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St. Louis Cardinals 2014 Highlights
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MLB 2014 NLDS 2014 10 03 St Louis Cardinals VS Los Angeles Dodgers(Game1)
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2011 World Series Champion St. Louis Cardinals Season Highlight Reel (Dark Horses)
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MLB 2014 NLDS 2014 10 07 St Louis Cardinals VS Los Angeles Dodgers(Game4)
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1964 St. Louis Cardinals with Harry Caray and Jack Buck - Part 03 of 03
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30 Clubs in 30 Days: St. Louis Cardinals
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October 4, 2013 - Pittsburgh Pirates vs. St. Louis Cardinals [NLDS: G2]
October 4, 2013 - Pittsburgh Pirates vs. St. Louis Cardinals [NLDS: G2]
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MLB 2014 NLCS 2014 10 11 San Francisco Giants VS St Louis Cardinals(Game1)
MLB 2014 NLCS 2014 10 11 San Francisco Giants VS St Louis Cardinals(Game1)
::2014/10/12::
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RESULTS [51 .. 101]
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For the National Football League team that played in St. Louis from 1960 to 1987, see History of the St. Louis Cardinals (NFL).
St. Louis Cardinals
2014 St. Louis Cardinals season
Established 1882
{{{misc}}}
St. Louis Cardinals Logo.svg St Louis Cardinals Cap Insignia.svg
Team logo Cap insignia
Major league affiliations
Current uniform
NLC-Uniform-STL.PNG
Retired numbers 1, 2, 6, 9, 10, 14, 17, 20, 24, 42, 42, 45, 85
Colors
  • White, red, navy blue

              

Name
  • St. Louis Cardinals (1900–present)
  • St. Louis Brown Stockings (1882), St. Louis Browns (1883-1898), St. Louis Perfectos (1899)
Other nicknames
  • The Cards, The Redbirds, The Birds, The Birds on the Bat
Ballpark
  • a.k.a. Busch Memorial Stadium (1966–1982)
  • a.k.a. Busch Stadium (I) (1953–1966)
  • a.k.a. Cardinal Field (1917–1920)
  • a.k.a. League Park (1899–1911)
  • a.k.a. Sportsman's Park (II) (1893–1899)
Major league titles
World Series titles (11) 2011 • 2006 • 1982 • 1967
1964 • 1946 • 1944 • 1942
1934 • 1931 • 1926
NL Pennants (19) 2013 • 2011 • 2006 • 2004
1987 • 1985 • 1982 • 1968
1967 • 1964 • 1946 • 1944
1943 • 1942 • 1934 • 1931
1930 • 1928 • 1926
AA Pennants (4) 1888 • 1887 • 1886 • 1885
Central Division titles (9) 2014 • 2013 • 2009 • 2006 • 2005
2004 • 2002 • 2000 • 1996
East Division titles (3)[a] 1987 • 1985 • 1982
Wild card berths (3) 2012 • 2011 • 2001[b]
Front office
Owner(s) William DeWitt,Jr. (1995-present)
Manager Mike Matheny (2012–present)
General Manager John Mozeliak (2007–present)

The St. Louis Cardinals are a professional baseball franchise based in St. Louis, Missouri who compete in the National League (NL) of Major League Baseball (MLB). The new Busch Stadium has served as their home park since 2006. The Cardinals' roots commence from an earlier local team of the NL from whom they took their original name, the Brown Stockings. St. Louis established themselves in 1882 as a charter member of the American Association (AA), shortened their name to Browns the next season, then joined the NL in 1892. They were also known as the Perfectos before adopting Cardinals as their official name in 1900.

As one of the most decorated and successful franchises in MLB history, the Cardinals have won 11 World Series championships, second in history only to the New York Yankees' 27. They've also won 19 National League pennants, and 12 division titles.

St. Louis also dominated the AA with four league championships, one pre-World Series championship, and tied another against the NL.[3] Other notable achievements include Branch Rickey's pioneering of the farm system, Rogers Hornsby's two Triple Crowns, Joe Medwick's one Triple Crown, Dizzy Dean's 30-win season, Stan Musial's 17 Major League and 29 NL records, Bob Gibson's 1.12 ERA season, Whitey Herzog's Whiteyball, Mark McGwire breaking the single-season home run record, and the 2011 championship team's unprecedented comebacks.[4] The Cardinals have won 105 or more games in four different seasons and won 100 or more a total of eight times. Cardinals players have won 20 league MVPs, four batting Triple Crowns, and three Cy Young Awards. Baseball Hall of Fame inductees include Lou Brock, Dizzy Dean, Gibson, Herzog, Hornsby, Joe Medwick, Stan Musial, Rickey, Red Schoendienst, Ozzie Smith, Bruce Sutter, and Tony La Russa. Their historic rivalry with the Chicago Cubs is one of the most storied in professional sports.

An investment group headed by William DeWitt, Jr., the chairman and managing partner, has owned the Cardinals since 1995. John Mozeliak is the general manager, and Mike Matheny is the manager.[5] Renowned for strong support from fans despite being in one of the sport's mid-level markets, the Cardinals routinely see attendances among the league's highest, and are consistently among the top three in MLB in local television ratings.[6][7] As of 2014, Forbes valued the Cardinals at $820 million, making them the eighth-most valuable franchise in MLB.

History[edit]

Before the Cardinals (1875-1881)[edit]

Professional baseball began in St. Louis with the inception of the Brown Stockings in the National Association (NA) in 1875. The NA folded following that season, and the next season, St. Louis joined the National League as a charter member, finishing in third place at 45-19. George Bradley hurled the first no-hitter in Major League history. The NL expelled St. Louis from the league after 1877 due to a game-fixing scandal and the team went bankrupt.[8] Without a league, they continued play as a semi-professional barnstorming team through 1881.

The magnitudes of the reorganizations following the 1877 and 1881 seasons are such that the 1875-1877 and 1878-1881 Brown Stockings teams are not generally considered to share continuity as a franchise with the current St. Louis Cardinals;[9][10]

American Association and early National League eras (1882–1919)[edit]

Charles Comiskey, shown here circa 1910, guided the Browns to four American Association titles.

