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St Augustine Civil Rights Demonstrations
St Augustine Civil Rights Demonstrations
Published: 2014/01/20
Channel: Ron Hurtibise
St. Augustine Civil Rights Demonstrations (1964)
St. Augustine Civil Rights Demonstrations (1964)
Published: 2009/08/04
Channel: FloridaMemory
Civil Rights Movement in St. Augustine
Civil Rights Movement in St. Augustine
Published: 2010/04/13
Channel: jillianmcclure
St. Augustine 1964: Voices from the Civil Rights Movement
St. Augustine 1964: Voices from the Civil Rights Movement
Published: 2015/02/26
Channel: FloridaHumanities
Civil Rights Movement St. Augustine documentry
Civil Rights Movement St. Augustine documentry
Published: 2013/04/12
Channel: Britt G
St. Augustine, Florida, Civil Rights Activist Robert Hayling
St. Augustine, Florida, Civil Rights Activist Robert Hayling
Published: 2011/11/25
Channel: SPOHP111
Justice, Justice 1964. St. Augustine, Florida
Justice, Justice 1964. St. Augustine, Florida
Published: 2014/09/29
Channel: SPOHP111
Martin Luther King Jr. in Saint Augustine
Martin Luther King Jr. in Saint Augustine
Published: 2014/01/16
Channel: wolfsonarchive
70s "time capsule" home in St Augustine with a connection to local Civil Rights Movement.
70s "time capsule" home in St Augustine with a connection to local Civil Rights Movement.
Published: 2017/10/08
Channel: SERVPRO of Greater St Augustine/St Augustine Beach
Civil Rights Movement St. Augustine documentry
Civil Rights Movement St. Augustine documentry
Published: 2013/04/04
Channel: Britt G
Why Study St Augustine of Hippo with John Milbank
Why Study St Augustine of Hippo with John Milbank
Published: 2016/07/14
Channel: University of Nottingham
The St. Augustine Dead
The St. Augustine Dead
Published: 2014/10/26
Channel: andrewyoung.tv
St. Augustine Civil Rights Movement - WFCF News
St. Augustine Civil Rights Movement - WFCF News
Published: 2013/11/21
Channel: Brian Schaffnit
St  Augustine: Standing Before the Lord
St Augustine: Standing Before the Lord
Published: 2016/08/28
Channel: Sensus Fidelium
Crossing St Augustine - Willie Bolden Excerpt
Crossing St Augustine - Willie Bolden Excerpt
Published: 2016/01/21
Channel: Tom Roche
St. Augustine Civil Rights Museum Complex
St. Augustine Civil Rights Museum Complex
Published: 2011/12/14
Channel: Bruce Merwin
The St  Augustine Four
The St Augustine Four
Published: 2012/07/22
Channel: Robert Heinrich
1964 THROWBACK: Evil RACIST Florida Hotel Manager POURS ACID On Black People Swimming in His POOL!
1964 THROWBACK: Evil RACIST Florida Hotel Manager POURS ACID On Black People Swimming in His POOL!
Published: 2017/09/02
Channel: Hezakya Newz & Music
Civil Rights icon Andrew Young returns to St. Augustine, Florida
Civil Rights icon Andrew Young returns to St. Augustine, Florida
Published: 2013/09/20
Channel: Erica Bennett
Crossing St. Augustine Andrew Young Foundation.mpg
Crossing St. Augustine Andrew Young Foundation.mpg
Published: 2010/04/05
Channel: worldwonevideos
Movement Meditation: All Shall be Amen & Alleluia (St. Augustine)
Movement Meditation: All Shall be Amen & Alleluia (St. Augustine)
Published: 2015/04/17
Channel: Sylvia Miller-Mutia
Downtown St Augustine Florida before Hurricane IRMA.
Downtown St Augustine Florida before Hurricane IRMA.
Published: 2017/09/10
Channel: SERVPRO of Greater St Augustine/St Augustine Beach
Dr. Martin Luther King bust unveiled in St. Augustine
Dr. Martin Luther King bust unveiled in St. Augustine
Published: 2016/04/05
Channel: StAugustineRecord
Maude Jackson Recalls Protests in St. Augustine and Meeting Dr. King.
Maude Jackson Recalls Protests in St. Augustine and Meeting Dr. King.
Published: 2015/02/02
Channel: His Dream, Our Stories
Purcell Conway Vividly Recalls Experience Integrating St. Augustine Beach
Purcell Conway Vividly Recalls Experience Integrating St. Augustine Beach
Published: 2017/06/20
Channel: Voices of the Civil Rights Movement
ST AUGUSTINE TEA PARTY 1
