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Dino Dan Stygimoloch Promo
Dino Dan Stygimoloch Promo
Published: 2015/02/02
Channel: Dino Kids
(Pivot animator) Stygimoloch Rampage: A Mother
(Pivot animator) Stygimoloch Rampage: A Mother's Tale
Published: 2016/06/21
Channel: MatromX
Valley of the Stygimoloch - Dinosaur Train - The Jim Henson Company
Valley of the Stygimoloch - Dinosaur Train - The Jim Henson Company
Published: 2015/01/06
Channel: The Jim Henson Company
warpath: Jurassic Park - Stygimoloch
warpath: Jurassic Park - Stygimoloch
Published: 2016/06/04
Channel: Alberto Acosta
Stygimoloch - Dinosaur Train - The Jim Henson Company
Stygimoloch - Dinosaur Train - The Jim Henson Company
Published: 2015/01/13
Channel: The Jim Henson Company
JURASSIC WORLD 2 NEW DINOSAURS , CARNOTAURUS , BARYONX , STYGIMOLOCH IN CAGE
JURASSIC WORLD 2 NEW DINOSAURS , CARNOTAURUS , BARYONX , STYGIMOLOCH IN CAGE
Published: 2017/04/30
Channel: Reptaard
PPBA Stygimoloch vs Homalocephale
PPBA Stygimoloch vs Homalocephale
Published: 2015/11/19
Channel: Parasaurolophus 67
DINO DAN : DINO DUELS #92  -  Stygimoloch VS. Cow #MakeForKids
DINO DAN : DINO DUELS #92 - Stygimoloch VS. Cow #MakeForKids
Published: 2016/09/16
Channel: MakeForKids
Dinosaur Discoveries Stygimoloch
Dinosaur Discoveries Stygimoloch
Published: 2016/03/14
Channel: Michael Vespia
Zoo Tycoon 2: Stygimoloch Exhibit Speed Build
Zoo Tycoon 2: Stygimoloch Exhibit Speed Build
Published: 2016/01/07
Channel: NickNackGaming
Pelea de dinosaurios:Pachycephalosaurus vs Stygimoloch
Pelea de dinosaurios:Pachycephalosaurus vs Stygimoloch
Published: 2014/04/26
Channel: Jesús Rey Galván Tapia
Dinosaur Discoveries Stygimoloch
Dinosaur Discoveries Stygimoloch
Published: 2015/03/19
Channel: Michael Vespia
Tribute To Stygimoloch & Dracorex
Tribute To Stygimoloch & Dracorex
Published: 2008/11/15
Channel: DinoDude38
Documento Stygimoloch Dinotren - The Jim Henson Company (Español Latino)
Documento Stygimoloch Dinotren - The Jim Henson Company (Español Latino)
Published: 2017/05/15
Channel: Marcelo Ono Avilez
Stygimoloch vs. Spinosaurus
Stygimoloch vs. Spinosaurus
Published: 2010/11/19
Channel: Allosaurus Rex
Stygimoloch VS Carnotaurus
Stygimoloch VS Carnotaurus
Published: 2016/10/23
Channel: Z Silver
Stygimoloch Sound Effects
Stygimoloch Sound Effects
Published: 2014/10/18
Channel: ULTRABROS 123
Stygimoloch - Dino Dan - How to draw Dinosaur from Dino dan
Stygimoloch - Dino Dan - How to draw Dinosaur from Dino dan
Published: 2015/05/27
Channel: MrDrawToon
DINO DAN : DINO DUELS  #95  - Stygimoloch VS. Horse  #MakeForKids
DINO DAN : DINO DUELS #95 - Stygimoloch VS. Horse #MakeForKids
Published: 2016/10/01
Channel: MakeForKids
Rampy The Stygimoloch Vs. Stygimoloch stranger
Rampy The Stygimoloch Vs. Stygimoloch stranger
Published: 2016/10/14
Channel: Golden-Rex PivotDinosaurs
5 facts about the stygimoloch
5 facts about the stygimoloch
Published: 2016/03/06
Channel: amanda t
Stygimoloch | Enciclopedia sobre Dinosaurios
Stygimoloch | Enciclopedia sobre Dinosaurios
Published: 2016/12/16
Channel: Dinosaurioss Dinosaurioss
Jp Warpath Stygimoloch Vs Ankylosaurio
Jp Warpath Stygimoloch Vs Ankylosaurio
Published: 2016/07/31
Channel: Ezequiel Cruz Maciel
Switch & Go Dinos Quiver the Stygimoloch from VTech
Switch & Go Dinos Quiver the Stygimoloch from VTech
Published: 2014/02/06
Channel: TTPM Toy Reviews
Stygimoloch - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Stygimoloch - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Published: 2015/08/05
Channel: Wiz Science™
