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Speaker Ryan discusses the state of politics
Speaker Ryan discusses the state of politics
Published: 2016/03/23
Channel: PBS NewsHour
The Speaker
The Speaker's seat - Why is there no election in Buckingham?
Published: 2017/05/16
Channel: Jay Foreman
BREAKING NEWS: Speaker Paul Ryan "Soul Searching" About Political Future. #PaulRyan #Breaking
BREAKING NEWS: Speaker Paul Ryan "Soul Searching" About Political Future. #PaulRyan #Breaking
Published: 2017/12/14
Channel: Almutaz Bur News Network
Speaker Paul Ryan speech on the State of American Politics (C-SPAN)
Speaker Paul Ryan speech on the State of American Politics (C-SPAN)
Published: 2016/03/23
Channel: C-SPAN
Panel Discuss Speaker Paul Ryan "SOUL SEARCHING" About Political Future. #Breaking #PaulRyan
Panel Discuss Speaker Paul Ryan "SOUL SEARCHING" About Political Future. #Breaking #PaulRyan
Published: 2017/12/14
Channel: Almutaz Bur News Network
CNN New Day 12/15/17: HOUSE SPEAKER PAUL RYAN DENIES HE
CNN New Day 12/15/17: HOUSE SPEAKER PAUL RYAN DENIES HE'S LEAVING CONGRESS
Published: 2017/12/15
Channel: Jey Hana
Stir in the domestic politics on the statement of the speaker National Assembly
Stir in the domestic politics on the statement of the speaker National Assembly
Published: 2017/12/15
Channel: NewsOne Breaking
BREAKING NEWS 12/15/17: SPEAKER RYAN SOUL SEARCHING ABOUT POLITICAL FUTURE
BREAKING NEWS 12/15/17: SPEAKER RYAN SOUL SEARCHING ABOUT POLITICAL FUTURE
Published: 2017/12/15
Channel: Jey Hana
UKIP Nigel Farage taking on the Speaker - politics show March 2010
UKIP Nigel Farage taking on the Speaker - politics show March 2010
Published: 2010/03/14
Channel: voteleavemedia
John Bercow (Speaker) -Thug Life Compilation
John Bercow (Speaker) -Thug Life Compilation
Published: 2016/01/31
Channel: Pink Potato
WATCH: Speaker of the House Paul Ryan holds weekly news briefing
WATCH: Speaker of the House Paul Ryan holds weekly news briefing
Published: 2017/12/14
Channel: PBS NewsHour
Migori politics: Speaker election nullified
Migori politics: Speaker election nullified
Published: 2017/09/06
Channel: KTN News Kenya
Sarah McBride, first transgender speaker at major political convention, addresses DNC 2016
Sarah McBride, first transgender speaker at major political convention, addresses DNC 2016
Published: 2016/07/28
Channel: PBS NewsHour
YSRCP Ambati Rambabu Slams Assembly Speaker Kodela | Ap Politics | Cinema Politics
YSRCP Ambati Rambabu Slams Assembly Speaker Kodela | Ap Politics | Cinema Politics
Published: 2017/07/19
Channel: Cinema Politics
BREAK|NG: Speaker Paul Ryan Stepping Aside as His Dirt Surfaces
BREAK|NG: Speaker Paul Ryan Stepping Aside as His Dirt Surfaces
Published: 2017/12/14
Channel: Operation HAL
House Speaker Paul Ryan: Democrats ‘Disgraceful’ for Playing Politics With Debt Ceiling | NBC News
House Speaker Paul Ryan: Democrats ‘Disgraceful’ for Playing Politics With Debt Ceiling | NBC News
Published: 2017/09/06
Channel: NBC News
Speaker Kadaga blames government and MPs for focusing on politics and ignoring social issues
Speaker Kadaga blames government and MPs for focusing on politics and ignoring social issues
Published: 2017/11/15
Channel: NTVUganda
Speaker position sparks political stand-off
Speaker position sparks political stand-off
Published: 2010/09/21
Channel: ABC News (Australia)
Special Focus on Who is the Best Speaker in Politics | HMTV Special
Special Focus on Who is the Best Speaker in Politics | HMTV Special
Published: 2017/04/23
Channel: hmtv News
The Speech that Made Obama President
The Speech that Made Obama President
Published: 2012/08/31
Channel: THNKR
A Fall From Grace for the Former Speaker of the House
A Fall From Grace for the Former Speaker of the House
Published: 2016/04/28
Channel: ABC News
AP Speaker Ki Warning Echinna Roja || POlitical eye
AP Speaker Ki Warning Echinna Roja || POlitical eye
Published: 2017/07/18
Channel: Political Eye
Tamil Nadu Politics Heats Up | Speaker Dhanapal Disqualifies 18 MLAs Supporting Dinakaran | ABN
Tamil Nadu Politics Heats Up | Speaker Dhanapal Disqualifies 18 MLAs Supporting Dinakaran | ABN
Published: 2017/09/18
Channel: ABN Telugu
Best speaker in the world
Best speaker in the world
Published: 2011/06/17
Channel: saffronworrior
The Speaker Owns The House !
The Speaker Owns The House !
Published: 2016/04/06
Channel: UK Political Humour
