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Aurangabad furnished a genial soil for the spread of Islam, and was the centre of great missionary movements in the 8th century of the Hijri. The district is home to the earliest of Sufi saints of the Deccan. The town of Khuldabad contains the shrines of the most famous saints of the Dakhan. Initially it was known as Rauza meaning garden of paradise. It is known as the Valley of Saints, or the Abode of Eternity, because in the 14th century, several Sufi saints chose to reside here. The tomb of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb and his trusted general Qamar-ud-din Khan, Asaf Jah I first Nizam of Hyderabad are located in this town, so is the tomb of Malik Ambar.
There is scarcely a village in the district which is without its tomb to its patron saint, known by the general name of "Aulia". "Saiad" "Wali", or "Sadat". The "Urs" or the anniversary day of each saint is observed by the Muhammedans and weekly offerings are also made at some of the principal shrines, on every Thursday or Friday. The following is a brief account of the chief Muhammedan saints of the district and the different orders to which they belonged.
Founded by Baha-ud-din whose surname was Nakshbandi, the painter.
Baba Shah Mosafar was one of the most celebrated Nakshbandis of Aurangabad. He was born at Ghajdavan and studied at Bukhara under Baba Palang Posh Nakshbandi. As Hasan Abdal, his spiritual preceptor gave him his final initiation of Baiat and invested him with the cap and mantle. Baba Shah Mosafar travelled over Bengal and Orissa, and arrived at Aurangabad by way of Ginj and Hyderabad. He resided in the tekkieh (convent) of Shah Enalit in Katabpura; but resumed his travels again, and after proceeding as far as Mecca, returned once more to Aurangabad. Shah Mosafar was not welcomed this time by Shah Enait, and moved to the Mahmud darwaza, where Shah Sherin, an Azad or free dervish was living. The Azad was well versed in theological literature, but had a regular tavern for his dwelling place as he belonged to the Be-shara class of fakirs, who are hermits and live without the law. However, he courteously gave up the mosque, and retired to Sultanganj; and Baba Shah Mosafar cleared the place of the bhang drinking vessels. As he belonged to fakirs who are travellers and pilgrims living within the law. Shah Mosafar settled down to a monastic life, and was visited by various prominent persons, who reconstructed his humble dwelling with more substantial materials, and added a madrissa, a travellers, bungalow, and a system of water-supply with cisterns and fountains. Among those who called on him were Haji Jamil Beg Khan, Muhammad Tahir of Persia, haji Manzur, a eunuch of the royal harem. Hafiz Abdul Maoni a learned poet of Balkh, and Tahir Beg of Tashkand. Muhammad Kalich Khan gave him the jagir of Kasab-Khera in the Elora pargana, and a mansab of 150 Rs. a month. The emperor Bahadur Shah expressed a wish to call on him, but sent the prime minister instead. And afterwards the emperor's son prince Muiz ud din visited the Baba. Shah Mosafar died in H. 1110, and in H. 1117. Turktaz Khan Bahadur, a noble on the staff of Nizam ul Mulk 'Asaf Jah' erected the present handsome stone tekkieh the mosque, and the Panchaki or water-mill. Twenty years later Jamil Beg Khan added the-ablong reservoir with fountains, in honour of which, the poet Saiad Gholam 'Ali Bilgrami composed a Mesnavi and consecrated it to Imam Husain.
Of the other Nakshbandis:
Mir Muhammad of Walkan in Bukhara succeeded Shah Mosafar as Kaliph and went to Karnul with Khaja Koli Khan, a companion to Chin Kalich Khan, where he was killed in a scuffle in H. 1119.
Khaja Yadgar Khan worshipped in the mosque of Jamil Beg Khan, and received an annual allowance from the emperor Aurangzeb.
Saiad Masum lies buried towards Sangvi for whom Aurangzeb built the Shabina masjid.
Rehmat Alla Shah came from Baghdad in the time of Aurangzeb, and stayed in Mosafar Shah's tekkieh for thirty years. He then returned to Aurangapura, where Mir Khalil, the emperor's steward, built him a mosque, etc. Rehmat Alla Shah sent his Kalish Hussain Ali to Jalna.
