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Stuart Kauffman - Is Emergence Fundamental?
Stuart Kauffman - Is Emergence Fundamental?
Published: 2015/11/09
Channel: Closer To Truth
Stuart Kauffman | Full Lecture | KLI
Stuart Kauffman | Full Lecture | KLI
Published: 2016/06/02
Channel: KLI Klosterneuburg
Mind Body Quantum Mechanics, Stuart Alan Kauffman
Mind Body Quantum Mechanics, Stuart Alan Kauffman
Published: 2017/01/20
Channel: scienceandnonduality
Conference: Causality - Reality - Stuart Kauffman
Conference: Causality - Reality - Stuart Kauffman
Published: 2017/03/28
Channel: NTU Para Limes
CCS2016 Day 4
CCS2016 Day 4
Published: 2016/10/26
Channel: Complexity Institute, Nanyang Technological University
The 2008-09 Paul Tillich Lecture: The Open Universe and the Sacred
The 2008-09 Paul Tillich Lecture: The Open Universe and the Sacred
Published: 2014/05/21
Channel: Harvard Divinity School
STUART KAUFFMAN - REINVENTING THE SACRED
STUART KAUFFMAN - REINVENTING THE SACRED
Published: 2013/09/15
Channel: Karol Jalochowski
Stuart Kauffman - What Causes Religious Belief?
Stuart Kauffman - What Causes Religious Belief?
Published: 2017/08/15
Channel: Closer To Truth
The Evolutionary Origins of Self
The Evolutionary Origins of Self
Published: 2017/03/14
Channel: scienceandnonduality
Stuart Kauffman on Beyond Reductionism
Stuart Kauffman on Beyond Reductionism
Published: 2008/06/03
Channel: utool7001
Transforming Medicine: Stuart Kauffman
Transforming Medicine: Stuart Kauffman
Published: 2015/01/28
Channel: Transforming Medicine: The Elizabeth Kauffman Institute
Plenary 11 Quantum Approaches 2
Plenary 11 Quantum Approaches 2
Published: 2016/05/31
Channel: Science of Consciousness Conference
Stuart Kauffman sets the purpose introduction and agenda setting
Stuart Kauffman sets the purpose introduction and agenda setting
Published: 2009/07/27
Channel: James F. Moore
The Re-Enchantment of Humanity: Dr. Stuart Kauffman
The Re-Enchantment of Humanity: Dr. Stuart Kauffman
Published: 2012/02/07
Channel: UVMcomplexity
OUBEY - Encounter 8 - Stuart Kauffman (English)
OUBEY - Encounter 8 - Stuart Kauffman (English)
Published: 2010/11/05
Channel: OUBEY MINDKISS
Stuart Kauffman: "Answering Descartes: Beyond Turing"
Stuart Kauffman: "Answering Descartes: Beyond Turing"
Published: 2013/09/18
Channel: David Orban
Stuart Kauffman on Leadership
Stuart Kauffman on Leadership
Published: 2010/10/04
Channel: ulrike reinhard
13. Stuart Kauffman - Beyond Belief 2007
13. Stuart Kauffman - Beyond Belief 2007
Published: 2011/01/28
Channel: Barry Belmont
Biologist and complexity theorist Stuart Kauffman on preadaptations in evolution
Biologist and complexity theorist Stuart Kauffman on preadaptations in evolution
Published: 2009/07/27
Channel: James F. Moore
Stuart Kauffman - Mind in the Poised Realm
Stuart Kauffman - Mind in the Poised Realm
Published: 2012/08/24
Channel: Johanan Raatz
Stuart Kauffman and "WE"
Stuart Kauffman and "WE"
Published: 2008/05/24
Channel: wemagazine
Stuart Kauffman "Beyond Reductionism"
Stuart Kauffman "Beyond Reductionism"
Published: 2008/01/23
Channel: 0ThouArtThat0
Determinism vs freewill
Determinism vs freewill
Published: 2013/06/10
Channel: CLozaLeon
Stuart Kauffman: Yuk
Stuart Kauffman: Yuk 'n' Yum
Published: 2009/05/04
Channel: SunlightOxygen
Stuart Kauffman Returns to Gund 1/2
Stuart Kauffman Returns to Gund 1/2
Published: 2012/01/08
Channel: GundInstitute
OUBEY - Encounter 8 - Stuart Kauffman (Deutsch)
OUBEY - Encounter 8 - Stuart Kauffman (Deutsch)
Published: 2010/11/05
Channel: OUBEY MINDKISS
Reinventing the Sacred with Stuart Kauffman part1
Reinventing the Sacred with Stuart Kauffman part1