The 7 secrets of the greatest speakers in history | Richard Greene | TEDxOrangeCoast
The 7 secrets of the greatest speakers in history | Richard Greene | TEDxOrangeCoast
Published: 2014/11/05
Channel: TEDx Talks
Trading politics for freedom? Catalonia
Trading politics for freedom? Catalonia's ousted Parliament Speaker released on bail
Published: 2017/11/10
Channel: euronews (in English)
House Speaker Michael Madigan describes "historic" impasse
House Speaker Michael Madigan describes "historic" impasse
Published: 2015/07/28
Channel: Reboot Illinois
Speaker Joe Straus discusses SB6, the Texas "Bathroom Bill"
Speaker Joe Straus discusses SB6, the Texas "Bathroom Bill"
Published: 2017/03/24
Channel: TexasPoliticsProject
Speaker Kadaga
Speaker Kadaga's growing political gravitas
Published: 2013/09/05
Channel: NTVUganda
Tamil Nadu Politics | Speaker P Dhanapal Sacks 18 Dinakaran MLAs | V6 News
Tamil Nadu Politics | Speaker P Dhanapal Sacks 18 Dinakaran MLAs | V6 News
Published: 2017/09/19
Channel: V6 News Telugu
Slipper named as Speaker
Slipper named as Speaker
Published: 2011/11/27
Channel: ABC News (Australia)
Justice Malala - Speaker: South African Political Analyst
Justice Malala - Speaker: South African Political Analyst
Published: 2015/04/01
Channel: Unique Speaker Bureau Business Channel
House Speaker Paul Ryan Weekly Briefing 12/14/17
House Speaker Paul Ryan Weekly Briefing 12/14/17
Published: 2017/12/14
Channel: Media Buzz
Galloway and Israeli Speaker - Political PR or Stunning Racism??
Galloway and Israeli Speaker - Political PR or Stunning Racism??
Published: 2013/02/22
Channel: Charles Veitch
House of Commons - new deputy speaker - silence!
House of Commons - new deputy speaker - silence!
Published: 2013/12/21
Channel: Oban277
TribLive: New State Reps. on Speaker Politics
TribLive: New State Reps. on Speaker Politics
Published: 2012/10/11
Channel: The Texas Tribune
Speaker shuts down Gillard
Speaker shuts down Gillard
Published: 2012/03/04
Channel: ABC News (Australia)
Beatrice Elachi makes a political comeback after being elected speaker of Nairobi County
Beatrice Elachi makes a political comeback after being elected speaker of Nairobi County
Published: 2017/09/06
Channel: KTN News Kenya
What Does The Speaker Of The House Do?
What Does The Speaker Of The House Do?
Published: 2015/10/15
Channel: NowThis World
advocate question to speaker|tamilnadu political news|live news tamil
advocate question to speaker|tamilnadu political news|live news tamil
Published: 2017/10/16
Channel: Masala Galatta
Speaker Muturi throws out MP John Mbadi
Speaker Muturi throws out MP John Mbadi
Published: 2017/12/14
Channel: Kenya CitizenTV
YCP Jagan Hired Paid Artists To Speak? | Speaker Missing| YCP Politics | AP News | Challenge Mantra
YCP Jagan Hired Paid Artists To Speak? | Speaker Missing| YCP Politics | AP News | Challenge Mantra
Published: 2017/09/28
Channel: Challenge Mantra
Andrew Scheer is declared Speaker of the House of Commons - June 2, 2011
Andrew Scheer is declared Speaker of the House of Commons - June 2, 2011
Published: 2011/06/02
Channel: AndrewScheerMP
Panel on Speaker Paul Ryan Roasts Donald Trump at annual Political Dinner. #PaulRyan
Panel on Speaker Paul Ryan Roasts Donald Trump at annual Political Dinner. #PaulRyan
Published: 2017/10/20
Channel: Almutaz Bur News Network
Loksabha Speaker Sumitra Mahajan Splits Into Laughter | Mulayam Singh Yadav Fun Moment | Mango News
Loksabha Speaker Sumitra Mahajan Splits Into Laughter | Mulayam Singh Yadav Fun Moment | Mango News
Published: 2016/08/09
Channel: Mango News
Gov. Christie: Unlike Speaker Prieto, I Will Not Play Political Games At The Expense Of Taxpayers
Gov. Christie: Unlike Speaker Prieto, I Will Not Play Political Games At The Expense Of Taxpayers
Published: 2016/03/24
Channel: GovChristie
Jenkins announces shock resignation as Speaker
Jenkins announces shock resignation as Speaker
Published: 2011/11/24
Channel: ABC News (Australia)
National Assembly Speaker talks Korean politics
National Assembly Speaker talks Korean politics
Published: 2014/08/14
Channel: ARIRANG NEWS
Speaker Justin Muturi suspends motion on appointments to PSC after protests
Speaker Justin Muturi suspends motion on appointments to PSC after protests
Published: 2017/12/14
Channel: K24TV
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Marshal's chair in the Sejm, lower chamber of the Polish Parliament