For the 1882 season, Chris von der Ahe purchased the team, reorganized it, and made it a founding member of the American Association (AA), a league to rival the NL.[11] 1882 is generally considered to be the first year existence of the St. Louis Cardinals.[9][10][12][c]

The next season, St. Louis shortened their name to the Browns. Soon thereafter they became the dominant team in the AA, as manager Charlie Comiskey guided St. Louis to four pennants in a row from 1885 to 1888.[3][15] Pitcher and outfielder Bob Caruthers led the league in ERA (2.07) and wins (40) in 1885 and finished in the top six in both in each of the following two seasons. He also led the AA in OBP (.448) and OPS (.974) in 1886 and finished fourth in batting average in 1886 (.334) and fifth in 1887 (.357).[16] Outfielder Tip O'Neill won the first batting triple crown in franchise history in 1887 and the only one in AA history.[17][18][19] By winning the pennant, the Browns played the NL pennant winner in a predecessor of the World Series. The Browns twice met the Chicago White Stockings - the Chicago Cubs prototype - tying one in a heated dispute and winning the other, thus spurring the vigorous St. Louis-Chicago rivalry that ensues to this day.[20] During the franchise's ten seasons in the AA, they compiled an all-time league-high of 780 wins and .639 winning percentage. They lost just 432 contests while tying 21 others.[3]

Rogers Hornsby won two Triple Crowns as a Cardinal.[19]

The AA went bankrupt after the 1891 season and the Browns transferred back to the National League. This time, the club entered an era of stark futility. Between 1892 and 1919, St. Louis managed just five winning seasons, finished in last or next-to-last place sixteen times, and ended four seasons with 100 losses or more. The nadir was the 1897 season: a 29–102 record for a franchise-worst .221 winning percentage.[3] St. Louis' 84-67 finish as the Perfectos would be the team's best finish between the AA era and Sam Breadon's purchase of the team.[21] As the "Perfectos", the team wore their jersey with a cardinal red trim and sock striping.[21] Later that season, St. Louis Republic sportswriter Willie McHale included an account in a column of a female fan he heard remarking about the uniforms, "What a lovely shade of cardinal." Fans took keenly to the moniker "Cardinals" and, the next year, popularity for the nickname induced an official change to Cardinals.[21]

In 1902, an American League team moved from Milwaukee into St. Louis, renamed themselves the St. Louis Browns and built a new park on the site of the Cardinals' old stadium, striking a rivalry that lasted five decades.[22] Breadon bought a minority interest in the Cardinals in 1917 and in 1919 Browns manager Branch Rickey joined the Cardinals.[23][24] The Cardinals' first twenty-eight seasons in the NL were a complete reversal of their stay in the AA – with a .406 winning percentage, they compiled 1,632 wins, 2,425 losses and 74 ties.[3]

Breadon era (1920–52)[edit]

St. Louis baseball commenced a renaissance: since 1926 the Cardinals have won eleven World Series and nineteen NL pennants.[3] Breadon spurred this revival when bought out the majority stake in 1920 and appointed Rickey as business manager, who expanded scouting, player development, and pioneered the minor league farm system, filling the role of today's general manager.[25] With Rogers Hornsby at second base, he claimed Triple Crowns in 1922 and 1925, and the Cardinals won the 1926 World Series, their first.[19][26] St. Louis then won the league in 1928, 1930, and 1931 and the 1931 World Series.[27]

Stan Musial retired owning numerous National League and team batting records.

The Gashouse Gang edition claimed the 1934 World Series[27] and the Cardinals amassed new thresholds of popularity far outside St. Louis via radio.[28] Dizzy Dean led the Gang, winning the 1934 MVP, and leading the NL multiple times in wins, strikeouts, innings, complete games and shutouts.[29] Johnny Mize and Joe Medwick emerged as two power threats, with Medwick claiming the last Triple Crown for a Cardinal in 1937.[19][27][30][31][32]

In the 1940s, a golden era emerged as Rickey's farm system became laden with such talent as Marty Marion,[33] Enos Slaughter,[34] Mort Cooper,[35] Walker Cooper,[36] Stan Musial,[37] Max Lanier,[38] Whitey Kurowski,[39] Red Schoendienst[40] and Johnny Beazley.[41] It was one of the most successful decades in franchise history with 960 wins 580 losses for a winning percentage higher than any other Major League team at .623.[42] With Billy Southworth managing, they won the World Series in 1942 and 1944 (in the only all-St. Louis series against the Browns), and won 105 or more games each in 1942, 1943, and 1944.[3] Southworth's managerial winning percentage (.642) is St. Louis' highest since the franchise joined the National League.[43][44] Musial was considered the most consistent hitter of his era and most accomplished in team history, winning three MVPs and seven batting titles.[37][45] St. Louis then won the 1946 World Series on Slaughter's Mad Dash in Game 7.[46] Breadon was forced to sell the team in 1947 but won six World Series and nine NL pennants as Cardinals owner.[47] They remained competitive, finishing .500 or better in thirteen of the next seventeen seasons, but fell short of winning the league or World Series until 1964.[3]

Gussie Busch era (1953–89)[edit]

Bob Gibson, the most decorated pitcher in team history, won two Cy Young Awards.[48]

In 1953 the Anheuser-Busch brewery bought the Cardinals and August "Gussie" Busch became team president,[49] spurring the Browns' departure in 1953 to Baltimore to become the Orioles, and making the Cardinals the only major league club in town.[50] More success followed in the 1960s, starting with what is considered one of the most lopsided trades in Major League history, as St. Louis received outfielder Lou Brock from the Cubs for pitcher Ernie Broglio.[51] MVP third baseman Ken Boyer and pitcher Bob Gibson led the club to a World Series win the same year[52] and Curt Flood, Bill White, Curt Simmons, and Steve Carlton also made key contributions in this decade.[53][54][55][56] In 1967, new arrival Orlando Cepeda won the MVP, helping to propel St. Louis to the World Series.[57][58] The Cardinals won the league the following year behind their Major League-leading 2.49 staff ERA[59] in what was an all-round record-breaking season of pitching dominance. Posting a modern-day record low ERA of 1.12 and striking out a one-game World Series-record of 17,[60] Gibson won both the MVP and Cy Young awards that year.[61]

In the 1970s, catcher/third baseman Joe Torre and first baseman Keith Hernández each won MVPs, but the team's best finishes were second place and 90 wins.[47][62][63] The team found their way back to the World Series the next decade, starting with manager Whitey Herzog and his Whiteyball style of play and another trade that altered course of the franchise: in 1982, shortstop Garry Templeton was shipped to the Padres for fellow shortstop Ozzie Smith.[64][65] Widely regarded as one of the best defensive players in history, Smith ranks first all-time among shortstops in Gold Glove Awards (13), All-Star games (15), assists (8,375), and double plays (1,590).[66][67] St. Louis took the Suds Series from the Milwaukee Brewers that fall.[68][69] The Cardinals again won the league in 1985 and 1987.[70] In the 1985 Series, they faced-off with cross-state rivals Kansas City Royals for the first time in a non-exhibitiion game.[71]

Bill DeWitt era (1990–present)[edit]

Pitcher Chris Carpenter, essential in two World Series titles, won 10 playoff games with a 3.00 postseason ERA.[72]
Albert Pujols is one of the most accomplished players in Cardinals' history.