ST AUGUSTINE TEA PARTY 1
Published: 2009/05/07
Channel: tsiya2
Occupy St. Augustine .m4v
Occupy St. Augustine .m4v
Published: 2011/11/11
Channel: Christopher Way
David Nolan and Purcell Conway Discuss Civil Rights Movement in St. Augustine
David Nolan and Purcell Conway Discuss Civil Rights Movement in St. Augustine
Published: 2015/04/21
Channel: Shirley Williams-Collins
Purcell Conway Shares His Account of Protests to Desegregate St. Augustine Beach
Purcell Conway Shares His Account of Protests to Desegregate St. Augustine Beach
Published: 2015/02/02
Channel: His Dream, Our Stories
Al Vorspan: Arrested in St. Augustine, 1964
Al Vorspan: Arrested in St. Augustine, 1964
Published: 2014/07/02
Channel: Religious Action Center
Andrew Young Memorial Crossing in St. Augustine FL
Andrew Young Memorial Crossing in St. Augustine FL
Published: 2014/02/03
Channel: Leksi Wins
St. Augustine ball movement ends in layup
St. Augustine ball movement ends in layup
Published: 2009/01/16
Channel: sdfastbreak
Purcell Conway, Civil Rights Activist from St. Augustine: A Story of Racism
Purcell Conway, Civil Rights Activist from St. Augustine: A Story of Racism
Published: 2015/02/02
Channel: His Dream, Our Stories
St. Augustine 1950s
St. Augustine 1950s
Published: 2015/05/04
Channel: Margaret Forsythe Photo Collection 1950s- 1990s
Rhodes College Maymester: St. Augustine Civil Rights
Rhodes College Maymester: St. Augustine Civil Rights
Published: 2014/12/14
Channel: Tom McGowan
Unveiling of Dr. Martin Luther King Statue by St. Augustine Potter
Unveiling of Dr. Martin Luther King Statue by St. Augustine Potter's Museum
Published: 2016/02/24
Channel: SaintAugTV
Civil Rights History Project: Gwendolyn Annette Duncan
Civil Rights History Project: Gwendolyn Annette Duncan
Published: 2014/06/24
Channel: LibraryOfCongress
Now This is a Movement, Part I, St. Augustine Unity in Community March 01/21/2017
Now This is a Movement, Part I, St. Augustine Unity in Community March 01/21/2017
Published: 2017/01/22
Channel: Tim Covey
st.augustine fl. protest
st.augustine fl. protest
Published: 2013/05/25
Channel: saramadison09
Faith Temple Holiness Family, St. Augustine, FL 264
Faith Temple Holiness Family, St. Augustine, FL 264
Published: 2015/04/01
Channel: SerenityChurchJax
Saint Augustine Flight Tour
Saint Augustine Flight Tour
Published: 2015/06/23
Channel: One World Expeditions
Faith Temple Holiness Family, St. Augustine, FL 261
Faith Temple Holiness Family, St. Augustine, FL 261
Published: 2015/04/01
Channel: SerenityChurchJax
Tea Party Protest St. Augustine Florida
Tea Party Protest St. Augustine Florida
Published: 2012/09/25
Channel: StAugustineTeaParty
BLOOD SACRAFICE HOK IN THE BLACK STRIKES BACK AT TEAM POLIGHT !!
BLOOD SACRAFICE HOK IN THE BLACK STRIKES BACK AT TEAM POLIGHT !!
Published: 2016/04/04
Channel: HOOD ALERT LATE NIGHT NEWS MEDIA MOORDENAAR80
"Florida
"Florida's Birmingham"
Published: 2014/02/04
Channel: wolfsonarchive
st.augustine fl. protest may 25th
st.augustine fl. protest may 25th
Published: 2013/05/25
Channel: saramadison09
Martin Luther King & the Civil Rights Movement: Economic & Political Power - Ralph Abernathy (1989)
Martin Luther King & the Civil Rights Movement: Economic & Political Power - Ralph Abernathy (1989)
Published: 2014/02/08
Channel: The Film Archives
Crossing St. Augustine Premier
Crossing St. Augustine Premier
Published: 2010/01/23
Channel: Square1Ent
People
People's National Movement on the hustings in St Augustine, April 9,2015 - Trinidad & Tobago
Published: 2015/04/29
Channel: Hollis Clifton
Orville London @ St Augustine
Orville London @ St Augustine
Published: 2015/08/28
Channel: PNM Party
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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The St. Augustine movement was a part of the wider Civil Rights Movement in 1963–1964. It was a major event in St. Augustine's long history and had a role in the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.[1][2]