The speaker of a deliberative assembly, especially a legislative body, is its presiding officer, or the chair. The title was first used in 1399 in England.

Usage[edit]

The speaker's official role is to moderate debate, make rulings on procedure, announce the results of votes, and the like. The speaker decides who may speak and has the powers to discipline members who break the procedures of the chamber or house.[1] The speaker often also represents the body in person, as the voice of the body in ceremonial and some other situations. The title was first recorded in 1377 to describe the role of Thomas de Hungerford in the Parliament of England.[2][3]

By convention, speakers are normally addressed in Parliament as 'Mister Speaker', if a man, or 'Madam Speaker', if a woman. In other cultures other styles are used, mainly being equivalents of English "chairman" or "president". Many bodies also have a speaker pro tempore (or deputy speaker), designated to fill in when the speaker is not available.

Australia[edit]

The Speaker of the Australian House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the Australian House of Representatives, the lower house of the Parliament of Australia. The President of the Australian Senate is the presiding officer of the Australian Senate, the upper house of the Parliament of Australia.

Italy[edit]

Italian parliamentarism is centered on the Presidents of the two Houses, vested in defense of the members and of the assembly as a whole;[4] so "the Speaker invites the representative of the Government not to deviate from the rules of parliamentary behavior".[5] Now constitutional community highlights changes also in this role.[6]

Canada[edit]

In Canada, the Speaker of the House of Commons is the individual elected to preside over the House of Commons, the elected lower house. The speaker is a Member of Parliament (MP) and is elected at the beginning of each new parliament by fellow MPs. The Speaker's role in presiding over Canada's House of Commons is similar to that of speakers elsewhere in other countries that use the Westminster system. The Speaker does not vote except in the case of a tie. By convention, if required to vote, the Speaker will vote in favour of continuing debate on a matter, but will not ultimately vote for a measure to be approved.

The Speaker of the Senate of Canada is the presiding officer of the Senate of Canada, the appointed upper house. The Speaker represents the Senate at official functions, rules on questions of parliamentary procedure and parliamentary privilege, and presides over debates and voting in the "Red Chamber". The Speaker of the Senate is appointed by the Governor General of Canada from amongst sitting senators upon the advice of the Prime Minister. The Speaker has a vote on all matters. In the event of a tie, the matter fails.

At the provincial level, the presiding officer of the provincial legidslatures is called the "Speaker" in all provinces except Quebec, where the term "President" is used. The presiding officer fulfills the same role as the Speaker of the House of Commons.

