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1
U.S. spy satellite launched into space
U.S. spy satellite launched into space
::2013/08/28::
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2
CIA Corona Satellites - Spy Satellites - documentary
CIA Corona Satellites - Spy Satellites - documentary
::2012/12/09::
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3
Israeli Reconnaissance Satellite Launched
Israeli Reconnaissance Satellite Launched
::2008/02/03::
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4
Reconnaissance-satellite Definition
Reconnaissance-satellite Definition
::2014/07/29::
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5
First Spy Satellites: "Corona Project Overview" 1995 National Reconnaissance Office
First Spy Satellites: "Corona Project Overview" 1995 National Reconnaissance Office
::2011/12/30::
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6
A Point in Time: The Corona Story - 1960
A Point in Time: The Corona Story - 1960's CIA Spy Satellite Educational Documentary - WDTVLIVE42
::2012/10/09::
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7
Development of CORONA, The World
Development of CORONA, The World's First Reconnaissance Satellite
::2012/12/13::
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8
Delta IV Heavy blasts off with NROL-65 reconnaissance satellite
Delta IV Heavy blasts off with NROL-65 reconnaissance satellite
::2013/08/28::
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9
Defunct Soviet Recon Satellite may hit Earth?
Defunct Soviet Recon Satellite may hit Earth?
::2014/02/15::
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10
NROL-65 reconnaissance satellite launch
NROL-65 reconnaissance satellite launch
::2013/09/15::
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11
Launch of Ofeq 9 - Israeli reconnaissance satellite
Launch of Ofeq 9 - Israeli reconnaissance satellite
::2010/06/23::
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12
US Launches World
US Launches World's Largest Spy Satellite
::2010/11/23::
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13
israeli tecsar reconnaissance satellite launched
israeli tecsar reconnaissance satellite launched
::2008/01/23::
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14
[Atlas V 401] rocket launches NROL-38 Reconnaissance Satellite for NRO
[Atlas V 401] rocket launches NROL-38 Reconnaissance Satellite for NRO
::2013/07/13::
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15
Satellite Reconnaissance: Secret Eyes in Space
Satellite Reconnaissance: Secret Eyes in Space
::2011/04/03::
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16
Just Declassified: Spy Satellite KH-9 Hexagon
Just Declassified: Spy Satellite KH-9 Hexagon
::2011/09/19::
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17
Corona KH-1 Spy Satellite "Discoverer 5" Launch 1959-08-13 Vandenberg AFB Thor-Agena
Corona KH-1 Spy Satellite "Discoverer 5" Launch 1959-08-13 Vandenberg AFB Thor-Agena
::2011/11/18::
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18
Reconnaissance satellites now on display!
Reconnaissance satellites now on display!
::2012/02/29::
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19
India-Israel Space Collaboration: TecSAR Satellite
India-Israel Space Collaboration: TecSAR Satellite
::2013/05/17::
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20
US just launched secret next-gen spy satellite
US just launched secret next-gen spy satellite
::2014/04/16::
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21
HEXAGON - Sentinel Of Liberty
HEXAGON - Sentinel Of Liberty
::2012/02/01::
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22
Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Fourth Anniversary
Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Fourth Anniversary
::2013/06/24::
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23
Spy in the Sky - The KH-9 Hexagon
Spy in the Sky - The KH-9 Hexagon
::2014/05/30::
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24
Just Declassified: Spy Satellite Gambit
Just Declassified: Spy Satellite Gambit
::2011/09/20::
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February 28th, Discoverer Spy Satellite
February 28th, Discoverer Spy Satellite
::2012/02/28::
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26
US Satellite Reconnaissance. Peek-A-Boo!
US Satellite Reconnaissance. Peek-A-Boo!
::2008/08/13::
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27
North Korea satellite launch in 2012
North Korea satellite launch in 2012