History[edit]

Despite the 1954 Supreme Court act in Brown v. Board of Education, which ruled that the "separate but equal" legal status of public schools made those schools inherently unequal, St. Augustine still had only six black children admitted into white schools.[when?] The homes of two of the families of these children were burned by local segregationists, while other families were forced to move out of the county because the parents were fired from their jobs.

Dr. Robert Hayling is generally considered the "father" of the St. Augustine movement. A Tallahassee native originally, Hayling served as an Air Force officer, and then became the first black dentist in Florida to be elected to the American Dental Association. He set up business in St. Augustine in 1960 and joined the local National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). The organization led a high-profile protest of the segregated celebration of the city's 400th anniversary in March 1963.[3] While the campaign was successful at convincing Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson to speak before an interracial audience in St. Augustine, it had no effect on the overall Jim Crow laws. The NAACP campaign lacked a direct action component and Hayling believed that this was a major failing. Hayling founded an NAACP Youth Council that engaged in nonviolent direct action, including wade-ins at the local segregated swimming pools.[4]

A sit-in protest at the local Woolworth's lunch counter ended in the arrest and imprisonment of 16 young black protesters and seven juveniles. Four of the children, two of whom were 16-year-old girls, were sent to "reform" school and retained for six months. These four children were JoeAnn Anderson, Audrey Nell Edwards, Willie Carl Singleton, and Samuel White, and they came to be known as "the St. Augustine Four". Their case was publicized as an egregious injustice by Jackie Robinson, the NAACP, the Pittsburgh Courier, and others.[5] Finally, a special action of the governor and cabinet of Florida freed them in January 1964.[6]

In addition to nonviolent direct action, the St. Augustine movement practiced armed self-defense. In spring of 1963, the NAACP aggressively lobbied for the city's federal funding to be suspended until it came into compliance with existing federal civil rights legislation and the Brown v. Board of Education decision. This led to the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) stepping up its death threats against activists. In June, Dr. Hayling publicly stated, "I and the others have armed. We will shoot first and answer questions later. We are not going to die like Medgar Evers." The comment made national headlines. When Klan nightriders terrorized black neighborhoods in St. Augustine, Hayling's NAACP members often drove them off with gunfire.[7]

In September 1963, the Klan staged a rally of several hundred Klansmen on the outskirts of town. They seized Robert Hayling and three other NAACP activists (Clyde Jenkins, James Jackson, and James Hauser), and beat them with fists, chains, and clubs.[8] The four men were rescued by Florida Highway Patrol officers. St. Johns County Sheriff L. O. Davis arrested four white men for the beating and also arrested the four unarmed blacks for "assaulting" the large crowd of armed Klansmen. Charges against the Klansmen were dismissed, but Hayling was convicted of "criminal assault" against the KKK mob.[5][9]

Break with NAACP and affiliation with Dr. King[edit]

