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A Confrontation for Integration at the University of Alabama
A Confrontation for Integration at the University of Alabama
Published: 2013/02/27
Channel: The Grio
Gov. Wallace Attempts to Block Integration - June 11, 1963
Gov. Wallace Attempts to Block Integration - June 11, 1963
Published: 2011/08/11
Channel: Newseum
40th Anniversary:Vivian Malone Jones and the Stand in the Schoolhouse Door
40th Anniversary:Vivian Malone Jones and the Stand in the Schoolhouse Door
Published: 2013/01/30
Channel: The University of Alabama
Govenor Bentley recalls the
Govenor Bentley recalls the 'Stand in the Schoolhouse Door'
Published: 2013/06/12
Channel: The Crimson White
Wallace Resists Integration University Of Alabama 1963
Wallace Resists Integration University Of Alabama 1963
Published: 2014/01/29
Channel: John Tabakian
The Stand in the Schoolhouse Door
The Stand in the Schoolhouse Door
Published: 2015/06/01
Channel: alexadah
The Soul Children - Poem On The School House Door
The Soul Children - Poem On The School House Door
Published: 2009/07/16
Channel: salvmac
African Americans Hood and Malone admitted to Univ of Alabama after President Ken...HD Stock Footage
African Americans Hood and Malone admitted to Univ of Alabama after President Ken...HD Stock Footage
Published: 2014/06/07
Channel: CriticalPast
Innocent Forrest Gump
Innocent Forrest Gump
Published: 2013/03/20
Channel: Kristy Goode
Stand in the Schoolhouse Door
Stand in the Schoolhouse Door
Published: 2012/06/11
Channel: SangareMP
Stand at the School House Door
Stand at the School House Door
Published: 2014/04/21
Channel: UA Corolla
JFK
JFK's Civil RIghts Speech
Published: 2013/06/12
Channel: MrBobsStuff1
Stand in at the School House Door Video.mov
Stand in at the School House Door Video.mov
Published: 2012/04/07
Channel: nguyentnt4
The Stand in the Schoolhouse Door | Forrest Gump February (TSB032)
The Stand in the Schoolhouse Door | Forrest Gump February (TSB032)
Published: 2017/02/06
Channel: The Story Behind Podcast
49th Anniversary of the Stand in the Schoolhouse Door
49th Anniversary of the Stand in the Schoolhouse Door
Published: 2012/06/16
Channel: BroadcastSparky
College Writing- Stand at the Schoolhouse Door
College Writing- Stand at the Schoolhouse Door
Published: 2011/12/09
Channel: lalalalaaaism
Stand in the Schoolhouse Door
Stand in the Schoolhouse Door
Published: 2016/08/11
Channel: WikiWikiup
50th Anniversary of the Stand in the Schoolhouse Door
50th Anniversary of the Stand in the Schoolhouse Door
Published: 2013/06/11
Channel: Marilyn Vaughn
Stand in the Schoolhouse Door- Mary Hood Informative speech.wmv
Stand in the Schoolhouse Door- Mary Hood Informative speech.wmv
Published: 2010/11/06
Channel: newseason28
Governor Wallace and ‘the stand in front of the school house door”  Mason N
Governor Wallace and ‘the stand in front of the school house door” Mason N
Published: 2017/01/12
Channel: mjnova8
Audio Project/ 50th Anniversary Of Stand In The School House Door
Audio Project/ 50th Anniversary Of Stand In The School House Door
Published: 2013/03/01
Channel: Sheldon Pearson
1996 Lurleen Wallace Award of Courage - Vivian Malone Jones
1996 Lurleen Wallace Award of Courage - Vivian Malone Jones
Published: 2015/02/05
Channel: GovWallace
Three Days at Foster
Three Days at Foster
Published: 2016/11/02
Channel: godigital
Schoolhouse Door Hero
Schoolhouse Door Hero
Published: 2013/12/10
Channel: Mohammed Kamal
50 Years Later: The Stand in the Doorway
50 Years Later: The Stand in the Doorway
Published: 2013/08/25
Channel: DavidKnews
Through the Doors: Photos from the Press Corps
Through the Doors: Photos from the Press Corps
Published: 2013/10/09
Channel: The University of Alabama
Through The Doors
Through The Doors
Published: 2013/06/12
Channel: WVUA 23