After Gussie Busch died in 1989,[73] the brewery took control,[74] hired Joe Torre to manage late in 1990,[75] then sold the team to an investment group led by William DeWitt, Jr. in 1996.[76] Tony La Russa replaced Torre in the spring of 1996.[77] In 1998, Mark McGwire teamed with the Cubs' Sammy Sosa for a barrage of home runs in their pursuit of the single-season home run record.[78] From 2000 to 2013, the Cardinals reestablished their way to the top with ten playoff appearances, four NL pennants, two World Series titles and 1,274 regular season wins against 993 losses for a .560 winning percentage, leading the National League and second in MLB only to the New York Yankees.[79] With the addition of Jim Edmonds, Albert Pujols, and Scott Rolen, the Cardinals featured three prominent sluggers and defenders nicknamed "MV3;"[80] Pujols won three MVPs and hit .328 with 445 home runs in his Cardinals career.[81] In 2004, playoff stalwart Chris Carpenter's 3.09 ERA and 15 wins[72] helped power the team to a major-league best 105 wins and take the NL pennant.[82] In 2006, beset with injuries and inconsistency[83] leading to an all-time record-low 83 wins,[84] they won the World Series beating Detroit in five games.[85][86]

In 2009, the Cardinals reached 10,000 wins dating to their AA era.[d][87][88] St. Louis returned to the playoffs in 2011, first surmounting the largest games-won deficit after 130 games (at 10.5) to upstage the Atlanta Braves on the final day for the wild card playoff berth.[89] In the World Series Game 3, Pujols became just third player to hit three home runs in a World Series game.[90] In Game 6, third baseman David Freese and outfielder Lance Berkman each tied the score on the Cardinals' final strike – the first such occurrence in any game in MLB history – and St. Louis defeated the Texas Rangers later that game with a walk-off home run from Freese.[91] After winning that Series, La Russa retired and became the only manager to do so after winning a title. He also finished with the most wins for managers in franchise history with 1,408.[92][93] La Russa's successor, Mike Matheny, helped extend St. Louis' playoff run as he became the first manager in the division play era to guide the Cardinals to the NLCS and playoffs in his first two seasons.[94]

In 2014, The Cardinals extended their NLCS streak to 4, with their 3-1 series victory over the Dodgers, in the NLDS. Ten days after being eliminated from the postseason by the San Francisco Giants, Rookie outfielder Oscar Taveras was killed in a car accident while traveling to his hometown of Puerto Plata in the Dominican Republic.[95]

Ballpark[edit]

The Cardinals play their home games at Busch Stadium (also referred to as New Busch Stadium or Busch III) in downtown St. Louis, straddling Seventh and Clark near the intersection of Interstates 64 and 70.[96] The stadium opened for the 2006 season at a cost of $411 million and holds a normal capacity of 46,861.[97][98] The Cardinals finished their inaugural season in the new Busch Stadium by winning the 2006 World Series, the first team since the 1923 New York Yankees to do so.[99] This open-air stadium emulates the HOK Sport-designed "retro-style" baseball-only parks built since the 1990s.[100] The open panoramic perspective over the outfield wall offers a remarkable view of St. Louis' downtown skyline featuring the distinctive Gateway Arch.[101] A replica of Eads Bridge spans the entrance to the park on the third base side, while the statue of Stan Musial arises in front of that entrance.[102] Other statues at the corner of Eighth and Clark include Hall of Famers Rogers Hornsby, Ozzie Smith, George Sisler, Cool Papa Bell, Bob Gibson, Jack Buck and others.[103]

Due to increased demand, Game 7 of the 2011 World Series accommodated a baseball record of 47,399 by increasing the number of standing room only tickets. The attendance record for any sporting event is 48,263, in a 2013 Association Football (soccer) friendly match between Chelsea F.C. and Manchester City F.C., made possible by on field seating.[104] The largest attendance (53,000) of any event at Busch belongs to U2 during a concert from their 360° Tour in 2011.[105]

Ballpark Village, a mixed-use development currently under construction and located across Clark Street from Busch Stadium, is targeted to enhance the ballpark goers' experience. Phase 1 of the development, completed for the start of the 2014 season, includes entertainment venues, restaurants, and retail. Anchored by Cardinals Nation (which includes the Cardinals Hall of Fame, a two-story Cardinals-themed restaurant and all-inclusive rooftop seating for 300+ fans featuring spectacular views of the field across the street), a 20,000 sq ft Budweiser Brew House, FOX Sports Midwest Live! and PBR, the $100 million phase 1 development of Ballpark Village promises to be a vibrant gathering space throughout the year, not just during the baseball season.[106]

Previous ballparks[edit]

Busch Stadium is the Cardinals' fourth home ballpark and the third of that name. The Cardinals' original home ballpark was Sportsman's Park from 1882–1892 when they played in the American Association and were known as the Browns. In 1893, the Browns moved to a new ballpark five blocks northwest of Sportsman's Park which would serve as their home from 1893-1920. The new park was originally called New Sportsman's Park but became more commonly referred to as Robison Field.[21] Midway through the 1920 season the Cardinals abandoned Robison Field and returned to the original Sportsman's Park and became tenants of their American League rivals, the St. Louis Browns. In 1953, the Anheuser-Busch Brewery purchased the Cardinals and the new owner subsequently also purchased Sportsman's Park from the Browns and renamed it Busch Stadium, later becoming Busch I. The Browns then left St. Louis for Baltimore after the season. The Cardinals built Busch Memorial Stadium, or Busch II, in downtown St. Louis, opened it during the 1966 season and played there until 2005.[47] It was built as the multi-purpose home of both the baseball Cardinals and the St. Louis football Cardinals, now the Arizona Cardinals. The current Busch Stadium was constructed adjacent to, and partly atop, the site of Busch Memorial Stadium.

Spring training[edit]

The Cardinals home field in spring training is Roger Dean Stadium in Jupiter, Florida. They share the complex, which opened in 1998, with the Miami Marlins. Before moving to Jupiter, the Cardinals hosted spring training at Al Lang Field in St. Petersburg, Florida from 1937–1997.