Ganj Rawan Ganj Baksh:
Saiad Shah Jalal ud din or Ganj Rawan Ganj Baksh (which means "moving treasure'), was born at Khirkan near Bukhara, and established the earliest Islamic mission in the Dakhan about H. 700, or a little before the invasion of 'Alaud din Khilji. He settled down at Unasnagar, between Daulatabad and Roza. Ganj Rawan's tomb at Roza has two trees growing near it, one of which is reputed to have grown from a staff given him by his preceptor, and the other from a branch of the first. Both are said to possess miraculous properties.
Shahab ud din. Shahab ud din was an able author, who flourished in the 9th century Hijri, and wrote several works. He spent the greater part of his life at Daulatabad of which he was the "kazi", and had a dispute with Saiad Ajmal the minister of justice about Saiads and Ulemas. Shahabud din died at Daulatabad about H. 848.
Nizam ud din. Nizam ud din came into the Dakhan with a number of Mahomedan missionaries in the beginning of the 11th century of the Hijri era, and lived at 'Ambad,. He possessed great literary qualifications, and Malik Ambar appointed him "kazi " of 'Ambad. His son Baha ud din suffered martyrdom at Ahmednagar, where his tomb is still venerated. Nizam ud din's daughter was buried with her husband at "Nag-jhari", a mile south of 'Ambad. A document dated H. 1113 in the possession of the present descendant, is sealed by Amjad 'Ali Khan Fiawar, an employe of Shah 'Alam Badshah Ghazi. Shah Latif Tawizi came to Paithan and was invested with spiritual power by Maulana Muizzu-d din. His tomb on the bank of the Godavari, opposite to Maulana Sahib's darga, is without a dome.
Dawal Shah Wali. Dawal Shah Wali or Abdul Malik Latif is said to have been the groom of 'Ali. After the death of his master, Dawal Shah Wali travelled about; and monuments were erected to his memory in the different places which he visited. In this manner, there are about 360 " chillas" to him in the Dakhan, besides numerous "astanas" containing some of his sacred relics. He suffered martyrdom at Kattiawad. A "chilla" to Dawal Shah Wali is found within the city walls of Aurangabad to the left of the Mecca gate, and is resorted to every Thursday by Mahomedans and Hindus. The poor people ascribe all manner of sickness to Shah Wali, and make offerings to his tomb. There is another " chilla" to him at Elora, and a shrine to his mother called "Man sahib ki chilla." Babulgaon in the Gangapur taluka, and Pipalwari 6 miles from Paithan, have " astanas" to Shall Wali. Two more " astanas" occur in the Baijapur taluka.
Qadiriyyah.-Originated about H. 561, with Saiad 'Abdul Kadar Gilani whose shrine is at Baghdad, and is the chief order of fakirs in the district.
Shah Nasir ud din or Shah Nasir Alla Kadar was instructed by Said ud din of Delhi to accompany Burhan ud din to the Dakhan on a religious mission. The party arrived at Pirbohra, a village 24 miles north of Aurangabad, where the members separated.
Shah Nasiru-d din Shah Nasir erected the earliest mosque in Jalna on the site " tekri" or mound not far from the "ashaba", . Jala Rao, or Mahomed Islam Khan, a freebooter whom Shah Nasir converted, built the " Khas bhag", and on his death which happened in a religious war, Nasir Alla became possessed of the "shish" or mud fort. Nasir Alla died in the 8th century Hijri, and was buried on the Aurangabad road, not far from the "shish."
Shah Latif Shah Latif Kadari, one of the seven patron saints of Jalna, was a learned man of Delhi, who accompanied Burhanu-d din to the Dakhan, and separated from him at Pirbohra. He opened two " maktabs" or schools near the Jama Masjid at Jalna, and his tomb lies close by. Students offer sugar on the threshold of the tomb, in the hope of improving their memories.
Saiad Rahman Saiad Rahman or Saiad Rafi came with Aurangzeb, and settled at Jalna. The Malis or gardeners give an annual feast called "kundun" at his tomb in Anandi's garden beyond the 'Ambad darwaza.