Three Days at Foster - Trailer
Three Days at Foster - Trailer
Published: 2016/11/02
Channel: godigital
Tarleton   Schoolhouse Door
Tarleton Schoolhouse Door
Published: 2012/09/27
Channel: House Democrats
American Civil Rights Movement Part 2
American Civil Rights Movement Part 2
Published: 2014/07/16
Channel: LittleBillysWorld
The Voices of Integration AMS 303 Shanrica Evans
The Voices of Integration AMS 303 Shanrica Evans
Published: 2015/04/15
Channel: Shanrica Evans
James Hood: Breaking Barriers
James Hood: Breaking Barriers
Published: 2011/03/08
Channel: GadsdenTimes
USA: ALABAMA: FUNERAL OF FORMER GOVERNOR GEORGE WALLACE (2)
USA: ALABAMA: FUNERAL OF FORMER GOVERNOR GEORGE WALLACE (2)
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: AP Archive
Crisis - Trailer
Crisis - Trailer
Published: 2016/04/26
Channel: The Criterion Collection
Beta Eta Omega Psi Phi Homecoming Step Show 2011
Beta Eta Omega Psi Phi Homecoming Step Show 2011
Published: 2011/10/08
Channel: XLNB
Hooding of Vivian Malone Jones, August 2000
Hooding of Vivian Malone Jones, August 2000
Published: 2014/11/03
Channel: The University of Alabama
Sleight of History
Sleight of History
Published: 2009/11/10
Channel: DocumentingJustice
The Live Wire - The Constitution and the Schoolhouse Door:  Students
The Live Wire - The Constitution and the Schoolhouse Door: Students' Rights in American Schools
Published: 2015/06/30
Channel: UNC Charlotte's Official YouTube Channel
What Do The Letters SCLC Stand For
What Do The Letters SCLC Stand For
Published: 2017/07/20
Channel: sparky heights
News Coverage from Opening Doors Symposium 1988
News Coverage from Opening Doors Symposium 1988
Published: 2013/02/21
Channel: The University of Alabama
Did you know ...? # PART 2559
Did you know ...? # PART 2559
Published: 2017/05/31
Channel: Did you know...
Remembering Nicholas Katzenbach. In memoriam Carroll Shelby.
Remembering Nicholas Katzenbach. In memoriam Carroll Shelby.
Published: 2012/06/01
Channel: Rememberingthepassed
Opening Doors Symposium Panel Discussion 1988
Opening Doors Symposium Panel Discussion 1988
Published: 2013/02/16
Channel: The University of Alabama
Students Sound Off: Free Speech
Students Sound Off: Free Speech
Published: 2015/02/23
Channel: The Crimson White
♫ [1994] Forrest Gump | Alan Silvestri - № 17 -
♫ [1994] Forrest Gump | Alan Silvestri - № 17 - ''The Wedding Guest''
Published: 2012/11/08
Channel: VantageCigarretes
♫ [1994] Forrest Gump | Alan Silvestri - № 07 -
♫ [1994] Forrest Gump | Alan Silvestri - № 07 - ''They're Sending Me To Vietnam''
Published: 2012/10/30
Channel: VantageCigarretes
Using Research Evidence in Education From the Schoolhouse Door to Capitol Hill Policy Implications o
Using Research Evidence in Education From the Schoolhouse Door to Capitol Hill Policy Implications o
Published: 2016/05/10
Channel: Betty Campbell
♫ [1994] Forrest Gump | Alan Silvestri - № 18 -
♫ [1994] Forrest Gump | Alan Silvestri - № 18 - ''Where Heaven Ends''
Published: 2012/11/08
Channel: VantageCigarretes
20030611_me_03
20030611_me_03
Published: 2016/12/09
Channel: table knife
♫ [1994] Forrest Gump | Alan Silvestri - № 16 -
♫ [1994] Forrest Gump | Alan Silvestri - № 16 - ''Forrest Meets Forrest''
Published: 2012/11/08
Channel: VantageCigarretes
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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The Stand in the Schoolhouse Door took place at Foster Auditorium at the University of Alabama on June 11, 1963. George Wallace, the Democratic Governor of Alabama, in a symbolic attempt to keep his inaugural promise of "segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever" and stop the desegregation of schools, stood at the door of the auditorium to try to block the entry of two black students, Vivian Malone and James Hood.[1]