Published: 2008/08/18
Channel: centerforinquiryo
Complex System Impacts on EE (P2)
Complex System Impacts on EE (P2)
Published: 2010/12/02
Channel: GundInstitute
Stuart Kauffman at ICSB 2013 (pt. 1/4)
Stuart Kauffman at ICSB 2013 (pt. 1/4)
Published: 2016/09/25
Channel: 익룡이야
Get Your Life in Gear for Realtors by Coach Stuart Kaufman
Get Your Life in Gear for Realtors by Coach Stuart Kaufman
Published: 2011/04/03
Channel: mycoachstuart
Entretien avec Stuart Kauffman
Entretien avec Stuart Kauffman
Published: 2014/02/03
Channel: UIP PARIS
Stuart Kauffman leads off on constraints and creativity (w Gordon Kaufman, Liane Gabora)
Stuart Kauffman leads off on constraints and creativity (w Gordon Kaufman, Liane Gabora)
Published: 2009/07/22
Channel: James F. Moore
Stuart Kauffman meets KLI
Stuart Kauffman meets KLI
Published: 2016/05/27
Channel: KLI Klosterneuburg
Intervista a Stuart Kaufmann parte 1
Intervista a Stuart Kaufmann parte 1
Published: 2012/07/14
Channel: Associazione ASIA
NPS Stuart Kaufman-Peace
NPS Stuart Kaufman-Peace
Published: 2013/11/19
Channel: University of Delaware
Gordon Kaufman on creativity, Liane Gabora and Stuart Kauffman discuss
Gordon Kaufman on creativity, Liane Gabora and Stuart Kauffman discuss
Published: 2009/07/27
Channel: James F. Moore
Liane Gabora
Liane Gabora's story of improv dance with constraints (w Gordon Kaufman, Stuart Kauffman)
Published: 2009/07/22
Channel: James F. Moore
Reinventing the Sacred with Stuart Kauffman part2
Reinventing the Sacred with Stuart Kauffman part2
Published: 2008/08/18
Channel: centerforinquiryo
Stuart Kaufman
Stuart Kaufman
Published: 2011/02/23
Channel: NYGOE
Stuart Kauffman Returns to Gund 2/2
Stuart Kauffman Returns to Gund 2/2
Published: 2012/01/08
Channel: GundInstitute
Rejoice with Ben Kinchlow, Earl Cox and Stuart Kaufman - Part 5
Rejoice with Ben Kinchlow, Earl Cox and Stuart Kaufman - Part 5
Published: 2015/12/17
Channel: TCTTVNet
Stuart Kauffman
Stuart Kauffman's vision of "WE"
Published: 2010/10/04
Channel: WEmagazinedotnet
Stuart Kauffman at ICSB 2013 (pt. 2/4)
Stuart Kauffman at ICSB 2013 (pt. 2/4)
Published: 2016/09/25
Channel: 익룡이야
Stuart Kauffman at ICSB 2013 (pt. 3/4)
Stuart Kauffman at ICSB 2013 (pt. 3/4)
Published: 2016/09/25
Channel: 익룡이야
Stuart Kauffman at ICSB 2013 (pt. 4/4)
Stuart Kauffman at ICSB 2013 (pt. 4/4)
Published: 2016/09/25
Channel: 익룡이야
Reinventing the Sacred with Stuart Kauffman part8
Reinventing the Sacred with Stuart Kauffman part8
Published: 2008/08/19
Channel: centerforinquiryo
Reinventing the Sacred with Stuart Kauffman part11
Reinventing the Sacred with Stuart Kauffman part11
Published: 2008/08/19
Channel: centerforinquiryo
Reinventing the Sacred with Stuart Kauffman part5
Reinventing the Sacred with Stuart Kauffman part5
Published: 2008/08/18
Channel: centerforinquiryo
Reinventing the Sacred with Stuart Kauffman part7
Reinventing the Sacred with Stuart Kauffman part7
Published: 2008/08/18
Channel: centerforinquiryo
Reinventing the Sacred with Stuart Kauffman part6
Reinventing the Sacred with Stuart Kauffman part6
Published: 2008/08/18
Channel: centerforinquiryo
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Stuart Kauffman
Stuart Kauffman.jpg
Stuart Kauffman in April 2010
Born (1939-09-28) September 28, 1939 (age 77)
Institutions University of Chicago
University of Pennsylvania
University of Calgary
Alma mater Dartmouth College
Oxford University
University of California, San Francisco
Known for NK model, origin of life, gene regulatory networks, Adjacent Possible, Poised realm
Notable awards Wiener Medal (1969)
Marshall Scholar
MacArthur Fellow