Singapore[edit]

In Singapore, the Speaker of the Parliament of Singapore is the head officer of the country's legislature. By recent tradition, the Prime Minister nominates a person, who may or may not be an elected Member of Parliament (MP), for the role. The person's name is then proposed and seconded by the MPs, before being elected as Speaker.[7] The Constitution states that Parliament has the freedom to decide how to elect its Speaker.[8]

While the Speaker does not have to be an elected MP, they must possess the qualifications to stand for election as an MP as provided for in the Constitution.[9] The Speaker also cannot be a Cabinet Minister or Parliamentary Secretary[10], and must resign from those positions prior to being elected as Speaker.

The Speaker is one of the few public sector roles which allow its office-holder to automatically qualify as a candidate in the Singapore presidential elections.[11]

United Kingdom[edit]

In the United Kingdom, the Speaker of the House of Commons is the individual elected to preside over the elected House of Commons. The speaker is a Member of Parliament (MP) and is elected at the beginning of each new parliament by fellow MPs.

The Lord Speaker is the presiding officer of the House of Lords. The commonly used "Speaker of the House of Lords" is not correct. The presiding officer of the House of Lords was until recently the Lord Chancellor, who was also a member of the government (a cabinet member) and the head of the judicial branch. The Lord Chancellor did not have the same authority to discipline members of the Lords that the speaker of the Commons has in that house. The Lord Speaker is elected by the members of the House of Lords and is expected to be politically impartial.

United States[edit]

Federal[edit]

The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives presides over the lower house of Congress, the House of Representatives. This post is second in line to the presidency—after the vice president—and is therefore the third highest-ranking national office overall. In practice, this post is the highest-ranking in Congress, because the president of the US Senate is the vice president, who has his/her office, and predominant responsibilities, at the White House, and therefore does not have a day-to-day presence at the Congress.

States[edit]

In the forty-nine states that have a bicameral legislature, the highest position in the lower house is usually called the "speaker". In Nebraska—the only state with a unicameral legislature—the senators elect one senator to serve as "Speaker of the Nebraska Legislature". In Tennessee, the senators elect a "Speaker of the Senate" who presides over the Tennessee Senate and serves as lieutenant governor.

Similar posts[edit]

Palace of the Croatian parliament

The presiding officer for an upper house of a bicameral legislature usually has a different title, although substantially the same duties.

When the upper house is called a senate, the equivalent title is often President of the Senate. Australia, Chile, the United States and many other countries have upper houses with presiding officers titled "president". In several American republics, the vice president of the country serves as the president of the upper house.

This pattern is not universal, however. Some upper houses, including those of Canada, have a speaker.

The Presiding Officer of the National Assembly for Wales, Presiding Officer of the Scottish Parliament, and Presiding Officer of the Northern Ireland Assembly fulfill the same role as the speaker.

List of current speakers[edit]