After the incident at the September Klan rally, tensions escalated further. In October, a carload of KKK night riders raced through the black neighborhood of Lincolnville shooting into homes. When blacks returned fire, one Klansman was killed. NAACP activist Rev. Goldie Eubanks and three others were indicted for murder (they were later acquitted). Disturbed by Hayling's militancy, the national NAACP removed him as head of the Youth Council. Hayling, Eubanks, Henry Twine, Kathrine Twine, and other activists left the NAACP and contacted the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), led by Martin Luther King, Jr, for assistance.[10]

In the spring of 1964, Hayling put out a call to northern college students to come to St. Augustine for spring break, not to go to the beach, but to take part in civil rights activities. Accompanying them were four prominent Boston women: the wife of the vice president of the John Hancock Insurance Company, and three wives of Episcopal bishops. It was front-page news on April 1, 1964, when one of them, Mrs. Mary Parkman Peabody, the 72-year-old mother of the governor of Massachusetts, was arrested in an integrated group at the Ponce de Leon Motor Lodge, north of town.[11]

That event brought the movement in St. Augustine to international attention. Over the next few months, the city got more publicity than it had ever previously received in its many centuries of existence. The massive non-violent direct action campaign was led by Hayling and by SCLC staff, including: Martin Luther King, Jr., Ralph Abernathy, Andrew Young, Hosea Williams, C. T. Vivian, Fred Shuttlesworth, Willie Bolden, J. T. Johnson, Dorothy Cotton, and others. Civil rights activists made St. Augustine the stage for a moral drama enacted before a world audience.[12]

From May until July 1964, protesters endured abuse and verbal assaults, usually without any retaliation, although this time police were often intervening to prevent violence between protesters and counter-protesters.[13] The movement engaged in nightly marches down King Street. The protesters were met by white segregationists who violently attacked them. Hundreds of the marchers were arrested and incarcerated. The jail was filled, so subsequent detainees were kept in an uncovered stockade in the hot sun.[8][14] When attempts were made to integrate the beaches of Anastasia Island, demonstrators were beaten and driven into the water by segregationists. Some of the protesters could not swim and had to be saved from possible drowning by other demonstrators.[15]

Death threats against the leadership were reaching a fever pitch, especially against Dr. King. In the first week of June, a cottage, which was scheduled to house the SCLC president, went up in flames. In response, Hayling and his team stepped up their armed patrols, a policy which King personally disapproved of. Nonetheless, King was under Hayling's armed protection every night he spent in St. Augustine.[16] On June 10, the filibuster against the Civil Rights Act (one of the longest filibusters in history) finally collapsed.[17]

St. Augustine was the only place in Florida where King was arrested; his arrest there occurred on June 11, 1964, on the steps of the Monson Motor Lodge restaurant. He wrote a "Letter from the St. Augustine Jail" to his old friend, Rabbi Israel Dresner, in New Jersey, urging him to recruit rabbis to come to St. Augustine and take part in the movement. The result was the largest mass arrest of rabbis in American history; this occurred on June 18, 1964, at the Monson motel.[5]

On June 18, a grand jury suggested that SCLC withdraw for a 30-day cooling-off period. In response, Hayling and King released a joint statement declaring "there will be neither peace nor tranquility in this community until the righteous demands of the Negro are fully met".[18]

St. Augustine Foot Soldiers Monument, dedicated May 14, 2011

The demonstrations came to a climax when a group of black and white protesters jumped into the swimming pool at the Monson Motor Lodge. In response to the protest, James Brock—who was the manager of the hotel, in addition to being the president of the Florida Hotel & Motel Association—poured what he claimed to be muriatic acid into the pool to burn the protesters.[5] Photographs of this, and of a policeman jumping into the pool to arrest them, were broadcast around the world and became some of the most famous images of the entire civil rights movement.[citation needed]

On June 30, Florida Governor Farris Bryant announced the formation of a biracial committee to restore interracial communication in St. Augustine. Although matters were far from resolved, national SCLC leaders left St. Augustine on 1 July, the day before President Lyndon Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act into law.