Regular season home attendance[edit]

The Cardinals have exceeded the attendance total of three million every season since 2004.

Home Attendance at Busch Stadium[107]
Year Total attendance Game average League rank
1996 2,654,758 32,774 4th
1997 2,634,014 32,519 4th
1998 3,195,691 38,972 4th
1999 3,225,334 40,317 4th
2000 3,396,493 41,191 1st
2001 3,109,578 37,922 3rd
2002 3,011,756 37,182 4th
2003 2,910,386 35,931 4th
2004 3,048,427 37,635 6th
2005 3,538,988 43,691 2nd
2006 3,407,104 42,589 2nd
2007 3,552,180 43,854 3rd
2008 3,432,917 42,382 3rd
2009 3,343,252 41,275 3rd
2010 3,301,218 40,756 3rd
2011 3,093,954 38,197 3rd
2012 3,262,109 40,273 4th
2013 3,369,769 41,602 2nd
2014 3,540,649 43,712 2nd

Logos and uniforms[edit]

The Cardinals have had few logos throughout their history, although those logos have evolved over time. The first logo associated with the Cardinals was an interlocking "SL" that appeared on the team's caps and or sleeves as early as 1900. Those early uniforms usually featured the name "St. Louis" on white home and gray road uniforms which both had cardinal red accents. In 1920, the "SL" largely disappeared from the team's uniforms, and for the next 20 years the team wore caps that were white with red striping and a red bill.

The original "birds on the bat" logo, which first appeared in 1922.

In 1922, the Cardinals wore uniforms for the first time that featured the two familiar cardinal birds perched on a baseball bat over the name "Cardinals" with the letter "C" of the word hooked over the bat. The concept of the birds originated after general manager Branch Rickey noticed a colorful cardboard arrangement featuring cardinal birds on a table in a Presbyterian church in Ferguson, Missouri, at which he was speaking. The arrangement's production was by a woman named Allie May Schmidt. Schmidt's father, a graphic designer, helped Ricky make the logo a familiar staple on Cardinals uniforms.[108] Colloquially referred to as the "birds on the bat," it initially appeared with the birds perched on a black bat and "Cardinals" in printed letters. An alternate version of this logo with "St. Louis" replacing "Cardinals" appeared in 1930 and was the primary logo in 1931 and 1932 before "Cardinals" returned. In 1940, the now-familiar "StL" logo was introduced on the team's caps. The interlocking "StL" has undergone several slight modifications over the years but has appeared on the team's caps every year since. The first appearance of the "STL" in 1940 coincided with the introduction of navy blue as a uniform color. From 1940 until 1955, the team wore navy blue caps with red bills and a red interlocking "StL" while the jerseys featured both cardinal red and navy blue accents. In 1951, the "birds on the bat" logo was changed to feature a yellow baseball bat.[109]

The current "birds on the bat" logo introduced in 1998.

In 1956, the Cardinals changed their caps to solid blue with a red "StL," removing the red bill. Also, for that season only, the Cardinals wore a script "Cardinals" wordmark on their uniforms excluding the "birds on the bat." An updated version of the "birds on the bat" logo returned in 1957 with the word "Cardinals" written in cursive beneath the bat. In 1962, the Cardinals became the first National League team to display players' names on the back of their jerseys. In 1964, while retaining their blue caps for road games, the Cardinals changed their home caps to all red with a white interlocking "StL". The next year, they changed their road caps to red as well. In 1967, the birds on the bat emblem on the jersey was again tweaked, making the birds more realistic and changing the position of their tails relative to the bat and this version remained on all Cardinals game jerseys through 1997.

In 1971, following the trend in baseball at the time, the Cardinals replaced the traditional flannel front-button shirts and pants with belts with new pullover knit jerseys and elastic waist pants. Another trend in baseball led the Cardinals to change their road uniforms from gray to light blue from 1976–1984. In 1992, the Cardinals returned to wearing traditional button-down shirts and pants with belts. That same year they also began wearing an all-navy cap with a red "StL" on the road only while wearing the same red and white cap at home games. In 1998, the "birds on the bat" was updated for the first time in 30 years with more detailed birds and bolder letters. That year, St. Louis introduced a cap featuring a single cardinal bird perched on a bat worn only on Sunday home games. The new birds on the bat design was modified again the next year, with yellow beaks and white eyes replacing the red beaks and yellow eyes of the 1998 version. Uniform numbers also returned to the front of the jerseys in 1999 after a two-year absence.[109]

On November 16, 2012, the Cardinals unveiled a new alternate uniform to be worn at home games on Saturdays beginning with the 2013 season.[dated info] The modified jersey, cream-colored with red trim on the sleeves and down the front, was the first since 1932 in which "St. Louis" will be used instead of "Cardinals" and retained the "birds on the bat."[110] 2013 also saw the team adopt their red caps as their main uniform for both home and away games; the navy cap was retained as an alternate, used mainly against other red-capped teams. Over the years, the Cardinals have released various marketing logos depicting anthropomorphized cardinals in a pitching stance, swinging a baseball bat, or wearing a baseball cap that never became part of the game uniform.[109]

Support[edit]

Fans[edit]

Main article: Cardinal Nation

Mascots[edit]

Main articles: Fredbird and Rally Squirrel

The team mascot is an anthropomorphic cardinal wearing the team's uniform named Fredbird. He is assisted by Team Fredbird, a group of eleven women who entertain fans from the field and on top of the dugouts.

While unofficial, the Rally Squirrel became an unexpected phenomenon during the 2011 postseason. Making its "debut" in Game 3 of the NLDS on Oct 4, a squirrel ran across home plate in the middle of a pitch from Roy Oswalt of the Phillies to the Cardinals' Skip Schumaker. The Cardinals would win Game 4 and subsequently Game 5 (Oct. 7) in Philadelphia to advance to the NLCS, symbolizing the squirrel's "role" in the victory. The squirrel was popularized as "Buschie the Rally Squirrel"[111] As a tribute to the popularity of the squirrel, a small depiction of the Rally Squirrel is also included on the official World Series rings the team received. It shows up under the "STL" logo on the side of the ring.