Country Legislature (or legislative chamber) Title Incumbent
Albania Parliament of Albania Speaker Ilir Meta
Armenia National Assembly of Armenia Speaker Hovik Abrahamyan
Australia Australian House of Representatives Speaker Tony Smith
Austria National Council President of the National Council Doris Bures
Bangladesh Jatiya Sangsad Speaker Shirin Sharmin Chaudhury[12]
Belgium
 »Parliament of Belgium Chamber of Representatives of Belgium President (Voorzitter/Président/Präsident) Siegfried Bracke (N-VA)
 »Parliament of Belgium Senate of Belgium President (Voorzitter/Président/Präsident) Christine Defraigne (MR)
 »Brussels-Capital Region Parliament of the Brussels-Capital Region President (Président/Voorzitter) Charles Piqué (PS)
 »Flanders (Community and Region) Flemish Parliament President (Voorzitter) Jan Peumans (N-VA)
 »French Community Parliament of the French Community President (Président) Philippe Courard (PS)
 »German-speaking Community Parliament of the German-speaking Community President (Präsident) Karl-Heinz Lambertz (SP)
 »Wallonia Parliament of Wallonia President (Président/Präsident) André Antoine (politician) (cdH)
Botswana National Assembly of Botswana Speaker Gladys Kokorwe
Bulgaria National Assembly of Bulgaria Chairperson Tsetska Tsacheva
Cambodia National Assembly of Cambodia President Heng Samrin
Canada
 »Parliament of Canada Senate of Canada Speaker (Président) George Furey
 »Parliament of Canada House of Commons of Canada Speaker (Président) Geoff Regan
China
 »National People's Congress Standing Committee of the National People's Congress Chairman Zhang Dejiang
 »Hong Kong Legislative Council of Hong Kong President Andrew Leung
 »Macau Legislative Assembly of Macau President (presidente) Ho Iat Seng
Croatia Croatian Parliament (Sabor) President Željko Reiner
Czech Republic
 » Parliament of the Czech Republic Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament of the Czech Republic Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament of the Czech Republic Radek Vondráček
 » Parliament of the Czech Republic Senate of the Parliament of the Czech Republic Speaker of the Senate of the Czech Republic Milan Štěch
Denmark Parliament of Denmark (Folketinget) Speaker Pia Kjærsgaard
 » Faroe Islands Parliament of the Faroe Islands (Løgtingið) Speaker Páll á Reynatúgvu
 » Greenland Parliament of Greenland (Inatsisartut) Speaker Lars Emil Johansen
Egypt House of Representatives (Egypt) Speaker Ali Abdel Aal
Estonia Riigikogu Speaker Eiki Nestor
Finland Parliament of Finland (eduskunta/riksdagen) Speaker Maria Lohela
France National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) President Claude Bartolone
Ghana Parliament of Ghana Speaker Mrs. Justice Joyce Adeline Bamford-Addo
Germany Bundestag President of the Bundestag (Bundestagspräsident) Wolfgang Schäuble
Greece Vouli President Nikos Voutsis
Hungary National Assembly of Hungary (Magyar Köztársaság Országgyűlése) President (elnöke) László Kövér
Iceland Parliament of Iceland Speaker Steingrímur J. Sigfússon
India Lok Sabha Speaker Sumitra Mahajan
Indonesia People's Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat) Chairman Ade Komaruddin
Ireland Dáil Éireann Head of the Council (Ceann Comhairle) Seán Ó Fearghaíl
Iran Majlis of Iran Speaker/Chairman [رئیس] Ali Larijani
Israel Knesset Speaker/Chairman [יושב-ראש] Yuli-Yoel Edelstein
Italy Italian Chamber of Deputies President Laura Boldrini
Japan
 »National Diet House of Representatives Speaker Tadamori Oshima
 »National Diet House of Councillors Speaker Chuichi Date
Kenya
 »Parliament of Kenya Senate of Kenya Speaker Kenneth Lusaka
 »Parliament of Kenya National Assembly of Kenya Speaker Justin Muturi
Kosovo Assembly of Kosovo Chairman Jakup Krasniqi
Latvia Saeima Speaker Ināra Mūrniece
Lebanon Parliament of Lebanon Speaker Nabih Berri
Liechtenstein Landtag of Liechtenstein President Albert Frick
Lithuania Seimas Speaker Loreta Graužinienė
Libya Council of Deputies President Aguila Saleh Issa
Macedonia Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia Speaker Talat Xhaferi
Malaysia House of Representatives of Malaysia (Dewan Rakyat) Speaker Tan Sri Pandikar Amin Mulia
Malta House of Representatives of Malta Speaker Angelo Farrugia
Mexico Chamber of Deputies (Cámara de Diputados) President Ruth Zavaleta Salgado
Moldova Parliament President Marian Lupu
Montenegro Assembly of Montenegro President Ranko Krivokapić
Nepal Parliament of Nepal Speaker Onsari Gharti Magar
Netherlands House of Representatives of the Netherlands Speaker Khadija Arib
New Zealand House of Representatives Speaker David Carter
Nigeria National Assembly of Nigeria Speaker Yakubu Dogara
Norway Stortinget President of the Storting (Stortingspresident) Olemic Thommessen
North Korea Supreme People's Assembly Chairman of the Presidium Kim Yong-nam
Pakistan National Assembly of Pakistan Speaker Sardar Ayaz Sadiq
Paraguay Chamber of Senators of Paraguay President Mario Abdo Benítez
Philippines House of Representatives of the Philippines Speaker Pantaleon Alvarez
Poland Sejm of the Republic of Poland Marshal Marek Kuchciński
Portugal Assembly of the Republic President Eduardo Ferro Rodrigues
Romania Chamber of Deputies of Romania President Liviu Dragnea
Russia State Duma Chairman Vyacheslav Volodin
Serbia National Assembly of Serbia President Maja Gojković
Singapore Parliament of Singapore Speaker Tan Chuan-Jin
Slovakia National Council of the Slovak Republic Speaker Andrej Danko
Solomon Islands National Parliament of Solomon Islands Speaker Sir Peter Kenilorea
South Africa National Assembly of South Africa Speaker Baleka Mbete
South Korea National Assembly of South Korea Speaker Chung Sye-kyun
South Sudan National Legislative Assembly of South Sudan Speaker James Wani Igga
Spain
 »Cortes Generales
(Spanish parliament)
Congress of the Deputies President Ana Pastor
 »Cortes Generales
(Spanish parliament)
Spanish Senate President Pío García-Escudero
Sri Lanka Parliament of Sri Lanka Speaker Karu Jayasuriya
Suriname National Assembly of Suriname (De Nationale Assemblee) Chairman Jennifer Simons
Sweden Riksdag Speaker Urban Ahlin
Switzerland National Council President Jürg Stahl
Taiwan Legislative Yuan President Su Jia-chyuan
Thailand House of Representatives of Thailand President Somsak Kiatsuranont
Tonga Legislative Assembly of Tonga Speaker Sialeʻataongo Tuʻivakanō
Ukraine Verkhovna Rada Chairman Andriy Parubiy
United Kingdom
 »Parliament of the United Kingdom House of Lords of the United Kingdom Lord Speaker Norman Fowler
 »Parliament of the United Kingdom House of Commons of the United Kingdom Speaker John Bercow
 » Isle of Man House of Keys Speaker Steve Rodan
 » Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Assembly Speaker Robin Newton
 » Scotland Scottish Parliament Presiding Officer Ken Macintosh
 » Wales National Assembly for Wales Presiding Officer Rosemary Butler
United States United States House of Representatives Speaker Paul Ryan
Uruguay Chamber of Deputies of Uruguay President Ivonne Passada
Vanuatu Parliament of Vanuatu Speaker George Andre Wells[13]
Venezuela National Assembly President Henry Ramos Allup
Vietnam National Assembly of Vietnam Chairman Nguyễn Sinh Hùng
Zimbabwe House of Assembly of Zimbabwe Speaker Jacob Mudenda

