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Blac Youngsta "Tissue" (WSHH Exclusive - Official Music Video)
Blac Youngsta "Tissue" (WSHH Exclusive - Official Music Video)
Published: 2016/11/08
Channel: WORLDSTARHIPHOP
Understanding Soft Tissue Sarcoma
Understanding Soft Tissue Sarcoma
Published: 2016/10/19
Channel: You and Sarcoma
Soft Tissue Injuries
Soft Tissue Injuries
Published: 2016/09/30
Channel: pdhpe.net
Soft Tissue Release
Soft Tissue Release
Published: 2013/02/08
Channel: CoastalPhysiotherapy
Soft Tissue Lecture
Soft Tissue Lecture
Published: 2017/05/17
Channel: Impact Physical Therapy
Myofascial release techniques for the hamstring muscles using Soft Tissue Release (STR)
Myofascial release techniques for the hamstring muscles using Soft Tissue Release (STR)
Published: 2014/09/15
Channel: John Gibbons
Soft Tissue Found Inside a Dinosaur Bone!
Soft Tissue Found Inside a Dinosaur Bone!
Published: 2017/09/19
Channel: Stated Clearly
Chiropractic Adjustment and Soft Tissue Work on a Facebook Patient with Decreased Shoulder Mobility
Chiropractic Adjustment and Soft Tissue Work on a Facebook Patient with Decreased Shoulder Mobility
Published: 2016/08/10
Channel: Jtrain Media
Types of Soft Tissue Injuries
Types of Soft Tissue Injuries
Published: 2016/09/27
Channel: Melissa Tice
Shoulder Treatment (Rotator Cuff) using Myofascial Techniques - Soft Tissue Release (STR)
Shoulder Treatment (Rotator Cuff) using Myofascial Techniques - Soft Tissue Release (STR)
Published: 2014/09/14
Channel: John Gibbons
How Do We Grow Hard Bones From Soft Tissue?
How Do We Grow Hard Bones From Soft Tissue?
Published: 2016/05/10
Channel: BrainStuff - HowStuffWorks
Anatomy-soft tissue (practical)
Anatomy-soft tissue (practical)
Published: 2014/02/07
Channel: Karan Singh
EMT Soft Tissue Trauma
EMT Soft Tissue Trauma
Published: 2016/10/16
Channel: John Mendoza
SurvivalMedicine #15 -- Soft Tissue Infections
SurvivalMedicine #15 -- Soft Tissue Infections
Published: 2010/09/23
Channel: SurvivalMedicine
Dinosaur Soft Tissue Found
Dinosaur Soft Tissue Found
Published: 2014/06/16
Channel: My Internet Finds
Orthopedic Oncology and Pathology Course - Benign Soft Tissue Tumors (Lipoma, etc) - Lecture 9
Orthopedic Oncology and Pathology Course - Benign Soft Tissue Tumors (Lipoma, etc) - Lecture 9
Published: 2015/02/16
Channel: James C. Wittig, MD
SOFT TISSUE TUMORS
SOFT TISSUE TUMORS
Published: 2012/07/14
Channel: Hisham Farah
First Aid: Soft Tissue Injuries
First Aid: Soft Tissue Injuries
Published: 2012/01/20
Channel: ericasschoolprojects
Why would "Soft Tissue", be found in "Fossilised Dinosaurs?"
Why would "Soft Tissue", be found in "Fossilised Dinosaurs?" 'Dragons Explained?'
Published: 2017/08/18
Channel: Charles Kos
Soft Tissue Mobilization For Low Back Pain | Manu Kalia | Video 128 | TridoshaWellness
Soft Tissue Mobilization For Low Back Pain | Manu Kalia | Video 128 | TridoshaWellness
Published: 2013/11/26
Channel: Manu Kalia
Speed up soft tissue injury recovery
Speed up soft tissue injury recovery
Published: 2014/02/25
Channel: DrWheatgrass
Serious Side-Effects from Excess Calcium (Soft-Tissue Calcium) by Dr. Berg
Serious Side-Effects from Excess Calcium (Soft-Tissue Calcium) by Dr. Berg
Published: 2015/11/02
Channel: Dr. Eric Berg DC
Soft tissue in dino fossils- Nothing in science can allow this to be millions of years old
Soft tissue in dino fossils- Nothing in science can allow this to be millions of years old
Published: 2016/08/28
Channel: Providence
A LOST WORLD - Soft Tissue Exposes Evolution As A Religious Dogma of Science
A LOST WORLD - Soft Tissue Exposes Evolution As A Religious Dogma of Science
Published: 2017/09/26
Channel: jeranism
Dinosaur soft tissue with Brian Thomas
Dinosaur soft tissue with Brian Thomas
Published: 2015/10/13
Channel: Evidence Press
Creation Today Claims - Dinosaur Soft Tissue
Creation Today Claims - Dinosaur Soft Tissue
Published: 2016/12/27
Channel: Paulogia
Piriformis Static Manual Release (Soft Tissue Mobilization)
Piriformis Static Manual Release (Soft Tissue Mobilization)