Rivalries[edit]

Chicago Cubs[edit]

The Cardinals–Cubs rivalry refers to games between the Cardinals and the Chicago Cubs. The rivalry is also known as the I-55 series (or in earlier years the Route 66 series), deriving its name from the roadway connecting the two cities, Interstate 55 (which itself succeeded the famous U.S. Route 66). The Cubs lead the series 1,104–1,065 through June 14, 2013,[112] while the Cardinals lead in National League pennants with 19 against the Cubs' 16. The Cubs have won 10 of those pennants in Major League Baseball's Modern Era (1901–present), while all 19 of the Cardinals' pennants have been won since 1901. The Cardinals also have an edge when it comes to World Series successes, having won 11 championships to the Cubs' two. The Cardinals also have an advantage over their Chicago rivals in the regular season standings since the Cubs last participated in a World Series (1945): in the 66 seasons from 1946 through 2013 the Cardinals have finished ahead of the Cubs 51 times. In that same span the Cardinals have had 47 seasons in which their winning percentage was over .500, while the Cubs have finished over that mark 19 times (they finished at an even .500 twice). Cardinals-Cubs games see numerous visiting fans in either St. Louis' Busch Stadium or Chicago's Wrigley Field.[113] When the National League split into two, and then three divisions, the Cardinals and Cubs remained together. This has added excitement to several pennant races over the years.

Kansas City Royals[edit]

Although both teams play in the state of Missouri, they did not play each other for the first time until the 1985 World Series, which the Royals won in seven games, but which is perhaps best remembered for a controversial call from umpire Don Denkinger in Game 6. Due to their geographical proximity, the teams have faced each other every regular season in interleague play since it started in 1997. This is sometimes referred to as the I-70 Series.[citation needed]

Executives and club officials[edit]

Ownership and valuation[edit]

An investment group led by William DeWitt, Jr. owns the St. Louis Cardinals, having bought the team from Anheuser-Busch (AB) in 1996.[114] As with other periods of the Cardinals' transaction history, doubt loomed as to whether the purchaser would keep the team in St. Louis, due to the city's status as a "small market," which appear to handicap a club's competitiveness. Such was the case when Sam Breadon put the Cardinals up for sale in 1947: then-NL President Ford Frick proposed moving the Cardinals to Chicago.[115] When AB placed the Cardinals for sale in 1995, they publicly expressed intention to find a buyer who would keep the club in St. Louis.[116] In March 1996, AB sold the team for $147 million to a partnership headed by Southwest Bank's Drew Baur, Hanser and DeWitt, Jr.[115] Civic Center Redevelopment, a subsidiary of AB, held the parking garages and adjacent property and also transferred them to the Baur ownership group.[117] Baur's group then sold the garages to another investment group, lowering the net franchise purchase price to about $100 million, about $10 million less than Financial World's value of the team at the time $110 million.[116][118]

Current Cincinnati Reds owners Bob Castellini and brothers Thomas Williams and W. Joseph Williams Jr. each once owned a stake in the Cardinals dating back to the Baur-DeWitt group's purchase of the team. To allow their purchase of the Reds in 2005, the rest of the group bought out Castellini's and the Williams brothers' shares, totaling an estimated thirteen percent. At that time, the Forbes valued the Cardinals at about $370 million.[119] However, after reabsorbing that stake into the remainder of the group, they decided to make it available to new investors in 2010. Amid later allegations that the Cardinals owed the city profit shares, DeWitt revealed that their profitability had not reached the threshold to trigger that obligation.[120]

Recent annual financial records[edit]

As of 2014, Forbes valued the Cardinals eighth among all MLB franchises. Their estimated value of $820 million was an increase of more than $100 million from the season before, when they ranked tenth. St. Louis' revenue in 2013 was $283 million. Their operating income of $65.2 million was the highest among all MLB franchises.[121][122] The year before, Forbes valued the Cardinals at $716.2 million and opined that they play "in the best single-team baseball market in the country and are among the league's leaders in television ratings and attendance every season."[122] Concurrent with the growth of Major League Baseball, the Cardinals value has increased significantly since the Baur-DeWitt purchase. In 2000, the franchise was valued at $219 million,[123] a growth rate of 374% through 2014. The franchise's value grew 12.7% from 2013 to 2014.

St. Louis Cardinals' financial value since 2009
Year $ Franchise Value (mil.) 1 $ Revenue (mil.) 2 $ Operating Income (mil.) 3 $ Player Expenses (mil.) 4 Wins-to-player cost ratio 5 Ref
2009 $486 $195 $   7 $120   87
2010 $488 $195 $12.8 $111 100 [124]
2011 $518 $207 $19.8 $110   94 [125]
2012 $591 $233 $25.0 $123 116 [126]
2013 $716 $239 $19.9 $134 102 [122]
2014 $820 $283 $65.2 $133 118 [121][127]

All valuations per Forbes.
1 Based on current stadium deal (unless new stadium is pending) without deduction for debt, other than stadium debt.
  (2014: market $339 mil., stadium $211 mil., sport $156 mil., brand management $124 mil.)[127]
   (2013: market $291 mil., stadium $182 mil., sport $151 mil., brand management $91 mil.)
   (2012: market $240 mil., stadium $157 mil., sport $119 mil., brand management $78 mil.)
   (2011: market $206 mil., stadium $136 mil., sport $111 mil., brand management $65 mil.)

2 Net of stadium revenues used for debt payments.
3 Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization.
4 Includes benefits and bonuses.
5 Compares the number of wins per player payroll relative to the rest of MLB. Playoff wins count twice as much as regular season wins. A score of 120 means that the team achieved 20% more victories per dollar of payroll compared with the league average in 2010.

Franchise Principals[5]

Other interests[edit]

Besides Ballpark Village, which has now finished its first phase, opening on March 27,[128][129] and considered a smashing success with the first phase of the project totaling 120,000 square feet (11,000 m2).[130] the Cardinals own four of their Minor League Baseball affililiates:

Executives[edit]

Baseball Operations[5]
  • Sr. Vice President and General Manager: John Mozeliak
  • Assistant General Manager: Mike Girsch
  • Farm Director: John Vuch
  • Scouting Director: Dan Kantrovich
  • International Operations Director: Moisés Rodríguez
  • Director of Player Personnel: Matt Slater
  • Senior Medical Advisor: Barry Weinberg
Finance and Administration[5]
  • Sr. Vice President and CFO: Brad Wood
Event Services and Merchandizing[5]
  • Vice-President: Vicki Bryant
  • Vice-President of Stadium Operations: Joe Abernathy
Ticket Sales, Marketing & Corporate Sales[5]
  • Sr. Vice-President of Sales & Marketing: Dan Farrell
  • Vice-President of Corp. Marketing & Stadium Entertainment: Thane van Breusegen