Taj ud din Tajud din and Saifud din of Baghdad, the descendants of 'Abdul Kadar Jilani, proceeded to Mecca, and then came to India, where they separated. Tajud din arrived at Aurangabad in H. 1070, and on his way, converted a band of robbers 14 miles north of the city, some of whom settled down on the spot and founded a village called Tajnanur. He subsequently became a recluse, and retired into a cave on Chaman Tekri, to the east of Daulatabad, where he was accidentally discovered by Aurangzeb when out hunting. The saint was taken out in a very emaciated state, and was attended by the emperor's physicians who carried him to the Bharkal gate of Aurangabad. Tajud din improved in health, and his staff which was buried in the ground began to grow after forty days. The emperor ordered a mosque to be erected at Chaman Tekri and called it "Taimur Beg masjid". In the meantime Ruknud din, the son of Tajud din, who had been left behind at Baghdad, as being too young to travel, had heard nothing of Tajud din for twenty years, and traveled by way of Mecca for the Dakhan in search of his father. At last he came to the mosque at Chaman Tekri where he obtained news of Tijud din, and soon afterwards joined the latter at the Bharkal gate in the city. On the ensuing "Urus" of 'Abdul Kadar Jilani, Ruknud din, under the title of Mir Mahomed Shaikh Soliman, was appointed successor to his father. Tijud din had an aversion to music and singing, and earned his livelihood by carpet-weaving. He died in H. 1110, and his darga stands near the Bharkal gate of the city.
Rukn ud din Ruknud din or Shaikh Soliman left two months later for Mecca, and returned to Aurangabad after an absence of nine months. He died in H. 1156, and was buried near his father. Chin Begam, the daughter of H. H. 'Asaf Jah, was a staunch disciple of Ruknu-d din's, and was buried near him in H. 1161. An inscription mentions that Saiad Shah Aziz Badshah, the grandson of Ruknud din, erected the present darga in H. 1190. He also composed a small Persian work in H. 1291, called "Nokat-a-Azizi", and dedicated it to his son Saiad Shah Azim Badshah, tutor to H. H. the Nizam.
Shah Nur Hamwi Saiad Shah Nur Hamwi came from Baghdad and lived for some time at Burhanpur and then at Ahmadnagar. He visited Aurangabad after Aurangzeb's arrival, and initiated nawab Diyanut Khan, the emperor's minister, into the Kadaria order. He died in H. 1104, and was buried outside the Paithan gate of the city of Aurangabad. Shah Nur was succeeded as "kaliph" by Shah Mazlum, and the latter by Shahabud din Farrakabadi.
Shah Unas Shah Unas Kadari flourished at Harsul in the time of Aurangzeb. He probably came from Constantinople, and belonged to the Kavas-jilar order of dervishes. Kanduri is a feast held in his honor. The elders of the "Kalbay Kadar ka fakir " come from Bidar to Siwar in the Baijapur taluka. The members of this order are often absorbed in silent meditation, with eyes closed or fixed on the ground.
Kalbay Kadar There is a Kalbay Kadar tekkieh at Badnapur near Jalna, and another close to the Killa Arak in the city of Aurangabad. When the latter was deserted, it was sold to the Shiahs of the city, who converted the place into a burial ground. The wealthier Shiahs only temporarily interred their dead in the cemetery, and afterwards transferred the remains to Kerbela. Shaha Jang, uncle of the late Sir Salar Jang, was buried in this cemetery. An inscription over his tomb gives the date of his death as H. 1210.
Shah Muntajab ud din Shah Muntajab ud din, surnamed Zar Zari Zar Baksh, meaning "generous", was one of the earliest of the Chishtias, and was sent to the Dakhan by Nizamuddin Auliya of Delhi, in the beginning of the 8th century Hijri. He was accompanied by 700 disciples, and is said to have converted a Hindu princess near a well at Roza. The place is called "Sohan baoli" or " pleasing well", and the princess is buried close to the saint. The tomb of Zar Zari Baksh is between Malik Ambar's tomb and the northern gate of the town. It contains a number of ornaments and relics, the most remarkable of which is a circular looking-glass of steel mounted on a steel pedestal of four feet in height. It is said to have been presented by king Tana Shah.