PPBA Stygimoloch vs Microraptor
PPBA Stygimoloch vs Microraptor
Published: 2015/08/17
Channel: Parasaurolophus 67
Stygimoloch Rampage
Stygimoloch Rampage
Published: 2017/06/26
Channel: Kostas 2405
PPBA Stygimoloch vs Monolophosaurus
PPBA Stygimoloch vs Monolophosaurus
Published: 2015/09/20
Channel: Parasaurolophus 67
Quiver the Stygimoloch™ by VTech®
Quiver the Stygimoloch™ by VTech®
Published: 2013/03/06
Channel: VTechToys
vTech - Switch & Go Dinos - Velociraptor-  Stygimoloch - Therizinosaurus
vTech - Switch & Go Dinos - Velociraptor- Stygimoloch - Therizinosaurus
Published: 2013/02/12
Channel: Toys Television
Jurassic Park: Warpath | Stygimoloch Arcade Playthrough
Jurassic Park: Warpath | Stygimoloch Arcade Playthrough
Published: 2014/04/02
Channel: BestInSlot
Stygimoloch VS giganotosaurus
Stygimoloch VS giganotosaurus
Published: 2016/11/01
Channel: dino game Chanel p 00 f
Zoo Tycoon 2 #1 - Stygimoloch Exhibit
Zoo Tycoon 2 #1 - Stygimoloch Exhibit
Published: 2015/01/11
Channel: Akira Suzuki
MBA:irritator vs stygimoloch
MBA:irritator vs stygimoloch
Published: 2016/07/26
Channel: raptormage
MBA: therizinosaurus vs stygimoloch (quick battle )
MBA: therizinosaurus vs stygimoloch (quick battle )
Published: 2016/09/06
Channel: raptormage
Stygimoloch and Dracorex
Stygimoloch and Dracorex
Published: 2016/09/06
Channel: SpeedArt1480
Stygimoloch vs dracorex
Stygimoloch vs dracorex
Published: 2017/01/07
Channel: Erin Czydge
ASDC - Stygimoloch vs Deinonychus
ASDC - Stygimoloch vs Deinonychus
Published: 2012/09/10
Channel: Allosaurus Rex
The Stomping Land - Killing a Stygimoloch in a Nutshell
The Stomping Land - Killing a Stygimoloch in a Nutshell
Published: 2014/05/30
Channel: nanotyrano
New OC [stygimoloch]
New OC [stygimoloch]
Published: 2017/08/08
Channel: Bubbles the cat X3
EGB: Nanotyrannus vs Stygimoloch
EGB: Nanotyrannus vs Stygimoloch
Published: 2014/06/12
Channel: Spinosaurus Productions
Stygimoloch Headbutting Animation
Stygimoloch Headbutting Animation
Published: 2015/02/27
Channel: bill nguyen
PDW Season 1 Finale Aucasaurus vs Stygimoloch vs Titanoboa
PDW Season 1 Finale Aucasaurus vs Stygimoloch vs Titanoboa
Published: 2016/06/19
Channel: SPINO REX
{YTP} STYGIMOLOCH RAGEQUIT ACTIVATED
{YTP} STYGIMOLOCH RAGEQUIT ACTIVATED
Published: 2016/10/17
Channel: SpinoDragon Productions
3D Dinosaur Adventure "Stygimoloch: To Butt or Not to Butt" Page
3D Dinosaur Adventure "Stygimoloch: To Butt or Not to Butt" Page
Published: 2017/04/05
Channel: kylgrv
Stygimoloch Turntable
Stygimoloch Turntable
Published: 2013/04/26
Channel: S. O'Connor
Pelea de dinosaurios: Stygimoloch vs Ankylosaurus
Pelea de dinosaurios: Stygimoloch vs Ankylosaurus
Published: 2014/04/26
Channel: Jesús Rey Galván Tapia
Switch & Go Dinos Turbo Spinner the Stygimoloch from VTech
Switch & Go Dinos Turbo Spinner the Stygimoloch from VTech
Published: 2014/04/24
Channel: TTPM Toy Reviews
MBA: velociraptor vs stygimoloch + announcement
MBA: velociraptor vs stygimoloch + announcement
Published: 2016/08/12
Channel: raptormage
MBA: utahraptor vs stygimoloch
MBA: utahraptor vs stygimoloch
Published: 2016/07/24
Channel: raptormage
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Stygimoloch
Temporal range: Late Maastrichtian, 66 Ma
Berlin Naturkundemuseum Dino Schaedel.jpg
Reconstructed skull at the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Order: Ornithischia
Family: Pachycephalosauridae
Genus: Stygimoloch
Galton & Sues, 1983
Species: S. spinifer
Binomial name
Stygimoloch spinifer
Galton & Sues, 1983
Synonyms