Managerial roll[edit]

Field managers with three or more years managing and the current manager are included here.[3]

Dates Name W-L Record WPct. Highlights Ref
1883–89, 1891 Charlie Comiskey 563–273 .673* Highest winning-percentage in franchise history;
Four consecutive World Series appearances, one title
[15]
1895, 96, 97 Chris von der Ahe 3–14 .176 [135]
1901–03 Patsy Donovan 175–236 .426 [136]
1906–08 John McCloskey 153–304 .335 [137]
1909–12 Roger Bresnahan 255–352 .420 [138]
1913–17 Miller Huggins 346–415 .455 [139]
1919–25 Branch Rickey 458–485 .486 [140]
1929, 1940–45 Billy Southworth 620–346 .642** Second-highest winning-percentage in franch. history (highest modern);
Two World Series wins
[44]
1929, 1930–33 Gabby Street 312–242 .563 Two NL pennants and one World Series win [141]
1933–38 Frankie Frisch 458–354 .564 One World Series win [142]
1946–50 Eddie Dyer 446–325 .578 One World Series win [143]
1952–55 Eddie Stanky 260–238 .522 [144]
1956–58 Fred Hutchinson 232–220 .513 [145]
1959–61 Solly Hemus 190–192 .497 [146]
1961–64 Johnny Keane 317–249 .560 One World Series win [147]
1965–76, 1980, 1990 Red Schoendienst 1041–955 .522 Two NL pennants and one World Series win [148]
1978–80 Ken Boyer 166–190 .466 [149]
1980–90 Whitey Herzog 822–728 .530 Three NL pennants and one World Series win [65]
1990–95 Joe Torre 351–354 .498 [75]
1996–2011 Tony La Russa 1408*–1182* .544 Most managerial wins and seasons in team history;
Two World Series wins
[150]
2012–present Mike Matheny 275–211 .566 One NL pennant [151]
Table key
  • *All-time franchise leader. ** Franchise leader since 1900.
W-L
Total number of wins and losses
WPct
Winning percentage: Number of wins divided by total of wins and losses
Bold
Franchise leader
Elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame

Players[edit]

Current roster and coaching staff[edit]

St. Louis Cardinals 2015 spring training roster
40-man roster Non-roster invitees Coaches/Other

Pitchers

Catchers

Infielders

Outfielders


Pitchers


Infielders



Manager

Coaches



37 active, 0 inactive, 3 non-roster invitees

Injury icon 2.svg 7- or 15-day disabled list
* Not on active roster
Suspended list
Roster and NRIs updated November 20, 2014
TransactionsDepth Chart
All MLB rosters

Selected individual achievements and awards[edit]

Team captains[edit]

Hall of Famers[edit]

Inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum[edit]

St. Louis Cardinals Hall of Famers
Affiliation according to the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum
St. Louis Browns

George Sisler*†

Charles Comiskey*

Roger Connor*

Pud Galvin*

St. Louis Cardinals

Grover Cleveland Alexander*
Walter Alston
Jake Beckley*
Jim Bottomley*
Roger Bresnahan*
Lou Brock
Mordecai Brown*
Jesse Burkett**
Steve Carlton

Orlando Cepeda
Dizzy Dean
Leo Durocher
Dennis Eckersley
Frankie Frisch*
Bob Gibson
Burleigh Grimes
Chick Hafey*

Jesse Haines*
Whitey Herzog
Rogers Hornsby*
Miller Huggins
Tony La Russa
Rabbit Maranville
Bill McKechnie
John McGraw

Joe Medwick*
Johnny Mize*
Stan Musial
Kid Nichols*
Wilbert Robinson*
Red Schoendienst
Enos Slaughter
Ozzie Smith

Billy Southworth
Bruce Sutter
Joe Torre
Dazzy Vance
Bobby Wallace**
Hoyt Wilhelm
Vic Willis**
Cy Young
Branch Rickey

Players listed in bold are depicted on their Hall of Fame plaques wearing a Browns or Cardinals cap insignia.
* Has no insignia on his cap due to playing at a time when caps bore no insignia.
† Played for the AL St. Louis Browns, but not the NL St. Louis club. Because of their status as the only Major League team remaining in St. Louis, the Cardinals franchise chose to honor Sisler as a St. Louis-based player.
** Wears no cap.

Inducted into the St. Louis Cardinals Hall of Fame Museum[edit]

In 2014, the Cardinals announced the reopening of the franchise Hall of Fame after six years on hiatus. A formal selection process will recognize former Cardinals as Cardinals Hall of Famers each year. In conjunction, the team released the names of 22 former players and personnel to be inducted for the inaugural class of 2014.[162]

Retired numbers[edit]

The Cardinals have retired twelve total jersey numbers––second in MLB only to the New York Yankees' sixteen––in honoring fourteen total former players and club personnel on the left field wall at Busch Stadium.[163][164] A fifteenth, Jackie Robinson, is honored by all MLB teams.[165]

Rogers
Hornsby

2B, Mgr
Honored 1937
Ozzie
Smith

SS
Retired 1996
Red
Schoendienst

2B, Mgr, Coach
Retired 1996
Stan
Musial

OF, 1B, GM
Retired 1963
Enos
Slaughter

RF
Retired 1996
Tony
La Russa

Mgr
Retired 2012
Ken
Boyer

3B, Mgr, Coach
Retired 1984
Dizzy
Dean

SP
Retired 1974
Lou
Brock

LF, Coach
Retired 1979
Whitey
Herzog

Mgr, GM
Retired 2010
Bruce
Sutter

RP
Retired 2006
Jackie
Robinson

2B
Retired by MLB '97
Bob
Gibson

SP, Coach
Retired 1975
Gussie
Busch

Owner
Retired 1984
Jack
Buck

Broadcaster
Honored 2002

Notes:

  • Hornsby: When honored in 1937, '"SL"' was used in place of a number as he played mostly in an era without numbers.[166]
  • 85: Cardinal stockholders honored Busch with the number 85 on his 85th birthday in 1984.