Stuart Alan Kauffman (born September 28, 1939) is an American medical doctor, theoretical biologist, and complex systems researcher who studies the origin of life on Earth. He was a professor the University of Chicago, University of Pennsylvania, and University of Calgary. He is currently emeritus professor of biochemistry at the University of Pennsylvania and affiliate faculty at the Institute for Systems Biology. He has a number of awards including a MacArthur Fellowship and a Wiener Medal.

He is best known for arguing that the complexity of biological systems and organisms might result as much from self-organization and far-from-equilibrium dynamics as from Darwinian natural selection as discussed in his book Origins of Order (1993). In 1967[1] and 1969[2] Kauffman used random boolean networks to investigate generic self-organizing properties of gene regulatory networks. Using these models, he proposed that cell types are dynamical attractors in gene regulatory networks and that cell differentiation can be understood as transitions between attractors. Recent evidence suggests that cell types in humans and other organisms are attractors.[3][4] In 1971 he suggested that a zygote may not be able to access all the cell type attractors in it gene regulatory network during development and that some of the developmentally inaccessible cell types might be cancer cell types.[5] This suggested the possibility of "cancer differentiation therapy". He also proposed the self-organized emergence of collectively autocatalytic sets of polymers, specifically peptides, for the origin of molecular reproduction,[6][7] which have found experimental support.[8][9]

Education and early career[edit]

Kauffman graduated from Dartmouth in 1960, was awarded the BA (Hons) by Oxford University (where he was a Marshall Scholar) in 1963, and completed a medical degree (M.D.) at the University of California, San Francisco in 1968. After completing his internship, he moved into developmental genetics of the fruitfly, holding appointments first at the University of Chicago from 1969 to 1973, the National Cancer Institute from 1973 to 1975, and then at the University of Pennsylvania from 1975 to 1994, where he rose to Professor of Biochemistry and Biophysics.

Career[edit]

Kauffman became known through his association with the Santa Fe Institute (a non-profit research institute dedicated to the study of complex systems), where he was faculty in residence from 1986 to 1997, and through his work on models in various areas of biology. These included autocatalytic sets in origin of life research, gene regulatory networks in developmental biology, and fitness landscapes in evolutionary biology. With Marc Ballivet, Kauffman holds the founding broad biotechnology patents in combinatorial chemistry and applied molecular evolution, first issued in France in 1987[1], in England in 1989, and later in the US.[10][2]

In 1996, with Ernst and Young, Kauffman started BiosGroup, a Santa Fe, New Mexico-based for-profit company that applied complex systems methodology to business problems. BiosGroup was acquired by NuTech Solutions in early 2003. NuTech was bought by Netezza in 2008, and later by IBM.[11][12][13]

From 2005 to 2009 Kauffman held a joint appointment at the University of Calgary in Biological Sciences and Physics and Astronomy. He was also an Adjunct Professor in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Calgary. He was an iCORE (Informatics Research Circle of Excellence) chair and the director of the Institute for Biocomplexity and Informatics. Kauffman was also invited to help launch the Science and Religion initiative at Harvard Divinity School; serving as Visiting Professor in 2009.

In January 2009 Kauffman became a Finland Distinguished Professor (FiDiPro) at Tampere University of Technology, Department of Signal Processing. The appointment ended in December, 2012. The subject of the FiDiPro research project is the development of delayed stochastic models of genetic regulatory networks based on gene expression data at the single molecule level.