Published: 2016/07/18
Channel: Brent Brookbush
Yale Authors Claim Soft Tissue Fossil Discovery is Valid
Yale Authors Claim Soft Tissue Fossil Discovery is Valid
Published: 2016/10/23
Channel: Mudfossil University
Active Release Techniques - Very Effective Treatment for Soft Tissue Injuries
Active Release Techniques - Very Effective Treatment for Soft Tissue Injuries
Published: 2012/01/11
Channel: Phil Lozano
Soft-Tissue Injuries
Soft-Tissue Injuries
Published: 2014/07/02
Channel: FVCC EMS Programs
4 Soft Tissue Ultrasound
4 Soft Tissue Ultrasound
Published: 2013/12/15
Channel: UltraSoundHD
WHY do soft tissue grafts FAIL?
WHY do soft tissue grafts FAIL?
Published: 2015/07/08
Channel: Ziv Simon
MET / soft tissue treatment for the neck muscles - trapezius and Levator Scapulae
MET / soft tissue treatment for the neck muscles - trapezius and Levator Scapulae
Published: 2016/12/20
Channel: John Gibbons
Ultrasound of Skin and Soft Tissue Infections
Ultrasound of Skin and Soft Tissue Infections
Published: 2014/02/06
Channel: Joseph Minardi
Dr Mark H Armitage Responds To Dr Hugh Ross on Soft Tissue in Dinosaur Bones
Dr Mark H Armitage Responds To Dr Hugh Ross on Soft Tissue in Dinosaur Bones
Published: 2015/05/12
Channel: 2 Timothy 2:15
Quadratus Lumborum Static Manual Release (Soft Tissue Mobilization)
Quadratus Lumborum Static Manual Release (Soft Tissue Mobilization)
Published: 2016/10/24
Channel: Brent Brookbush
Car accident soft tissue injuries
Car accident soft tissue injuries
Published: 2016/02/10
Channel: Dr Barry Marks, Chiropractor
Knee Attachment Soft Tissue Release | Knee Pain
Knee Attachment Soft Tissue Release | Knee Pain
Published: 2016/05/24
Channel: GuerrillaZen Fitness
Myofascial Release for the Achilles Tendon / Peroneals muscles - Soft Tissue Release (STR)
Myofascial Release for the Achilles Tendon / Peroneals muscles - Soft Tissue Release (STR)
Published: 2014/09/15
Channel: John Gibbons
EMT-SOFT TISSUE INJURIES 2.20.12
EMT-SOFT TISSUE INJURIES 2.20.12
Published: 2014/07/23
Channel: TC EMSP
Is Genesis History, Science? Part 7 - Dinosaur Soft Tissue (feat. Dr. Mary Schweitzer)
Is Genesis History, Science? Part 7 - Dinosaur Soft Tissue (feat. Dr. Mary Schweitzer)
Published: 2017/05/15
Channel: Paulogia
Dr. Mark H Armitage Destroys Dr. Fazale Rana on Soft Tissue in Dinosaur Bones
Dr. Mark H Armitage Destroys Dr. Fazale Rana on Soft Tissue in Dinosaur Bones
Published: 2016/07/20
Channel: 2 Timothy 2:15
scientific community attack and deny dinosaur soft tissue and blood vessels findings
scientific community attack and deny dinosaur soft tissue and blood vessels findings
Published: 2013/01/06
Channel: VesselAnaw
Carbon-14, DNA & Soft Tissue in Dinosaur Bone: Evidence for a Young Earth
Carbon-14, DNA & Soft Tissue in Dinosaur Bone: Evidence for a Young Earth
Published: 2017/10/21
Channel: Chris Carlascio
Cervical spine soft tissue techniques
Cervical spine soft tissue techniques
Published: 2010/02/20
Channel: tsudpt11
Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections
Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections
Published: 2016/12/06
Channel: Freeman Professional Development
How Creationism Taught Me Real Science 21 Dinosaur Soft Tissue
How Creationism Taught Me Real Science 21 Dinosaur Soft Tissue
Published: 2015/10/30
Channel: Tony Reed
SGH Rheum Rapid Review Series - Soft Tissue Rheumatism
SGH Rheum Rapid Review Series - Soft Tissue Rheumatism
Published: 2016/11/24
Channel: Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, SGH
Can Soft Tissue Last Millions of Years? | David Rives
Can Soft Tissue Last Millions of Years? | David Rives
Published: 2017/08/29
Channel: David Rives Ministries
Myofascial release techniques for the Rhomboids / thoracic spine using Soft Tissue Release (STR)
Myofascial release techniques for the Rhomboids / thoracic spine using Soft Tissue Release (STR)
Published: 2014/09/15
Channel: John Gibbons
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Micrograph of a piece of soft tissue (tendon). H&E stain.

