarily trying to conserve water.[21] Bella is the world’s first dwarf, vegetative Bluegrass. It is sold only as sod, not as seed. Bella is a quick grower laterally but has very minimal vertical growth. Because it only grows to about 4" in height, it requires less mowing. It grows in sand, clay, muck, and peat soils, and it is currently being adopted across the northern United States.[22]

St. Augustine grass[edit]

St. Augustine Grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum) (also known as Charleston grass in South Carolina and Buffalo Turf in Australia) is warm-season, perennial grass that is a widely used. A native grass of tropical origin that extends from marshes (salt & freshwater), lagoon fringes, and sandy beach ridges.

Saint Augustine lawns are a popular coarse, wide–bladed coarse lawn planted throughout many areas of the Southeastern United States This grass is found in Mexico, Australia, and in tropical parts of Africa. It is a warm-season grass that does not handle cold weather very well. The majority of this grass is planted in vegetative forms (such as plugs and sod), as seeds are not usually available due to production difficulties.

Captiva St. Augustine
Developed by the University of Florida in 2007,[23] Captiva is a chinch bug resistant St. Augustine cultivar. It has a lush, dark–green color with a dense canopy and a massive root system. Because it has a slow leaf–blade growth and lateral spread, the requirement for mowing is reduced. Captiva has a good–excellent shade tolerance and has excellent pest resistance which means there is less need to use pesticides.

Centipedegrass[edit]

Covington
Centipedegrass was introduced into the United States from southeastern Asia in 1916. It does well in the climate and soils of central and northern Florida and is the most common home lawn grass in the Florida Panhandle.[24] Covington is a proprietary cultivar of centipede grass from Sod Solutions that grows in the southeast United States, from the west half of Texas to all of Louisiana, most of Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia. It is the only uniformly green centipede grass on the market. It is a low-maintenance grass, which retains its color in the fall and greens quickly in the spring. This variety is currently being evaluated by the University of Florida.[24]
Santee
Santee grass is another new proprietary selection from Sod Solutions, which is also being evaluated by the University of Florida for adaptation to Florida use.[24]:

Natural turf communities[edit]

Low growing vegetation is referred to as 'turf communities' in areas where such growth is not common, as in moss-turf communities of sub Antarctica,[25] some epifauna in the sea,[26] coral reefs[27] and, in New Zealand, as species-rich communities of plants under 5 cm (2.0 in) tall, on coastal headlands, dune hollows, rivers and lakes,[28] where most of the natural cover was forest.[29] A form of turf community is a herbfield.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Use Sod For Quick Repair Of Damaged Lawns". Louisiana State University, Agricultural Center, Research and Extension. Retrieved December 2011.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  2. ^ "Why Sod is Good for the Planet". Sod Growers Council. Retrieved 14 June 2014. 
  3. ^ "Life in a Sod House". Smithsonian. Retrieved 17 March 2013. 
  4. ^ "The Tallgrass Prairie: An Endangered Landscape". CSA. Retrieved 20 March 2013. 
  5. ^ "Table 29. Sod, Sprigs, and Plugs Sold: 2009" (PDF). Us Dept. of Agriculture. Retrieved 17 March 2013. 
  6. ^ "Sod Production: From an Economic Standpoint". MU Plant Sciences, University of Missouri. Retrieved 20 March 2013. 
  7. ^ Ratliff, Bob. "MSU-Developed Sod" (PDF). Mississippi Landmarks Magazine, Volume 2 Number 4. Division of Agriculture, Forestry, and Veterinary Medicine at Mississippi State University. Retrieved 25 March 2013. 
  8. ^ "The High Cost of Instant Gratification; To Sod or to Seed?". Streamline Publications. Retrieved December 2011.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  9. ^ "Sod vs. Seed". Central Sod Farms, Inc. Retrieved December 2011.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  10. ^ Shearman; Robert C.; et al. "US Patent Application Poa pratensis L. named 'NE-KYB-05-001'". US Patent Office. Retrieved 27 March 2013. 
  11. ^ Home Page: Fescue distributor retrieved from http://bayareasodandseed.com/
  12. ^ "A Taxonomic Key for Selected Turf-Type Bermudagrasses" (PDF). Tarleton State University. Sam Houston State University. Retrieved 19 March 2013. 
  13. ^ "Bermudagrass" (PDF). University of Hawaii. Retrieved 19 March 2013. 
  14. ^ Sod Solutions announces death of turfgrass developer Rod Riley World Golf, December 5, 2008
  15. ^ "Turfgrass and Environmental Research Online" (PDF). USGA. Retrieved 20 March 2013. 
  16. ^ "Turf Grasses: The Quest for the Ideal Lawn Continues" (PDF). University of Florida. Retrieved 19 March 2013. 
  17. ^ "Evaluation of Sixty-Day Drought Survival in San Antonio of Established Turfgrass Species and Cultivars" (PDF). Texas A&M University. Retrieved 19 March 2013. 
  18. ^ "Response of Six Bermudagrass Cultivars to Different Irrigation Intervals" (PDF). Horttechnology. Retrieved 19 March 2013. 
  19. ^ Citrus Bowl getting new sod retrieved January 8, 2010
  20. ^ North Carolina Crop Improvement Association (NCCIA) Certified Sod
  21. ^ John Hollenhorst New variety of Kentucky Bluegrass could conserve water Deseret News, retrieved Sept 20, 2011
  22. ^ What’s New From What’s From Buff To Blue: Grasses For a Green Environment University of Nebraska –Lincoln, retrieved Jan 31, 2911
  23. ^ LE Trenholm and KevinKenworthy Captiva St. Augustine Grass University of Florida
  24. ^ a b c J. B. Unruh, L. E. Trenholm, and J. L. Cisar Centipedegrass for Florida Lawns
  25. ^ Usher, M. B. (1983). "Pattern in the Simple Moss-Turf Communities of the Sub-Antarctic and Maritime Antarctic". Journal of Ecology. 71 (3): 945–958. doi:10.2307/2259604. 
  26. ^ "European Red List of Habitats - Marine Habitat Group A4.13 Mixed faunal turf communities on high energy Atlantic upper circalittoral rock" (PDF). European Environment Information Network. 17 Aug 2015. 
  27. ^ Littler, Mark M.; Littler, Diane S. (2011). Hopley, David, ed. Encyclopedia of Modern Coral Reefs. Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series. Springer Netherlands. pp. 38–39. ISBN 9789048126385. doi:10.1007/978-90-481-2639-2_174. 
  28. ^ "Natural turfs of diverse tiny plants". www.openspace.org.nz. Retrieved 2017-11-03. 
  29. ^ Peter Johnson, Geoff Rogers (October 2003). "Ephemeral wetlands and their turfs in New Zealand SCIENCE FOR CONSERVATION 230" (PDF). Department of Conservation. 

External links[edit]

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