In January 2010 Kauffman joined the University of Vermont faculty where he continued his work for two years with UVM's Complex Systems Center.[14] From early 2011 to April 2013, Kauffman was a regular contributor to the NPR Blog 13.7, Cosmos and Culture,[15] with topics ranging from the life sciences, systems biology, and medicine, to spirituality, economics, and the law [3]. Kauffman is also a regular contributor to Edge.org.[16] [4]

In May 2013 Kauffman joined the Institute for Systems Biology, in Seattle Washington. Following the death of his wife, with others, Kauffman cofounded Transforming Medicine: The Elizabeth Kauffman Institute. *[5] [17]

In 2014, Kauffman with Samuli Niiranen and Gabor Vattay was issued a founding patent [6] on the poised realm (see below), an apparently new "state of matter" hovering reversibly between quantum and classical realms.[18]

In 2015, Kauffman was invited to help initiate a general a discussion on rethinking economic growth for the United Nations.[19] He is also currently doing research with University of Oxford Professor Teppo Felin.[20]

In 2016, Kauffman wrote a children's story: Patrick, Rupert, Sly & Gus Protocells (can be read here): [7], a narrative about unprestatable niche creation in the biosphere (that he narrates here):[8]. Kauffman is also an atheist.[21]

He wrote two theatrical plays: "The Enlightenment of Reverend Joseph Smith" (2016) and a play, with Alex Cantarelli as a co-author, dedicated to the rescue of the danish Jews in 1943, titled "The stones would weep" (2017).

Fitness Landscapes[edit]

Visualization of two dimensions of a NK fitness landscape. The arrows represent various mutational paths that the population could follow while evolving on the fitness landscape.

Kauffman's NK model defines a combinatorial phase space, consisting of every string (chosen from a given alphabet) of length . For each string in this search space, a scalar value (called the fitness) is defined. If a distance metric is defined between strings, the resulting structure is a landscape.

Fitness values are defined according to the specific incarnation of the model, but the key feature of the NK model is that the fitness of a given string is the sum of contributions from each locus in the string:

and the contribution from each locus in general depends on the value of other loci:

where are the other loci upon which the fitness of depends.

Hence, the fitness function is a mapping between strings of length K + 1 and scalars, which Weinberger's later work calls "fitness contributions". Such fitness contributions are often chosen randomly from some specified probability distribution.

In 1991, Weinberger published a detailed analysis[22] of the case in which and the fitness contributions are chosen randomly. His analytical estimate of the number of local optima was later shown to be flawed. However, numerical experiments included in Weinberger's analysis support his analytical result that the expected fitness of a string is normally distributed with a mean of approximately and a variance of approximately .

Recognition and awards[edit]

Kauffman held a MacArthur Fellowship between 1987–1992. He also holds an Honorary Degree in Science from the University of Louvain (1997); He was awarded the Norbert Wiener Memorial Gold Medal for Cybernetics in 1973, the Gold Medal of the Accademia dei Lincei in Rome in 1990, the Trotter Prize for Information and Complexity in 2001, and the Herbert Simon award for Complex Systems in 2013. He became a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in 2009.

Works[edit]

Kauffman is best known for arguing that the complexity of biological systems and organisms might result as much from self-organization and far-from-equilibrium dynamics as from Darwinian natural selection (See Origins of Order, 1993, below).

Some biologists and physicists working in Kauffman's area reserve judgment on Kauffman's claims about self-organization and evolution. A case in point is the introduction to the 2002 book Self Organization in Biological Systems (ISBN 978-0691116242). Roger Sansom's Ingenious Genes: How Gene Regulation Networks Evolve to Control Development (MIT Press, 2011) is an extended criticism of Kauffman's models.

Borrowing from spin glass models in physics, Kauffman invented "N-K" fitness landscapes, which have found applications in biology[23] and economics.[24][25] In related work, Kauffman and colleagues have examined subcritical, critical, and supracritical behavior in economic systems.[26]

Kauffman's recent work translates his biological findings to the mind body problem and issues in neuroscience, proposing attributes of a new "poised realm" that hovers indefinitely between quantum coherence and classicality. Kauffman published on this topic in Answering Descartes: Beyond Turing (Kauffman, In press, Cambridge University; see below Kauffman, 2016). With colleagues Giuseppe Longo and Maël Montévil, Stuart Kauffman wrote (January 2012) "No entailing laws, but enablement in the evolution of the biosphere",[27] which aims to show that evolution is not law entailed, as is physics, and that, without selection, evolution enables its own future possibilities.

Kauffman's recent work is posted on Physics ArXiv, including "Beyond the Stalemate: Mind/Body, Quantum Mechanics, Free Will, Possible Panpsychism, Possible Solution to the Quantum Enigma" (October 2014)[28] and "Quantum Criticality at the Origin of Life" (February 2015).[18]

He has published over 300 articles and 5 books: The Origins of Order (1993), At Home in the Universe (1995), Investigations (2000), Reinventing the Sacred (2008), and Humanity in a Creative Universe (2016).