In anatomy, soft tissue includes the tissues that connect, support, or surround other structures and organs of the body, not being hard tissue such as bone. Soft tissue includes tendons, ligaments, fascia, skin, fibrous tissues, fat, and synovial membranes (which are connective tissue), and muscles, nerves and blood vessels (which are not connective tissue).[1]

It is sometimes defined by what it is not. Soft tissue has been defined as "nonepithelial, extraskeletal mesenchyme exclusive of the reticuloendothelial system and glia".[2]

Composition[edit]

The characteristic substances inside the extracellular matrix of this kind of tissue are the collagen, elastin and ground substance. Normally the soft tissue is very hydrated because of the ground substance. The fibroblasts are the most common cell responsible for the production of soft tissues' fibers and ground substance. Variations of fibroblasts, like chondroblasts, may also produce these substances.[3]

Mechanical characteristics[edit]

At small strains, elastin confers stiffness to the tissue and stores most of the strain energy. The collagen fibers are comparatively inextensible and are usually loose (wavy, crimped). With increasing tissue deformation the collagen is gradually stretched in the direction of deformation. When taut, these fibers produce a strong growth in tissue stiffness. The composite behavior is analogous to a nylon stocking, whose rubber band does the role of elastin as the nylon does the role of collagen. In soft tissues the collagen limits the deformation and protects the tissues from injury.

Human soft tissue is highly deformable, and its mechanical properties vary significantly from one person to another. Impact testing results showed that the stiffness and the damping resistance of a test subject’s tissue are correlated with the mass, velocity, and size of the striking object. Such properties may be useful for forensics investigation when contusions were induced.[4] When solid object impact a human soft tissues, the energy of the impact will be absorbed by the tissues to reducing effect of the impact or the pain level, therefore; subjects with more soft tissue thickness tended to absorb the impacts with less aversion.[5]

Graph of lagrangian stress (T) versus stretch ratio (λ) of a preconditioned soft tissue.