Burhan ud din:
Shah Burhan ud din studied under Nizamuddin Auliya, the sultan ul mashaikh of Delhi; and Saiad Mahomed of Karmania relates in the "Seyar ul Aulia", that Burhanud din was invested with the mantle and cap, the symbols of the kaliphat, in succession to the sultan ul mashaikh. Other writers state, that on the death of Shah Muntajab ud din at Daulatabad, his brother Burhan ud din was sent to succeed him, and was accompanied by 1,400 disciples. It appears more probable however, that Burhan ud din succeeded the sultan ul mashaikh as kaliph, and that he emigrated to the Dakhan when sultan Muhammad bin Tughluq transferred the capital from Delhi to Daulatabad. Mujud ud din in his " Bakiat-el-Gharib" gives a biography of Burhan ud din; and haji Saiad Baksh and Shams ud din, the nephew of Hasan bin es Sanjari, were the particular friends of the saint. Burhan ud din allowed music and dancing in the religious exercises at his convent. He remained for some time at Daulatabad and then left for Roza, where ho died in H. 741(1344 A. D) approx.
Opposite the building which contains the tombs of Aurangzeb & Zain-ud-din is that of Shah Burhanud din. It has a large quadrangular courtyard having open fronted building on all sides, and a nagarkhana at the east end. The west end of the quadrangle is used as a school and a door here gives access to an inner courtyard containing several graves. Facing the entrance is the tomb of Sayyad Burhan-ud-din. Within the shrine are preserved some hair of the prophet's beard. The shrine doors are plated with plates of metal wrought into fanciful designs of trees and flowers. There is a mosque in front of the dargah.
Zain ud din:
Shaikh Zain ud din Daud was born at Shiraz in H. 701 and went to Delhi by way of Mecca. He studied under Maulana Kamal ud din of Samana, and came with him to Daulatabad. The author of the "Mayrat-al Walayeh" mentions that Zain ud din on his arrival at Daulatabad, disapproved of the singing and dancing in the convent of Burhan ud din; but when he visited the " tekkieh", he was perfectly satisfied, and he and his companions were initiated in the Chishtia order. Shaikh Zain ud din held the office of "kazi" at Daulatabad, and in H. 737 was invested with the mantle of the kaliphat, but did not actually succeed till after Burhan ud din's death in H. 741. Shaikh Husain has recorded all the sayings of Zainu-d din in his "Hidayat ul Kalul", and mentions that in H. 747, sultan Muhammad bin Tughluq directed him to leave for Delhi with the other inhabitants. After the death of the sultan, his successor Firoz Shah permitted the saint to return to Daulatabad. Zainu-d din was greatly respected by the Bahmani king sultan Mahmud, who was first reproved by the saint for misgovernment. Malik raja the founder of the Faruki dynasty of Kandesh became one of Zainu-d din's disciples, and when the next sovereign Nasir ud din Nasir Khan Faruki captured Asirgarh in A.D. 1399, Zainu-d din went expressly from Daulatabad to Asirgarh, to tender his congratulations. It was to commemorate this visit that the town of Zainabad, on the left bank of the Tapti, was founded after him; and Burhanpur on the opposite bank was founded about the same time in honor of Burhan ud din. Zain ud din died in H. 771, and a handsome mausoleum was erected over his tomb at Roza, which is visited by devout Musalmans of the Dakhan. The relics of the "parahan" (the robe of the prophet) and "taj" given to Burhanu-d din on succeeding to the kaliphat, are carefully preserved in a wooden box placed in one of the apartments of Zain ud din's darga. Every year on the 12th Rabiu-l Awal, the sacred hair of the Prophet is first shown to visitors, and then the "parahan", the " taj,' and a few likenesses of some of the most sacred personages among the Mahomedans are exhibited.
The tombs of Azam Shah, of his Begum, and of a Mahomedan saint, are in a small enclosure to the east of Zainu-d din's mausoleum; while Aurangzeb's tomb lies to the west. Opposite this last is a large quadrangular courtyard, having open-fronted buildings on all sides, and a "nakar-khana" or music hall at the east end. The west end is used as a school where the Koran is taught, and gives access to an inner courtyard which contains a number of graves. Facing the entrance is the shrine of Burhan ud din; and a little to the right is the last resting-place of Asaf Jah and of one of his consorts. To the left is the tomb of Nasir Jang, the son of 'Asaf Jah, who at one time contemplated rebellion against his father, but overcome by contrition for his conduct, performed penance at the tomb of saint Zain ud din.
