|This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2009)|
|Nickname(s): Siddeshwar Nagari|
|• Body||Greator Municipal corporation|
|• Mayor||ALKA RATHOD|
|Elevation||457 m (1,499 ft)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||MH-13 (Solapur city)
MH-45 (Solapur rural district)
|Sex ratio||52/48 ♂/♀|
Solapur ( pronunciation (help·info) is the largest city in southern Maharashtra, India and 6th-largest in Maharashtra, . It lies on the border of Maharashtra and Karnataka. It is 2 TIER city classified as B-1 by HRA classification. It is 30th-most-populous city in India and 43rd-largest urban agglomeration.
Solapur has speakers of Marathi, Kannada, Telugu and Urdu, with Marathi as the major language and others as submajor. Solapur is the fourth-largest district in Maharashtra in terms of land area, and seventh-largest in terms of population. The district shares its borders with the southern Indian state of Karnataka.
Solapur is well known for its textile industries, often referred as the "Manchester of India". Solapur chadars and towels are world-famous. It has been a leading center for cotton mills and power looms in India. Solapur had the world's second-largest and Asia's largest spinning mill.
The chief deity of the city is Shri Siddheshwar. The "Nandidhwaj" procession on Makar Sankranti is celebrated on 14 January. An annual fair locally known as 'Gadda yatra' attracts large crowds. Solapur municipal corporation extended its area up to 300 square kilometres (120 sq mi) by merging its suburbs.
'Solapur' is believed to be derived from two words: 'Sola' meaning "sixteen" and 'pur' meaning "village". The present city of Solapur was considered to be spread over sixteen villages viz. Aadilpur, Ahmedpur, Chapaldev, Fatehpur, Jamdarwadi, Kalajapur, Khadarpur, Khandervkiwadi, Muhammadpur, Ranapur, Sandalpur, Shaikpur, Solapur, Sonalagi, Sonapur and Vaidakwadi. However this is not justified by any historical researches.
After the arrest of M. K. Gandhi in May 1930, protests and demonstrations against British rule were held throughout India. Large-scale rallies and protests were also held at Solapur. Many citizens lost their lives in police shootings. Due to this, an irate mob attacked the police stations. Out of fear, the police and other officers ran out of Solapur. During this period the responsibility of law, order and security of citizens rested on the shoulders of the Congress Party leaders. Then city congress leader Tulsidas Jadhav along with other congressmen maintained law and order for a period of three days 9–11 May 1930. In February 2009 a statue of Shri Tulsidas Jadhav was erected at Mechanic Chowk to acknowledge his bravery act, at the hands of Shri Sharad Pawar.
The Solapur Municipal Council was the first municipal council of India to hoist the national flag on the Municipal Council building in 1930. The municipal co-operation building was built by Mallappa Warad. He was also one of the first ones to bring the farming tractor in India. It was his wish that the building should be used for some public purpose and thus the building was made the municipal council. The building is also called 'Indrabhavan' which means Adobe of Indra. Mallappa Warad was also one of the ten members of 'Chamber of Merchants' under Queen Victoria. Taking in consideration the contribution made by him, a life size statue was unveiled by the then union Minister of Power Mr. Sushilkumar Shinde. The various books, articles, ivory statues, guns etc. are still preserved in Mallappa Warad's home located in Mangalwar Peth in Solapur. He was also a very close associate of Lokmanya Tilak.
Taking the spirit of Dandi March from Mahatma Gandhi, the freedom fighters of Solapur decided to hoist the national flag on the Solapur Municipal Council building. Accordingly, senior freedom fighter from Pune Shri Annasaheb Bhopatkar hoisted the National Flag on 6 April 1930 on the Municipal Council building. This was the first and the unique incidence of such kind throughout the country. The British rulers were irritated and declared martial law at Solapur and arrested many leaders and innocent citizens on false and trumped-up charges. The freedom fighters Shri. Mallappa Dhanshetti, Shri. Kurban Hussain, Shri. Jagnnath Shinde and Shri. Kisan Sarda were arrested on charges of killing two policemen of Mangalwar police station. The lower court sentenced the accused freedom fighters to be hanged until dead. The High Court also confirmed the same decision, and these four freedom fighters were hanged till death on 12 January 1931. As a mark of respect to these freedom fighters, the statues of these freedom fighters have been installed in the heart of the city and the location has been named 'Hutatma Chowk'.
During the Indian independence movement, the people of Solapur enjoyed full freedom on 9–11 May 1930. However, this resulted in the executions of Mallappa Dhanshetti, Abdul Rasool Qurban Hussein, Jagannath Bhagwan Shinde and Shrikisan Laxminarayan Sarada, who were hanged on 12 January 1931, in the prison at Pune. This resulted in the city becoming recognised as "The City of Hutatmas".
Inscriptions of Shivayogi Shri. Siddheshwar of the time of the Kalachuris of Kalyani (Basavakalyan) suggest that the town was called "Sonnalage" which came to be pronounced as "Sonnalagi". A Sanskrit inscription dated Shake 1238, after the downfall of the Yadavas found at Kamati in Mohol shows that the town was known as Sonalipur. One of the inscriptions found in Solapur fort shows that the town was called Sonalpur, It was the main commercial hub of the Devagiri Yadavas and an important trading city.The town was known as Sonnalagi even up to the times of the Yadavas of Devagiri.