Soft tissues have the potential to undergo big deformations and still come back to the initial configuration when unloaded, i.e. their stress-strain curve is nonlinear. The soft tissues are also viscoelastic, incompressible and usually anisotropic. Some viscoelastic properties observable in soft tissues are: relaxation, creep and hysteresis.[6][7] In order to describe the mechanical response of soft tissues, several methods have been used. These methods include: hyperelastic macroscopic models based on strain energy, mathematical fits where nonlinear constitutive equations are used, and structurally based models where the response of a linear elastic material is modified by its geometric characteristics.[8]

Pseudoelasticity[edit]

Even though soft tissues have viscoelastic properties, i.e. stress as function of strain rate, it can be approximated by a hyperelastic model after precondition to a load pattern. After some cycles of loading and unloading the material, the mechanical response becomes independent of strain rate.

Despite the independence of strain rate, preconditioned soft tissues still present hysteresis, so the mechanical response can be modeled as hyperelastic with different material constants at loading and unloading. By this method the elasticity theory is used to model an inelastic material. Fung has called this model as pseudoelastic to point out that the material is not truly elastic.[7]

Residual stress[edit]

In physiological state soft tissues usually present residual stress that may be released when the tissue is excised. Physiologists and histologists must be aware of this fact to avoid mistakes when analyzing excised tissues. This retraction usually causes a visual artifact.[7]

Fung-elastic material[edit]

Fung developed a constitutive equation for preconditioned soft tissues which is

with

quadratic forms of Green-Lagrange strains and , and material constants.[7] is the strain energy function per volume unit, which is the mechanical strain energy for a given temperature.

Isotropic simplification[edit]

The Fung-model, simplified with isotropic hypothesis (same mechanical properties in all directions). This written in respect of the principal stretches ():

,

where a, b and c are constants.

Simplification for small and big stretches[edit]

For small strains, the exponential term is very small, thus negligible.

On the other hand, the linear term is negligible when the analysis rely only on big strains.

Gent-elastic material[edit]

where is the shear modulus for infinitesimal strains and is a stiffening parameter, associated with limiting chain extensibility.[9] This constitutive model cannot be stretched in uni-axial tension beyond a maximal stretch , which is the positive root of

Remodeling and growth[edit]

Soft tissues have the potential to grow and remodel reacting to chemical and mechanical long term changes. The rate the fibroblasts produce tropocollagen is proportional to these stimuli. Diseases, injuries and changes in the level of mechanical load may induce remodeling. An example of this phenomenon is the thickening of farmer's hands. The remodeling of connective tissues is well known in bones by the Wolff's law (bone remodeling). Mechanobiology is the science that study the relation between stress and growth at cellular level.[6]

Growth and remodeling have a major role in the cause of some common soft tissue diseases, like arterial stenosis and aneurisms [10][11] and any soft tissue fibrosis. Other instance of tissue remodeling is the thickening of the cardiac muscle in response to the growth of blood pressure detected by the arterial wall.

Imaging techniques[edit]

There are certain issues that have to be kept in mind when choosing an imaging technique for visualizing soft tissue ECM components. The accuracy of the image analysis relies on the properties and the quality of the raw data and, therefore, the choice of the imaging technique must be based upon issues such as:

  1. Having an optimal resolution for the components of interest;
  2. Achieving high contrast of those components;
  3. Keeping the artifact count low;
  4. Having the option of volume data acquisition;
  5. Keeping the data volume low;
  6. Establishing an easy and reproducible setup for tissue analysis.