In response, President John F. Kennedy issued Executive Order 11111, which federalized the Alabama National Guard, and Guard General Henry Graham then commanded Wallace to step aside, saying, "Sir, it is my sad duty to ask you to step aside under the orders of the President of the United States."[2] Wallace then spoke further, but eventually moved, and Malone and Hood completed their registration. The incident brought Wallace into the national spotlight.[3]

Background[edit]

On May 17, 1954, the Supreme Court of the United States handed down its decision regarding the case called Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, in which the plaintiffs charged that the education of black children in separate public schools from their white counterparts was unconstitutional. Brown v. Board of Education meant that the University of Alabama had to be desegregated. In the years following, hundreds of African-Americans applied for admission, but with one brief exception,[Note 1] all were denied. The University worked with police to find any disqualifying qualities, or when this failed, intimidated the applicants.[citation needed] But in 1963, three African-Americans —Vivian Malone Jones, Dave McGlathery and James Hood—applied. In early June a federal district judge ordered that they be admitted,[4] and forbade Governor Wallace from interfering.[5]

The incident[edit]

General Henry Graham salutes and then confronts George Wallace.
Vivian Malone Jones arrives to register for classes at the University of Alabama's Foster Auditorium.

On June 11, Malone and Hood pre-registered in the morning at the Birmingham courthouse. They selected their courses and filled out all their forms there. They arrived at Foster Auditorium to have their course loads reviewed by advisors and pay their fees. They remained in their vehicle as Wallace, attempting to uphold his promise as well as for political show,[5] blocked the entrance to Foster Auditorium with the media watching. Then, flanked by federal marshals, Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach told Wallace to step aside.[1][6] However, Wallace interrupted Katzenbach and gave a speech on states' rights.[5][7]

Katzenbach called President John F. Kennedy, who had previously issued a presidential proclamation demanding that Wallace step aside, and told him of Wallace's actions in ignoring the proclamation as it had no legal force.[8][9] In response, Kennedy issued Executive Order 11111, which had already been prepared, authorizing the federalization of the Alabama National Guard.[9] Four hours later, Guard General Henry Graham commanded Wallace to step aside, saying, "Sir, it is my sad duty to ask you to step aside under the orders of the President of the United States." Wallace then spoke further, but eventually moved, and Malone and Hood completed their registration.[2]

Aftermath[edit]

In the days following the enactment, the National Guard were ordered to remain on the campus owing to a large Ku Klux Klan contingent in the surrounding area. Wallace and Kennedy exchanged volatile telegrams over it.[10] Wallace objected to Kennedy ordering the Guard to remain on the campus and said that Kennedy bore responsibility if something happened.[10] Kennedy responded stating that Executive Order 11111 made it clear that responsibility for keeping the peace remained with the State Troopers under Wallace's control and said he would revoke the order if assurances were made.[10] Wallace refused stating he would not be intimidated and cited that Executive Order 11111 was passed without his knowledge.[10]

Executive Order 11111 was also used to ensure that the Alabama National Guard made sure that black students across the state were able to enroll at previously all-white schools.[11] It was complemented by Executive Order 11118 in September 1963 and was not revoked, despite succeeding in its objectives.[12][13]

Cultural references[edit]

The incident was detailed in Robert Drew's 1963 documentary film Crisis: Behind a Presidential Commitment. The event was depicted in the 1994 film Forrest Gump, in which the title character appeared at the event,[14][15][16] and in the 1997 television movie George Wallace.