::2013/02/27::
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r | p 2006: A Formulation of the Satellite Maneuver-Duration Problem - Chip Mayse
r | p 2006: A Formulation of the Satellite Maneuver-Duration Problem - Chip Mayse
::2013/04/22::
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29
Catch A Falling Star Part 1
Catch A Falling Star Part 1
::2010/09/21::
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30
The Corona Story - A Point In Time
The Corona Story - A Point In Time
::2011/01/06::
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31
Israel launches sophisticated new spy satellite which will help Jerusalem monitor atomic Iran
Israel launches sophisticated new spy satellite which will help Jerusalem monitor atomic Iran
::2014/04/11::
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32
NROL-65 Mission
NROL-65 Mission
::2013/09/04::
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33
GAMBIT - The Eye Of The Eagle
GAMBIT - The Eye Of The Eagle
::2012/02/01::
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34
America
America's biggest rocket blasts spy satellite into space
::2013/11/27::
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35
Atlas V Rocket Prep & Launch of Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) - Moon Orbit Satellite 2008
Atlas V Rocket Prep & Launch of Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) - Moon Orbit Satellite 2008
::2013/12/26::
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36
Rocket carrying a US spy satellite orbits over Oklahoma
Rocket carrying a US spy satellite orbits over Oklahoma
::2013/08/31::
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37
NOVA | NOVA Short | Inside a Soviet Spy Station
NOVA | NOVA Short | Inside a Soviet Spy Station
::2008/02/11::
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38
Atlas rocket blasts off with secret U.S. military satellite
Atlas rocket blasts off with secret U.S. military satellite
::2014/05/22::
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39
SAR-Lupe (subtitled)
SAR-Lupe (subtitled)
::2010/11/02::
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40
Lockheed U-2 Dragon Lady reconnaissance aircraft
Lockheed U-2 Dragon Lady reconnaissance aircraft
::2014/01/18::
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41
NASA Beams Mona Lisa to Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter at the Moon WWW.GOODNEWS.WS
NASA Beams Mona Lisa to Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter at the Moon WWW.GOODNEWS.WS
::2013/01/17::
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42
NASA | Mona Lisa on the Moon
NASA | Mona Lisa on the Moon
::2013/01/17::
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43
Giant secret satellite blasts off from Cape Canaveral.
Giant secret satellite blasts off from Cape Canaveral.
::2012/07/02::
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A Day In History: The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
A Day In History: The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
::2014/03/10::
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Titan 34D-9 with last KH-9 explodes after liftoff (18.4.86)
Titan 34D-9 with last KH-9 explodes after liftoff (18.4.86)
::2012/12/16::
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46
SR-71 Blackbird - U.S. Air Force - 1979 - Beautiful Flight Video - SR71 [HD]
SR-71 Blackbird - U.S. Air Force - 1979 - Beautiful Flight Video - SR71 [HD]
::2012/06/26::
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47
Piercing Curtain Corona Satellite Imagery
Piercing Curtain Corona Satellite Imagery
::2014/07/27::
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Ask an Expert -- The Corona Spy Satellite
Ask an Expert -- The Corona Spy Satellite
::2010/10/20::
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45th Space Wing Launches NRO Satellite atop Delta IV-Heavy
45th Space Wing Launches NRO Satellite atop Delta IV-Heavy
::2010/11/22::
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[Atlas 5] Launch of Atlas 5 Carrying NROL-34 Satellite
[Atlas 5] Launch of Atlas 5 Carrying NROL-34 Satellite
::2011/04/15::
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The complete list of U.S. Reconnaissance Satellite from 1960 to current days
Aerial view of Osama bin Laden's compound in the Pakistani city of Abbottabad made by the CIA.
KH-4B Corona satellite
A model of a German SAR-Lupe reconnaissance satellite inside a Cosmos-3M rocket.
Microwave interception (Rhyolite)