Stygimoloch is a controversial genus of pachycephalosaurid dinosaur from the end of the Cretaceous period, roughly 66 million years ago. It is currently known from the Hell Creek Formation, Ferris Formation, and Lance Formation of the Western Interior (United States), where it lived alongside Tyrannosaurus and Triceratops.

Description[edit]

Size comparison of Stygimoloch (purple) and a human

It is a relatively large pachycephalosaur,[1] with the skull being about 46 centimeters long (18 in).[2] Among North American pachycephalosaurs, only Pachycephalosaurus is larger. Unlike other pachycephalosaurs, the domed skull is relatively small, slightly flattened from side to side, and pear-shaped; even when isolated this unusual dome can easily be distinguished from the broader, larger domes of Pachycephalosaurus. While the dome is reduced in size, the ornamentation over the skull is more elaborate than in any other pachycephalosaur. Short, conical hornlets covered the nose, and the back corners of the skull bore an enormous pair of massive, backward-pointing spikes, up to 5 centimeters in diameter (2 in) and 15 centimeters long (6 in); these are surrounded by two or three smaller spikes. The function of this unusual ornamentation is unknown. Even if other pachycephalosaurs did butt heads (which is a subject of continuing debate), the small dome of Stygimoloch suggests that this behavior was not as important. Instead, the skull ornament might have functioned for display, may have been used for self-defense, or perhaps were locked together and used in shoving matches, like the horns of deer. Another possibility is that the squamosal horns were used to inflict pain during flank-butting.[3]

History of discovery[edit]

Holotype squamosals and dome

The type species, S. spinifer, was described by British vertebrate paleontologist Peter Galton and German paleontologist Hans-Dieter Sues of the National Museum of Natural History in 1983.[4] Stygimoloch is characterized by clusters of spikes on the back of the skull, in which a long central horn is surrounded by 2-3 smaller hornlets, and a tall, narrow dome.[5] Dracorex has similar but shorter hornlets and lacks a dome, and has been interpreted as either a distinct species, or a juvenile or female of Pachycephalosaurus or Stygimoloch. It has also been proposed that Stygimoloch represents partially grown individuals of Pachycephalosaurus.

The name Stygimoloch comes from the river Styx, which is said to run through the underworld in Greek Mythology, in reference to the Hell Creek Formation, and from Moloch, the name of a Canaanite god, chosen in reference to the bizarre appearance of the animal.[6]

Classification[edit]

Life reconstruction of Stygimoloch spinifer

The pachycephalosaur Dracorex may actually be an individual of Stygimoloch or Pachycephalosaurus in which the dome and horns are not well-developed, either because the animal was a juvenile or because the animal was a female. This consideration was supported at the 2007 annual meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology.[7] Jack Horner of Montana State University presented evidence, from analysis of the skull of the single existing Dracorex specimen, that this dinosaur may well be a juvenile form of Stygimoloch. In addition, he presented data that indicates that both Stygimoloch and Dracorex may be juvenile forms of Pachycephalosaurus. Horner and M.B. Goodwin published their findings in 2009, showing that the spike/node and skull dome bones of all three 'species' exhibit extreme plasticity, and that both Dracorex and Stygimoloch are known only from juvenile specimens while Pachycephalosaurus is known only from adult specimens.[8] These observations, in addition to the fact that all three forms lived in the same time and place, lead them to conclude that Dracorex and Stygimoloch were simply juvenile Pachycephalosaurus, which lost spikes and grew domes as they aged.[9] A 2010 study by Nick Longrich and colleagues also supported the hypothesis that all flat-skulled pachycephalosaurs were juveniles, suggesting that flat-skulled forms like Goyocephale and Homalocephale represent juveniles of dome-skulled adults.[10]

See also[edit]

Artist's impression of a Stygimoloch.

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Switek, Brian (December 7, 2007). "Lumping Dinosaurs: Stygimoloch a juvenile Pachycephalosaurus?". scienceblogs.com. 
  2. ^ "Quién es el Stygimoloch?". Dinosaurios.org. Retrieved 9 December 2013. 
  3. ^ Carpenter, Kenneth (1997). "Agonistic behavior in pachycephalosaurs (Ornithischia:Dinosauria): a new look at head-butting behavior". Contributions to Geology. 32 (1): 19–25. 
  4. ^ Galton, P. M. and H. D. Sues (1983). "New data on pachycephalosaurid dinosaurs (Reptilia: Ornithischia) from North America." Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 20: 462-472.
  5. ^ Goodwin, M. B., E. A. Buchholtz, et al. (1998). "Cranial anatomy and diagnosis of Stygimoloch spinifer." Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 18(2): 363-375.
  6. ^ Sues, H. D., & Galton, P. M. (1987). Anatomy and classification of the North American Pachycephalosauria (Dinosauria: Ornithischian). Palaeontographica Abt. A., 198: 1-40.
  7. ^ Erik Stokstad,"SOCIETY OF VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY MEETING: Did Horny Young Dinosaurs Cause Illusion of Separate Species?", Science Vol. 18, 23 Nov. 2007, p. 1236;
  8. ^ Horner, John; Goodwin, Mark (October 27, 2009). "Extreme Cranial Ontogeny in the Upper Cretaceous Dinosaur Pachycephalosaurus". PLOS. 
  9. ^ Horner J.R. and Goodwin, M.B. (2009). "Extreme cranial ontogeny in the Upper Cretaceous Dinosaur Pachycephalosaurus." PLoS ONE, 4(10): e7626. Online full text
  10. ^ Longrich, N.R., Sankey, J. and Tanke, D. (2010). "Texacephale langstoni, a new genus of pachycephalosaurid (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) from the upper Campanian Aguja Formation, southern Texas, USA." Cretaceous Research, . doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2009.12.002

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