The collagen fibers are approximately 1-2 μm thick. Thus, the resolution of the imaging technique needs to be approximately 0.5 μm. Some techniques allow the direct acquisition of volume data while other need the slicing of the specimen. In both cases, the volume that is extracted must be able to follow the fiber bundles across the volume. High contrast makes segmentation easier, especially when color information is available. In addition, the need for fixation must also be addressed. It has been shown that soft tissue fixation in formalin causes shrinkage, altering the structure of the original tissue. Some typical values of contraction for different fixation are: formalin (5% - 10%), alcohol (10%), bouin (<5%).[12]

Imaging methods used in ECM visualization and their properties.[12][13]

Transmission Light

Confocal

Multi-Photon Excitation Fluorescence

Second Harmonic Generation

Optical Coherence Tomography

Resolution

0.25 μm

Axial: 0.25-0.5 μm

Lateral: 1 μm

Axial: 0.5 μm

Lateral: 1 μm

Axial: 0.5 μm

Lateral: 1 μm

Axial: 3-15 μm

Lateral: 1-15 μm

Contrast

Very High

Low

High

High

Moderate

Penetration

N/A

10 μm-300 μm

100-1000 μm

100-1000 μm

Up to 2–3 mm

Image stack cost

High

Low

Low

Low

Low

Fixation

Required

Required

Not required

Not required

Not required

Embedding

Required

Required

Not required

Not required

Not required

Staining

Required

Not required

Not required

Not required

Not required

Cost

Low

Moderate to high

High

High

Moderate

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Definition at National Cancer Institute
  2. ^ Skinner, Harry B. (2006). Current diagnosis & treatment in orthopedics. Stamford, Conn: Lange Medical Books/McGraw Hill. p. 346. ISBN 0-07-143833-5. 
  3. ^ Junqueira, L.C.U.; Carneiro, J.; Gratzl, M. (2005). Histologie. Heidelberg: Springer Medizin Verlag. p. 479. ISBN 3-540-21965-X. 
  4. ^ Amar, M., Alkhaledi, K., and Cochran, D., (2014). Estimation of mechanical properties of soft tissue subjected to dynamic impact. Journal of Eng. Research Vol. 2 (4), pp. 87-101
  5. ^ Alkhaledi, K., Cochran, D., Riley, M., Bashford, G., and Meyer, G. (2011). The psycophysical effects of physical impact to human soft tissue. ECCE '11 Proceedings of the 29th Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics Pages 269-270
  6. ^ a b Humphrey, Jay D. (2003). The Royal Society, ed. "Continuum biomechanics of soft biological tissues" (PDF). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A. 459 (2029): 3–46. Bibcode:2003RSPSA.459....3H. doi:10.1098/rspa.2002.1060. 
  7. ^ a b c d Fung, Y.-C. (1993). Biomechanics: Mechanical Properties of Living Tissues. New York: Springer-Verlag. p. 568. ISBN 0-387-97947-6. 
  8. ^ Sherman, Vincent R. (2015). "The materials science of collagen". Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials. 52: 22–50. doi:10.1016/j.jmbbm.2015.05.023. PMID 26144973. 
  9. ^ Gent, A. N. (1996). "A new constitutive relation for rubber". Rub. Chem. Tech. 69: 59–61. doi:10.5254/1.3538357. 
  10. ^ Humphrey, Jay D. (2008). Springer-Verlag, ed. "Vascular adaptation and mechanical homeostasis at tissue, cellular, and sub-cellular levels". Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics. 50 (2): 53–78. doi:10.1007/s12013-007-9002-3. PMID 18209957. 
  11. ^ Holzapfel, G.A.; Ogden, R.W. (2010). The Royal Society, ed. "Constitutive modelling of arteries". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A. 466 (2118): 1551–1597. Bibcode:2010RSPSA.466.1551H. doi:10.1098/rspa.2010.0058. 
  12. ^ a b Elbischger Pierre J; Bischof Horst; Holzapfel Gerhard A; Regitnig Peter (2005). "Computer vision analysis of collagen fiber bundles in the adventitia of human blood vessels". Studies in health technology and informatics. 113: 97–129. PMID 15923739.  Missing |last3= in Authors list (help); Missing |last5= in Authors list (help)
  13. ^ Georgakoudi Irene; Rice William L; Hronik-Tupaj Marie; Kaplan David L (2008). "Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging for the Noninvasive Evaluation of Engineered Tissues". Tissue Engineering Part B: Reviews. 

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