In June 2012, George Wallace, Jr. commented on his father's legacy, and mentioned the reference to the event in Bob Dylan's 1964 song "The Times They Are a-Changin'": "Come Senators, Congressmen, please heed the call. Don't stand in the doorway, don't block up the hall." Wallace, Jr. said, when he was 14, he sang the song for his father and thought he saw the look of regret in his father's eyes.[17]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In February of 1956, Autherine Lucy started classes under guard at UA as a graduate student after having been admitted three years earlier. Her presence was met with riots, and the administration found excuses first to suspend, and then expel her shortly after she enrolled.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Elliot, Debbie. Wallace in the Schoolhouse Door. NPR. June 11, 2003. Accessed February 19, 2009.
  2. ^ a b Lesher, Stephan (1995). George Wallace: American Populist. Da Capo Press. p. 233. ISBN 9780201407983. 
  3. ^ Democratic Governor George C. Wallace's School House Door Speech. Accessed February 19, 2009.
  4. ^ "Address on Civil Rights". Miller Center of Public Affairs. June 11, 1963. Retrieved 2013-02-07. This afternoon, following a series of threats and defiant statements, the presence of Alabama National Guardsmen was required on the University of Alabama to carry out the final and unequivocal order of the United States District Court of the Northern District of Alabama. 
  5. ^ a b c Standing In the Schoolhouse Door (June). Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement. Accessed February 19, 2009
  6. ^ Andrew Cohen (May 9, 2012). "Nicholas Katzenbach, Unsung Hero of America's Desegregation". Theatlantic.com. 
  7. ^ Wallace, George C. (12 December 2012). "Governor George C. Wallace's School House Door Speech". Alabama Department of Archives and History. Montgomery, Alabama. Archived from the original on 6 August 2002. Retrieved 14 April 2016. 
  8. ^ "Executive Order 10730: Little Rock Nine: Integration of the University of Alabama". Shmoop. Retrieved 2017-05-11. 
  9. ^ a b Willis, Jim (2015). 1960s Counterculture: Documents Decoded: Documents Decoded. ABC-CLIO. p. 82. ISBN 1610695232. 
  10. ^ a b c d "Dueling Telegrams: 1963 verbal power play between Wallace and JFK" (PDF). Alabama State Archives. Retrieved 2017-05-11. 
  11. ^ "Kennedy federalized National Guard to integrate Alabama public schools (Sept. 10, 1963)". AL.com. Retrieved 2017-05-11. 
  12. ^ "Executive Orders Disposition Tables". National Archives. Retrieved 2017-05-11. 
  13. ^ United States General Accounting Office (1965). Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States. 43. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 296. 
  14. ^ Byers, Thomas (1996). "History Re-Membered: Forrest Gump, Postfeminist Masculinity, and the Burial of the Counterculture". Modern Fiction Studies. 42 (2): 419–44. doi:10.1353/mfs.1995.0102. Retrieved 2009-02-28. 
  15. ^ Paul Grainge (2003). Memory and Popular Film. Manchester University Press. p. 229. ISBN 978-0-7190-6375-6. Retrieved February 28, 2009. 
  16. ^ Behind the Magic of Forrest Gump: "George Wallace." in Forrest Gump special collector's edition (DVD). 2001. 
  17. ^ Grayson, Wayne (8 June 2012). "Son says former Gov. George Wallace repented for past". The Tuscaloosa News. Retrieved 15 January 2016. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 33°12′29.21″N 87°32′38.37″W / 33.2081139°N 87.5439917°W / 33.2081139; -87.5439917

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