A reconnaissance satellite (commonly, although unofficially, referred to as a spy satellite) is an Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications.

The first generation type (i.e. Corona [1] [2] and Zenit) took photographs, then ejected canisters of photographic film which would descend to earth. Corona capsules were retrieved in mid-air as they floated down on parachutes. Later spacecraft had digital imaging systems and downloaded the images via encrypted radio links.

In the United States, most information available is on programs that existed up to 1972, as this information has been declassified due to its age. Some information about programs prior to that time is still classified, and a small amount of information is available on subsequent missions.

A few up-to-date reconnaissance satellite images have been declassified on occasion, or leaked, as in the case of KH-11 photographs which were sent to Jane's Defence Weekly in 1984.[3]

History[edit]

On 16 March 1955, the United States Air Force officially ordered the development of an advanced reconnaissance satellite to provide continuous surveillance of 'preselected areas of the earth' in order 'to determine the status of a potential enemy’s war-making capability'.[4]

Types[edit]

There are several major types of reconnaissance satellite.[5]

Early warning
Provides warning of an attack by detecting ballistic missile launches. Earliest known are Missile Defense Alarm System.
Nuclear explosion detection
Identifies and characterizes nuclear explosions in space. Vela (satellite) is the earliest known.
Photo surveillance
Provides imaging of earth from space. Images can be a survey or close-look telephoto. Corona (satellite) is the earliest known. Spectral imaging is commonplace.
Electronic-reconnaissance
Signals intelligence, intercepts stray radio waves
Radar imaging
Most space-based radars use synthetic aperture radar. Can be used at night or through cloud cover. Earliest known are US-A series.

Missions[edit]

Examples of reconnaissance satellite missions:

On 28 August 2013, it was thought that "a $1-billion high-powered spy satellite capable of snapping pictures detailed enough to distinguish the make and model of an automobile hundreds of miles below"[6] was launched from California's Vandenberg Air Force Base using America's most powerful rocket.

On 17 February 2014 a Russian Kosmos-1220 originally launched in 1980 and used for naval missile targeting until 1982 made an uncontrolled atmospheric entry.[7]

Benefits[edit]

Reconnaissance satellites have been used to enforce human rights, through the Satellite Sentinel Project, which monitors atrocities in Sudan and South Sudan.

During his 1980 State of the Union Address, President Jimmy Carter explained how all of humanity benefited from the presence of American spy satellites:

...photo-reconnaissance satellites, for example, are enormously important in stabilizing world affairs and thereby make a significant contribution to the security of all nations.[8]

Additionally, companies such as GeoEye and DigitalGlobe have provided commercial satellite imagery in support of natural disaster response and humanitarian missions.[9]

During the 1950s, a Soviet hoax had led to American fears of a bomber gap. In 1968, after gaining satellite photography, the United States' intelligence agencies were able to state with certainty that "No new ICBM complexes have been established in the USSR during the past year."[10] President Lyndon B. Johnson told a gathering in 1967:

I wouldn't want to be quoted on this ... We've spent $35 or $40 billion on the space program. And if nothing else had come out of it except the knowledge that we gained from space photography, it would be worth ten times what the whole program has cost. Because tonight we know how many missiles the enemy has and, it turned out, our guesses were way off. We were doing things we didn't need to do. We were building things we didn't need to build. We were harboring fears we didn't need to harbor.[10]

In fiction[edit]

Spy satellites are commonly seen in spy fiction and military fiction. Some works of fiction that focus specifically on spy satellites include:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Corona History". National Reconnaissance Office. Retrieved February 15, 2014. 
  2. ^ "Corona Program". JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library. Retrieved 16 February 2014. 
  3. ^ Wright, Michael; Herron, Caroline Rand (8 December 1985). "Two Years for Morison". New York Times. Retrieved 16 February 2014. 
  4. ^ Erickson, Mark. Into the Unknown Together - The DOD, NASA, and Early Spaceflight. ISBN 1-58566-140-6. 
  5. ^ reconnaissance satellite, Infoplease, retrieved 2014-02-17 
  6. ^ Hennigan, W.J. (August 27, 2013). "Monster rocket to blast off from Pacific coast, rattle Southland". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 16 February 2014. 
  7. ^ Melissa Goldin (2014-02-17). "Fragments of Soviet-Era Satellite Burn Up in Earth's Atmosphere". Mashable. Retrieved 2014-02-17. 
  8. ^ "The State of the Union Annual Message to the Congress". 1980 State of the Union Address. The American Presidency Project. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  9. ^ "Commercial Satellite Imagery Companies Partner with the U.S. Geological Survey in Support of the International Charter "Space and Major Disasters"". USGS Newsroon. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 4 April 2014. 
  10. ^ a b Heppenheimer, T. A. (1998). The Space Shuttle Decision. NASA. pp. 191, 198. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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