Saiad Yousaf or Shah Raju Qatal was instructed by Charagh Dehlwi to proceed to the Dakhan, and arrived there in H. 726. He was accompanied by his sons Saiad Chanda and Saiad Mahomed Banda Nawaz surnamed "Gaysu Daraz" or " the long-ringletted. The latter is the patron saint of Gulbarga. Saiad Yousaf was a Sufi "mashaikh", and wrote a religious, poem called "Tuhfet-en-nasayeh." He died in H. 726 and was buried at Roza.
Amir Hasan bin es Sanjari came from Seistan also known as Amir Hasan Dihlawi Sijzi and was a disciple of Nizamuddin Auliya. He was called the "Sadi of Hindostan", and recorded all his preceptor's sayings in the "Fawaid-ul Fawad." His "Lataif-al-Ashrafi" is full of jokes; and his writings were eulogized by Jami the Persian poet, by Shaikh Faizi, and by others. He left for Daulatabad on the transfer of the capital from Delhi, and died in H. 737. His tomb is outside of Roza, and is surrounded by a wall, but has no dome over it. Students offer sugar on the threshold of the tomb on Thursdays, to improve their memories. A mosque and " tekkieh are attached to the tomb; and close by is the grave of the poet Mir Gholam Ali Azad Bilgrami of the 12th century Hijri.
Farid ud din
Maulana Farid ud din the Adib was one of the leading disciples of Burhdn ud din and died 17 days before his preceptor. His tomb lies to the west of that of Muntajab ud din.
Haji Husain was born at Shiraz, and was a merchant. His son Zain ud din started for Mecca en route to India; and haji and his brother came to Delhi in search of Zain ud din. They then left for Daulatabad where they settled down and died, and were buried to the north-east of Roza. In former days, religious Mahomedans spent 40 days in this dome, in prayer and fasting.
Nizam ud din
Nizam ud din came in the 8th century Hijri, and Burhan ud din gave him a " turra" or crest for his turban, and the title of " Saidus Sadat" or " chief of chiefs." He left Daulatabad for Paithan, and on his way, he erected a mosque and dome. Saiad Sadat performed a " chilla" or fast for 40 days within the dome, and after his death a cenotaph was raised to his memory. The patelship of the village of Bhirkan which he populated, was for a long time in the hands of Saiads, whose tombs are scattered over the kasba and pet, and are objects of veneration to the inhabitants. He peopled the eastern portion of the town and died in H. 792. On the Urus day, the spire of the dome over his tomb is adorned by the Mainars or builders of Paithan with a " turra" or tuft, at the ceremony called " turra churhana", to commemorate the crested turban which Saiad Sadat wore. The Mainars, the Dhanday Momins, and the descendants of the Moghals and Persians who settled about Paithan in the time of Aurangzeb, are among the "khadims" of Saiad Sahib. A date stick, and a "kutchkoal" or beggar's bowl which belonged to the saint, are carefully preserved in the darga. Newly married persons perambulate the tomb three times, and place offerings of food in the beggar's bowl. Bawa Ramzan or Kanoba was a Hindu sorcerer who was converted by Saiad Sadat. He was called Bawa Ramzan, from having been converted in the month of Ramzan; and died at Tisgaon Marri near Ahmednagar. He was hold in great reverence; and a pitcher with which he drew water for 12 years and filled a large jar for Saiad Sadat to wash in, is preserved in the darga.
Jalaluddin Pir Manik Bhandari
He is also amongst the earliest disciples of Nizamuddin Auliya. He ran the Langar khana of Nizamuddin Auliya. After the death of Nizamuddin Auliya, he went to the Deccan with Burhanuddin Gharib, and became famous by the name of Bhandari. His shrine is in Fatehabad in the Aurangabad district of Maharashtra.
Soliman Shah & Others
Soliman Shah, a rich dervish, accompanied Aurangzeb in his early expeditions into the Dakhan, and retired to Gangapur where he died. His darga is in the " barra tekkieh" close to the " shahi bagh" or royal garden. A cenotaph and lamp-pillar to Zinda Shah Madar were also erected in the "barra tekkieh" by Azmat ul la, a son of Soliman Shah who joined the Khadman sect of the Madaria order.