See also[edit]

Generic
Specific

References[edit]

  1. ^ As in case of disorders in the floor: Italian traditions knew cases of extreme contestation, not much different from tumults stigmatized in Ukrainian parliaments, Taiwanese and South Korean: Buonomo, Giampiero (2014). "I tre giorni della supercazzola". L’Ago e il filo edizione online.   – via Questia (subscription required)
  2. ^ Journal of the House of Commons: January 1559; 1559; accessed August 2015
  3. ^ Lee Vol 28, pp. 257,258.
  4. ^ Mancini and Galeotti believed that "in the enclosure of the House the exercise of presidential power should not be limits or obstacles whatsoever" (Mancini-Galeotti, Norme ed usi del Parlamento italiano, Roma, 1887, pag. 97).
  5. ^ (in Spanish) Sanciones disciplinarias y policía interna en el ordenamiento parlamentario italiano ‘’AA.VV., Derecho parlamentario sancionador’’, Eusko Legebiltazarra, Parlamento Vasco ed., 2005p. 236-271
  6. ^ F. Bilancia, L’imparzialità perduta (a proposito dei Presidenti di Assemblea parlamentare), in Aa.Vv., Studi in onore di Gianni Ferrara, vol. I, Giappichelli, Torino 2005, pp. 311 ss..
  7. ^ Lee, Min Kok (8 January 2016). "Halimah Yacob to be renominated as Speaker of Parliament: 7 things you may not know about the post". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 7 August 2017. Retrieved 7 August 2017. 
  8. ^ Constitution of the Republic of Singapore, Art. 40(2).
  9. ^ "Speaker of Parliament". Parliament of Singapore. Archived from the original on 7 August 2017. Retrieved 7 August 2017. 
  10. ^ Constitution of the Republic of Singapore, Art. 40(2).
  11. ^ Constitution of the Republic of Singapore, Art. 19(3)(a).
  12. ^ "Shirin to become first woman Speaker". bdnews24.com. 29 April 2013. Retrieved 29 April 2013. 
  13. ^ "01 September confirmed as date for Vanuatu Presidential Election". Islands Business. 2009-09-02. Retrieved 2009-08-20. 

Further reading[edit]

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