Publications[edit]

Selected articles
Books
  • Kauffman, Stuart (1993). The Origins of Order: Self Organization and Selection in Evolution. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-507951-5. 
  • Kauffman, Stuart (1995). At Home in the Universe: The Search for Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195111303. 
  • Kauffman, Stuart (2000). Investigations. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199728941. 
  • Kauffman, Stuart (2008). Reinventing the Sacred: A New View of Science, Reason, and Religion. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-00300-1. 
  • Kauffman, Stuart (2016). Humanity in a Creative Universe. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-939045-8. 
Presentations
Interviews & Documentaries

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Kauffman & McCulloch 1967.
  2. ^ Kauffman 1969.
  3. ^ Huang & Kauffman 2009.
  4. ^ Nykter et al. 2008.
  5. ^ Kauffman 1971b.
  6. ^ Kauffman 1971a.
  7. ^ Kauffman 2011.
  8. ^ Dadon, Wagner & Ashkenasy 2008.
  9. ^ Dadon et al. 2012.
  10. ^ US 5,723,323  "Method of identifying a stochastically-generated peptide, polypeptide, or protein having ligand binding property and compositions thereof."
  11. ^ "NuTech Solutions to Acquire BiosGroup's Software Development Operations". BusinessWire. 20 February 2003. Retrieved 5 July 2015. 
  12. ^ "Netezza Corporation Acquires NuTech Solutions". BusinessWire. 15 May 2008. Retrieved 5 July 2015. 
  13. ^ "IBM to Acquire Netezza". IBM News Room. IBM. 20 September 2010. Retrieved 5 July 2015. 
  14. ^ "Stuart Kauffman, complex systems pioneer, to join UVM faculty". Vermontbiz.com. Vermont Business Magazine. September 30, 2009. Retrieved 2015-04-28. 
  15. ^ "Stuart Kauffman". NPR.org. Retrieved 2015-04-28. 
  16. ^ "Stuart A. Kauffman". Edge.org. Edge Foundation. Retrieved 2015-04-28. 
  17. ^ Kauffman et al. 2014b.
  18. ^ a b Vattay et al. 2015.
  19. ^ http://academicimpact.un.org/content/rethinking-economic-growth/
  20. ^ Felin, Teppo; Kauffman, Stuart; Koppl, Roger; Longo, Giuseppe (2014). "Economic opportunity and evolution: Beyond landscapes and bounded rationality". Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal. 8 (4): 269–282. doi:10.1002/sej.1184. 
  21. ^ "TSN: Stuart Kauffman". Thesciencenetwork.org. Retrieved 2012-06-03.
  22. ^ Weinberger, Edward (November 15, 1991). "Local properties of Kauffman's N-k model: A tunably rugged energy landscape". Physical Review A. 10. 44: 6399–6413. doi:10.1103/physreva.44.6399. 
  23. ^ Kauffman & Johnsen 1991.
  24. ^ Rivkin & Siggelkow 2002.
  25. ^ Felin et al. 2014.
  26. ^ Hanel, Kauffman & Thurner 2007.
  27. ^ Longo, Montévil & Kauffman 2012.
  28. ^ Kauffman 2014.

References[edit]

  • Chialvo, D. R. (2013). "Critical Brain Dynamics at Large Scale". In Plenz D.; Niebur, E.; Schuster H. G. Criticality in Neural Systems. 1. Wiley. ISBN 978-3-527-41104-7. 
  • Dadon, Z.; Wagner, N.; Ashkenasy, G. (2008). "The Road to Non-Enzymatic Molecular Networks". Angew. Chem. Int. 47 (33): 6128–6136. doi:10.1002/anie.200702552. 
  • Dadon, Z.; Wagner, N.; Cohen-Luria, R.; Ashkenasy, G. (2012). "Reaction Networks. Wagner and Askkenazy's (2008) results demonstrate that molecular replication need not be based on DNA or RNA template replication, still the dominate view for the origin of life". In Gale, P. A.; Steed J. W. Supramolecular Chemistry: From Molecules to Nanomaterials. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd. ISBN 978-0-470-74640-0. 
  • Rivkin, J. W.; Siggelkow, N. (May–June 2002). "Organizational Sticking Points on NK Landscapes". Complexity. 7 (5): 31–43. doi:10.1002/cplx.10037. Retrieved 2015-04-28. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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