Solapur has a Marathi-speaking majority followed by Sub-major Kannada, Telugu. Its literacy is 85%, with 86% males and 80% females.
|Climate data for Solapur|
|Average high °C (°F)||30.9
|Average low °C (°F)||16.0
|Precipitation mm (inches)||2.2
Gulbarga district (Karnataka state) on the southeast and south; Bijapur District (Karnataka State), Sangli district on the south and southwest; Satara district on the west, and Pune district on the northwest. It is situated at a distance of 410 km (250 mi) from the Maharashtra State Capital of Mumbai by road and train.
Solapur falls under the category of dry (arid and semiarid) climate according to the Köppen climate classification. The city experiences three distinct seasons: summer, monsoon and winter. Typical summer months are from March to May, with maximum temperatures ranging from 30 to 40 °C (86 to 104 °F). The warmest months in Solapur are April and May. The typical maximum temperatures being 40 °C (104 °F) or more. The highest temperature ever recorded is 48 °C (118 °F) in April 1988. Although summer does not end until May or even the midst of June, the city often receives locally developed heavy thundershowers in May (although humidity remains high). The monsoon lasts from June to the end of September, with moderate rainfall. The city of Solapur receives an average rainfall of 545 mm (21.5 in) per year. Winter begins in November and lasts until the end of February, with the temperatures occasionally dropping below 10 °C (50 °F). Solapur lies very close to the seismically active zone around Killari (Dist. Latur), about 100 km (62 mi) east of the city.
The civic administration of the city is managed by the Solapur Municipal corporation, which was established on 1 May 1964 in the building constructed by Mallappa Warad in 1930. The corporation oversees the engineering works, health, sanitation, water supply, administration and taxation in the city. It is headed by a Mayor who is assisted by Municipal Commissioner and elected representatives. The city is divided into 125 wards and 6 zones. The corporation members also known as corporators are elected by the citizens of Solapur every five years. The corporators in turn elect the Mayor. Its activities include developing new layouts and roads, town-planning and land-acquisition. The electrical supply to the city is managed by the Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Company Limited.
The colleges and the institutes in Solapur were earlier affiliated to Shivaji University, prior to 2004 when Solapur University was established. The post-graduate study center of Shivaji University (Kolhapur) at Solapur was functioning with the three departments Polymer Chemistry, Applied Physics/ Electronics and Geology with the masters courses and M. Phil, PhD research in these areas. The center was located on the old campus of Dr. V. M. Government Medical College that was later on relocated to Police Golibar Maidan. The center was transformed to the university to serve the students of Solapur district and was formally inaugurated on 3 August 2004.
Solapur is home to 10 engineering, 2 medical colleges and 1 dental college; it also has another 40 colleges in the city extent.
Solapur is located on an important junction of the North–South railway line, a good base for its industries for logistical reasons, with approximately 98 medium and 8,986 smaller industries. As stated the Solapur district consists of medium and small scale industries, although Solapur is one of the leading centres for handlooms, power looms and cotton mills. Chaddars (Solapur bed sheets) have earned Solapur a reputation and fame for their durability and novel designs.
An important tourist destination is Siddeshwar Temple, the abode of Siddheshwar(Siddhrameshwara) built in the 16th century. It attracts 3.5 million pilgrims yearly. Solapur is also famous for its Markandeya Temple built in 1893, the Venkateshwara Temple built in 1970, and the Rupa Bhavani temple built in the 19th century, Shri Shankar Temple. Solapur has a Bhui fort in the center of its area.
Solapur has 3 radio channels; Big FM, Radio City and Solapur AM.Newspapers: Saakal, Lokmat, Punya Nagari, Keshari, Divya Marathi and by English daily papers from Pune (Times of India, Indian Express).
Ranji Cricket Tournaments are played on Indira Gandhi Stadium.
Solapur is one of the most-polluted cities in India, as many vehicles are run on diesel fuel. It also generates tremendous smog emitted by factories and sugar factories and heavy textiles industries in the city's suburb. Various efforts are being made by MNC to reduce pollution and environmental effects. The city has launched a GO-GREEN scheme by planting trees in the city and developing greenery.
Public transport in Solapur city is primarily provided by buses operated by Solapur Municipal Transport (SMT) and auto rickshaws.Most of the auto rickshaw driven at rail station are without public transport permit these are used as means of public transport by illegal means and are involved in illegal activities of cheating passengers.
Solapur railway station is the main hub within the city. The Solapur Railway Division is an important division connecting South India to Western & North west India. Trains from Ahmedabad, Jaipur, New Delhi, Mumbai, Pune etc., ply to Southern states (Telangana, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu & Kerala) via Solapur.
It is served daily by Solapur Banglore express, Solapur Nagpur, Solapur Pune Hutatma Express, Solapur Mumbai, Solapur Jaipur Superfast express and Solapur Goa Express.
Solapur is well-connected by road with major cities of Maharashtra as well as the adjoining State Capital of Hyderabad and important cities in Karnataka by four National Highways – NH 9 highway connecting Pune with Vijaywada via Hyderabad, NH-13 connecting Solapur to Mangalore, Karnataka and NH-211 connecting Solapur to Dhule. Ratnagiri-Nagpur National highway NH-204 passes through city, connecting Solapur to other important cities in Maharashtra like Nagpur, Sangli, Kolhapur and Nanded.Recently sanctioned National Highways- Solapur - Gulbarga and Ratnagiri-Solapur-Nagpur.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Sholapur.|