Habib ul la or Hakkani Haknuma flourished at Ranjani in the Jalna taluk; and respect is paid to his memory by the Hindus and Mahomedans, especially by the females. Jana Shah Mian came in the time of the first Nizam, and settled at Seona, where he practised fixed meditation. A hill six miles from Kanhar, near Nandarbari, is called "Kalandar-ki-pahar", possibly after one of the Kalandri order, which is a branch of the Chishtia. Shah Bu Ali Kalandar came with Burhan ud din, and is said to have had his seat on a huge boulder, close to one of the Kanhar hills. Great reverence is paid to this boulder by the Hindus and Mahomedans of the surrounding country. Shah Bu Ali afterwards went to the Punjab and died there. The Mewatis of Kunjkhaira in the Kanhar taluk, belong either to the Chishtia or some other branch of the Kadaria order. A little to the east of Kunjkhaira is a darga to Jangli Shah Mian, and another to Chumman Shah Dulah.
Shattari - A branch of the Kadaria, in which the members repeat their devotions with great rapidity. Arif Alla Shah was about the earliest arrival in the Dakhan, who belonged to this sect. He was buried in his " tekkieh" outside the western gate of' Ambad, near a mosque about 400 years old, called " Bin khami masjid." Saiad Ahmad of Gujarat spread the Shattaria sect in Aurangabad Maharashtra, probably in the time of Aurangzeb. He was a follower of Burhan ud din, and his shrine is outside the Jafar gate.
RAZAK SHAHI.-A branch of the Kadaria, founded by Abdul Razak of Baghdad. Arif Shah Sain of this sect came to 'Ambad, where he erected a mosque. His "tekkieh" and tomb are to the north of 'Ambad; and the graves of his six successors are close by. Sher 'Ali Shah Sain arrived from the Panjab, and his "tekkieh" and tomb are near the Shahgarh darwaza of'Ambad. The remains of a furnace are close by, where he made amber beads which he distributed to fakirs, &c. Shah Khaksar came from Bijapur to Roza in the time of Akbar, and his "tekkieh" and tomb are at Sulibhajan.
Shah Khaksar came from Bijapur to Roza in the time of Akbar, and his "tekkieh" and tomb are at Sulibhajan. He established the Khaksari sect at Daulatabad; and the graves of several of his followers are near his tomb.
is another branch of the Kadaria to which Data Wali of 'Ambad belonged. Data Wali never left his "tekkieh" which is outside the Jalna darwaza, and when he died, was buried in the convent.
JAN ALLA SHAHI - A sect founded at Jalna by Jan Mohammed, who was born at Sinnur near Delhi in H. 1030. He was early left an orphan, and started with his brother for Baghdad; and on completing his studies, was instructed at the tomb of 'Abdul Kadar Jilani to proceed to the great spiritualist, Miranji of Burhanpur. After studying with Miranji for five years, Jan Mahomed's name was changed in open congregation to Jan Alla (Life of God), and that of his brother to Bab Alla (Door of God). In H. 1046 he started for Mecca accompanied by the ancestors of the present "khadims;" and on his journey, was assisted by the "Jins."
Jan Alla. After an absence of twelve years Jan Alla was instructed to proceed to Jalna, which he did by way of Baghdad. On arriving at Aurangabad, he occupied a chamber on the left of the Jumma masjid of Malik Ambar, and was quite a recluse, performing the "Sunnat" prayers in his own room, and only the "Fars" prayers in the mosque. His sanctity was noised about, and he was invited to Jalna by haji Bur Khurdar the faujdar. Aurangzeb also wished to see him and went for the purpose to the Jumma masjid, and even to the " Hujra" or chamber, but did not succeed in his object. A copy of a letter is still shown, which is said to have been written to Jan Alla by order of Aurangzeb. The emperor next sent his vizier, but before the latter could come, Jan Alla and his brother had quietly gone away to Mungi Paitan, and from thence proceeded with Abdur Rahman, the deputy faujdar, to Jalna. Aurangzeb then sent prince Muazzam to Jalna, and the saint received the prince kindly in a small dwelling in a mango grove where Jan Alla's tomb has since been erected. It was on this occasion that Jan Alla received a sanad for five hundred bighas of land near Jalnapur, where Kadrabad and the cantonment now stand.