Out of circulation, but not officially retired[edit]

  • 25 has not been reissued since the playing days of Mark McGwire (1B, 1997–2001),[167] except to McGwire himself during his tenure as hitting coach from 2010-2012.
  • 57: Darryl Kile's (P, 200002) number has not been reissued since his death in the middle of the 2002 season. Along with Josh Hancock's number 32, another active pitcher deceased in the middle of the season, they are honored with small circular logos bearing their initials and numbers on the wall of the Cardinal bullpen.[168]

Minor league affiliations[edit]

Level Team League Location Manager
AAA Memphis Redbirds Pacific Coast League Memphis, Tennessee Ron Warner
AA Springfield Cardinals Texas League Springfield, Missouri Mike Shildt
Advanced A Palm Beach Cardinals Florida State League Jupiter, Florida Dann Bilardello
A Peoria Chiefs Midwest League Peoria, Illinois Joe Kruzel
Short season A State College Spikes New York–Penn League University Park, Pennsylvania Oliver Mármol
Rookie Johnson City Cardinals Appalachian League Johnson City, Tennessee Johnny Rodríguez
GCL Cardinals Gulf Coast League Jupiter, Florida Steve Turco
DSL Cardinals Dominican Summer League Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic Fray Peniche

Radio and television coverage[edit]

Radio[edit]

Capable of reaching 21 million listeners in nine states including Missouri, Illinois, Arkansas, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Tennessee, the Cardinals radio network is the second-largest in MLB with 117 affiliate stations.[7] In St. Louis, CBS-owned KMOX (1120 AM) airs Cardinals games over radio and feeds the rest of the Cardinals network. Mike Shannon and John Rooney alternate as play-by-play announcers, with Chris Hrabe serving as pre-game and post-game host. KMOX's 50,000-watt clear-channel signal covers much of the continental United States at night. At one time, owing to the Cardinals' status as a "regional" franchise, the Cardinals radio network reached almost half of the country.

The 2011 season marked the Cardinals' return to KMOX following five seasons on KTRS (550 AM), a station which is 50 percent owned by the Cardinals. With a partnership spanning seven decades, and continuously since 1954, its conclusion realized after the 2005 season when CBS Radio and the Cardinals failed to reach terms on a new rights agreement. However, frustrated by the underpowered coverage of 5,000-watt KTRS, the Cardinals reached a new deal with KMOX in 2011.

Mike Shannon will announce 30 fewer games in 2013, compared to the 15 he took off in 2012, and in previous seasons. Most of the games will be road games and three-city trips. He has been announcing Cardinals' games starting in 1972, making 2013 his 41st year announcing. He turns 74 in July.[169] He has announced Cardinals' games for more years than anyone except Jack Buck (1954–58, 1961-2001) who announced for 46 years.

Television[edit]

Since 2000, Cardinals telecasts have generated the top three in ratings in MLB every season.[7] Fox Sports Midwest airs all games in high-definition and is the team's exclusive television broadcaster, with the exception of selected Saturday afternoon games on Fox (via its St. Louis affiliate, KTVI) or Sunday Night Baseball on ESPN. Fox Sports Indiana, Fox Sports South, Fox Sports Tennessee, Fox Sports Oklahoma, and SportSouth air Cardinals games for fans living within the Cardinals broadcast territory who do not receive the Fox Sports Midwest channel. The television commentators lineup includes Dan McLaughlin, Rick Horton, and Al Hrabosky. Jimmy "the Cat" Hayes serves as dugout reporter during the game as well as on Cardinals Live, a pre- and post-game show. Cardinals Live is hosted in-studio by Pat Parris along with game analysts and former Cardinals players Jim Edmonds, Gary Bennett and Chris Duncan.[170]

Cardinals Kids, a program aimed at the team's younger fans, airs weekly in-season on Fox Sports Midwest. It's hosted by former Cardinals pitcher Andy Benes, team mascot Fredbird, and Busch Stadium Public Address announcer John "The U-Man" Ulett. The 30-minute show began airing in 2003 and presents team news, player profiles, and Cardinals team history in a kid-friendly manner along with games and trivia.[171]

A weekly magazine program, This Week in Cardinal Nation, airs on St. Louis' NBC affiliate KSDK. Cardinals games had been seen on KSDK (and its predecessor, KSD-TV) from 1947 through 1958, 1963 through 1987, and 2007 until 2010. KPLR-TV was the Cardinals' other over-the-air broadcaster, carrying games from 1959 through 1962 and from 1988 until 2006.

Former Cardinals broadcasters include Jack Buck, Harry Caray, Dizzy Dean, Joe Garagiola, Sr., and Jay Randolph. Joe Buck, the son of Jack Buck, was an official member of the Cardinals' broadcast team from 1991 until 2007. The younger Buck is currently the lead play-by-play caller for Fox Sports' national Major League Baseball and National Football League broadcasts.

Opening Day lineups[edit]

Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
2014[172] Matt Carpenter 3B Kolten Wong 2B Matt Holliday LF Allen Craig RF Yadier Molina C Matt Adams 1B Jhonny Peralta SS Peter Bourjos CF Adam Wainwright P
2013[173] Jon Jay CF Matt Carpenter 3B Matt Holliday LF Allen Craig 1B Carlos Beltrán RF Yadier Molina C Daniel Descalso 2B Pete Kozma SS Adam Wainwright P
2012[174] Rafael Furcal SS Carlos Beltrán RF Matt Holliday LF Lance Berkman 1B David Freese 3B Yadier Molina C Jon Jay CF Daniel Descalso 2B Kyle Lohse P
2011[175] Ryan Theriot SS Colby Rasmus CF Albert Pujols 1B Matt Holliday LF Lance Berkman RF David Freese 3B Yadier Molina C Skip Schumaker 2B Chris Carpenter P
2010[176] Skip Schumaker 2B Brendan Ryan SS Albert Pujols 1B Matt Holliday LF Colby Rasmus CF Ryan Ludwick RF Yadier Molina C David Freese 3B Chris Carpenter P
2009[177] Brendan Ryan 2B Rick Ankiel CF Albert Pujols 1B Khalil Greene SS Ryan Ludwick RF Yadier Molina C Chris Duncan LF Brian Barden 3B Adam Wainwright P
2008[178] Skip Schumaker RF Chris Duncan LF Albert Pujols 1B Rick Ankiel CF Troy Glaus 3B Yadier Molina C Adam Kennedy 2B Kyle Lohse P César Izturis SS
2007[179] David Eckstein SS Preston Wilson RF Albert Pujols 1B Scott Rolen 3B Yadier Molina C Jim Edmonds CF So Taguchi LF Adam Kennedy 2B Chris Carpenter P
2006[180] David Eckstein SS Juan Encarnación RF Albert Pujols 1B Jim Edmonds CF Scott Rolen 3B So Taguchi LF Yadier Molina C Aaron Miles 2B Chris Carpenter P
2005[181] David Eckstein SS Larry Walker RF Albert Pujols 1B Scott Rolen 3B Jim Edmonds CF Mark Grudzielanek 2B Reggie Sanders LF Yadier Molina C Chris Carpenter P
2004[182] Tony Womack 2B Ray Lankford LF Albert Pujols 1B Jim Edmonds CF Scott Rolen 3B Edgar Rentería SS Reggie Sanders RF Mike Matheny C Matt Morris P
2003[183] Fernando Viña 2B Edgar Rentería SS Jim Edmonds CF Albert Pujols LF Scott Rolen 3B Tino Martinez 1B Eli Marrero RF Mike Matheny C Matt Morris P
1985[184] Tommy Herr 2B Terry Pendleton 3B Willie McGee CF Jack Clark 1B Steve Braun LF Andy Van Slyke RF Mike LaValliere C Ozzie Smith SS Bob Forsch P
1967[185] Lou Brock LF Curt Flood CF Roger Maris RF Orlando Cepeda 1B Mike Shannon 3B Tim McCarver C Julián Javier 2B Dal Maxvill SS Bob Gibson P