Despite this national success, black residents in St. Augustine continued to face violence and intimidation. Consistent threats and picketing by the Klan led many of the town’s businesses to remain segregated. Although SCLC continued to provide some financial support to activists in St. Augustine beyond July 1964, the organization never returned to the city.[19] With his dental practice financially destitute after the loss of his white patients, and the safety of his wife and children uncertain, Robert Hayling decided to move to Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, in 1966.[20]

The black Florida Normal Industrial and Memorial College, whose students had been involved in the protests, felt itself unwelcome in St. Augustine and in 1965 purchased a tract of land in Dade County, moving there in 1968.[21] The school is today Florida Memorial University.

The motel and pool were demolished in March 2003, despite five years of protests, thus eliminating one of the nation's important landmarks of the civil rights movement.[22] A Hilton Hotel was built on the site. In 2003, nearly four decades after Robert Hayling left St. Augustine, the city’s mayor issued a Certificate of Recognition for Hayling’s "contributions to the betterment of our society," and a street was named after him.[20]

Swim-ins[edit]

The St. Augustine Movement was part of the wider Civil Rights Movement in 1963–1964. It was a major event in St. Augustine's long history and had a role in the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

In 1964, then 17-year-old Mamie Nell Ford jumped into Monson Motor Lodge's segregated pool. As journalists looked on, the motel's owner James Brock responded by dumping acid into the pool in an effort to drive the "wade in" protestors out. The campaign changed segregation in St. Augustine.

St. Augustine Foot Soldiers Monument[edit]

The St. Augustine Foot Soldiers Monument is located near the corner of King St. and Charlotte St., in the Southeast corner of the Plaza De La Constitucion, which is a prominent, historic public park. The monument, commissioned by the St. Augustine Foot Soldiers Remembrance Project, Inc., was unveiled on May 14, 2011.[23][24]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Civil Rights Movement Veterans. "St. Augustine FL, Movement – 1963". 
  2. ^ Civil Rights Movement Veterans. "St. Augustine FL, Movement – 1964". 
  3. ^ Augustine.com – "Black History: Dr. Robert B. Hayling"
  4. ^ David J. Garrow, Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (Harper Collins, 1987) p 316-318
  5. ^ a b c d Branch, Taylor (1998). Pillar of Fire. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-80819-6. 
  6. ^ United States Commission on Civil Rights, 1965. Law Enforcement: A Report on Equal Protection in the South. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, p. 47.
  7. ^ Augustine.com – "Black History: Dr. Robert B. Hayling" ; David J. Garrow, Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (Harper Collins, 1987) p 316-318
  8. ^ a b St. Augustine Movement – M.L. King Research & Education Institute, Stanford University
  9. ^ Duncan, Gwendolyn (2004). "Dr. Robert B. Hayling". Civil Rights Movement Veterans. 
  10. ^ Civil Rights Movement Veterans website, "Timeline- 1963: The St. Augustine Movement"
  11. ^ Lincolnville Historic District – National Park Service
  12. ^ St. Augustine FL Movement – 1964 – Civil Rights Movement Veterans
  13. ^ David J. Garrow, Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (Harper Collins, 1987), p325
  14. ^ Garrow, David (1986). Bearing the Cross. Morrow. ISBN 0-688-04794-7. 
  15. ^ Bryce, Shirley (2004). "St. Augustine Movement 1963–1964". Civil Rights Movement Veterans. 
  16. ^ David J. Garrow, Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (Harper Collins, 1987), p329-330
  17. ^ US Senate: Art and History "June 10, 1964-Civil Rights Fillibuster Ended"
  18. ^ "Hayling, Robert B. (1929-)", King Encyclopedia, Martin Luther King, Jr. Research and Education Institute
  19. ^ "St. Augustine Movement" The King Encyclopedia
  20. ^ a b "Robert B. Hayling" The King Encyclopedia
  21. ^ "Our History", http://www.fmuniv.edu/about/our-history/, retrieved May 4, 2016.
  22. ^ St. Augustine Record: March 18, 2003-Demolition begins on Monson Inn by Ken Lewis
  23. ^ Griffin, Justine (2011). "City unveils Foot Soldiers monument". The St. Augustine Record. 
  24. ^ Welch, Casey (2011-05-10). "Walking Tall". Folio Weekly. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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