Opening Day salaries[edit]

Opening Day payrolls for 25-man roster (since 2000):[186]

Opening Day Salary
(ML contracts plus pro-rated signing bonuses)
Year Salary
2000 $63,900,000
2001 $78,538,333
2002 $74,660,875
2003 $83,786,666
2004 $83,228,333
2005 $92,106,833
2006 $88,891,371
2007 $90,286,823
2008 $99,624,449
2009 $88,528,409
2010 $94,220,500
2011 $109,048,000
2012 $111,858,500
2013 $116,790,787
2014 $111,250,000   (Google spreadsheet)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In 1981, the Cardinals finished with the overall best record in the East Division. However, a players' strike in the middle of the season forced the season to be split into two halves. St. Louis finished second in both halves and was thereby deprived of a post-season appearance.
  2. ^ In 2001, the Cardinals and the Houston Astros finished the season with identical records of 93–69 and finished tied for first place in the Central Division standings. The Baseball Hall of Fame wrote they were both awarded a co-championship.[1] According to the Cardinals' website, this was "the first shared championship in major-league history".[2] For playoff seeding, the NL Central slot went to Houston and St. Louis was awarded the wild card berth.
  3. ^ Most sources consider the 1882 Brown Stockings to represent the beginning of the St. Louis Cardinals (if it was not the even earlier 1875 or 1878 clubs) but the St. Louis Cardinals baseball club itself considers its history to have begun in 1892 when the team (still called the St. Louis Browns) joined the National League.[13][14]
  4. ^ Although the St. Louis Cardinals do not officially recognize their era in the American Association (AA) as part of their Major League history, Major League Baseball recognized that incarnation of the AA in 1968, as well as other historic leagues, existing as former Major Leagues.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "St. Louis Cardinals and the National Baseball Hall of Fame". National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum. Archived from the original on June 10, 2007. "The Cardinals and Astros were declared co-champions of the NL Central in 2001, based on their identical regular season record. The Astros, who edged the Cardinals in head-to-head games, 9-7, were seeded as the division winner in the post-season, and the Cardinals were seeded as the wild-card." 
  2. ^ "St. Louis Cardinal History". Stlouis.cardinals.mlb.com. Retrieved October 29, 2011. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i "St. Louis Cardinals Team History & Encyclopedia". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved February 13, 2013. 
  4. ^ Eisenbath 1999: 251
  5. ^ a b c d e f "Cardinals Front Office". mlb.com. Retrieved October 14, 2014. 
  6. ^ "Cardinals fans get another vote as best in baseball". Denver Post. August 2, 2012. Retrieved March 27, 2013. 
  7. ^ a b c "Busch Stadium facts". cardinals.mlb.com. Retrieved April 15, 2013. 
  8. ^ Cash 2002: 38
  9. ^ a b "St. Louis Cardinals Team History & Encyclopedia". Baseball Reference. Retrieved October 24, 2014. 
  10. ^ a b "St. Louis Cardinals (1882-2013)". Retrosheet. Retrieved October 24, 2014. 
  11. ^ Suehsdorf, A. D. (1978). The Great American Baseball Scrapbook, p. 8. Random House. ISBN 0-394-50253-1
  12. ^ "1875 St. Louis Brown Stockings team page". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved January 10, 2013. 
  13. ^ "Franchise Timeline". The Official Site of the St Louis Cardinals. Major League Baseball. Retrieved October 24, 2014. 
  14. ^ "Cardinals assert team history began in 1892". The Cardinal Nation Blog. August 21, 2009. Retrieved October 24, 2014. 
  15. ^ a b "Charlie Comiskey Managerial Record". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved March 26, 2013. 
  16. ^ "Bob Caruthers player page". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  17. ^ "Tip O'Neill player page". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  18. ^ "Tip O'Neill awards". Baseball Almanac. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  19. ^ a b c d "MLB Triple Crown Winners". Baseball-reference.com. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  20. ^ Cash, Jon David (2002). Before They Were Cardinals: Major League Baseball in Nineteenth-Century. St. Louis: University of Missouri Press. 
  21. ^ a b c d "Cardinals timeline 1". St. Louis Cardinals Official Website. Retrieved March 6, 2007. 
  22. ^ "Baltimore Orioles on Baseball Almanac". Baseball-almanac.com. Retrieved June 3, 2013. 
  23. ^ Macht, Norman. "The Ballplayers - Sam Breadon". BaseballLibrary.com. Retrieved June 3, 2013. 
  24. ^ Doyle, Pat. "Branch Rickey's Farm - Minor League History". baseball-almanac.com. Retrieved June 3, 2013. 
  25. ^ "On This Day: Branch Rickey, 83, dies in Missouri". New York Times on the Web Learning Network. January 10, 1965. Retrieved January 24, 2013. 
  26. ^ "Rogers Hornsby player page". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  27. ^ a b c "Cardinals timeline 3". St. Louis Cardinals Official Website. Retrieved February 22, 2013. 
  28. ^ Doug Feldman. Dizzy and the Gashouse Gang: The 1934 St. Louis Cardinals and Depression-Era Baseball. Jefferson NC: McFarland & Company, 2000. 215pp.
  29. ^ "Dizzy Dean player page". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved February 22, 2013. 
  30. ^ "St. Louis Cardinals HOF Museum". MLB.com. Retrieved February 23, 2013. 
  31. ^ "Johnny Mize player page". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  32. ^ "Joe Medwick player page". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
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