Khadim Shah Abdul Wahab, or Janaza Rawan, a "khadim" of Jan Alla, conducted the funeral services for the colony of Kadrabad. He compelled the "Jins" to carry him on his cot to Bijapur, to meet Shah Azimu-d din or "Tazim Turk" who mistook him for Jan Alla. Of the other "khadims", Hidayat Alla in H. 1070 copied Imam Gazib's work in the Kufio character. In H. 1085 Ali Bin Mohammed wrote the " Monovarul Kalub", a work on spiritualism. Haji Shah Ismail was buried at Bajipura in Aurangabad ; and his grandson Amam Alla's tomb is near Jan Alla's in Jalna. Amam Alla wrote a Persian work in H. 1169. Saiad 'Abdulla was a "mohudis" versed in tradition; and Mian Haji Mohammed Kasim was tutor to Bahadur Shah I. Miral Hasan was a studious khadim who died at Haidarabad, and his remains were transferred to Kadrabad. He was a prominent subject of H. H. Nasir-ud-Daula, and was contemporary with Maulvi Shaja ud din of Haidarabad, and Alla Wali Sahib of Burhanpur, two of the most learned men of the time. Nur-al Hasan or Gholami Sahib collected a number of books, and had the honor of bringing from Mecca, a copy of the Koran, and a sacred book called Dalail-us Sharif", which he kept in Jalna. The clan of Ghori Pathans found about Jalna belong to the "khadims" of Jan Alla. They fought under Ranmust Khan against raja Sambha of Sattara; and Nahir Khan, a Ghori Pathan, held Jalna in jaghir. According to an inscription, Nahir Khan built the 'Ambad darwaza with a bastion on each side, and a well and masjid for his spiritual director Shah Miran. There is another mosque close by, which was built by Sultan Mohammed, son of Malik 'Abdulla Beg, faujdar of Jalna.
Nirgun shah Wali. Nirgun Shah Wali came from Bengal, and lived as a recluse at Nidhara, two miles north of Jalna. His principle was, "retirement from the eyes of the world, and cessation from seeking the honor and respect of any one." When Aurangzeb was at Jalna, he is said to have visited Nirgun Shah Wali. Many others called to see him, including Jan Alla, Bab Alla, Raja Bagh Sawar., and Nirgun received them, seated on a stone which is still pointed out. He also paid return visits, and took with him a starling (maina), which was always his companion and was able to talk. There is a story current, that Nirgun was murdered by the patels of Nidhara and Tandulwara, for the sake of this maina, which Jan Alla coveted It is said that three days after Nirgun's death, Jan Alla gave a great feast to all the dervishes, on which occasion, the, maina pointed out the corpse of Nirgun, and denouncing Jan Alla as his murderer, fell down dead upon its master. From that day, Jan Alla was stigmatised as " Jan Alla maina mar", and the fakirs of the Nakshbandi, Kadaria, Madaria, Rafai, Sada Sohag, and Jalali orders, and the numerous sects to which these gave rise, consider the khadims of Kadrabad out of caste and will not eat with them. The khadims on the other hand deny the accusation, and assert that there was no talking bird, but that the maina refers to a woman named mana. They further state that the woman was instructed to say that she had been cruelly wronged, because the other dervishes were envious of the 500 bigahs of land which the khadims possessed. Regarding Nirgun the khadims and the patels of Nidhara and Tandulwara affirm, that he was a " ghaus", and that at midnight, in one of his acts of worship called " Tahajud", the intensity of his devotion was so great, that his head and limbs fell asunder. [The word "Nirgun" suggests a connection with "Nirvana", and the story of this saint has an under-current of Buddhism. The Buddhists sympathised with Mahornedanism, and Nirgun's maina is probably the Daitya mana who is said to have been killed by Khandoba. The reverence paid to sacred boulders is derived from the aborigines; and raja Bagh Sawar, and even Jan Alla and Bab Alla are believed to have been converted Hindus.]
RAFAI - Founded in Syria in the 6th century Hijri by Saiad Ahmad Rafai, nephew to Abdul Kadar Jilani. The Rafais are celebrated for their penances with red-hot irons, and are also called howling dervishes. The order was introduced into Aurangabad by Rahmat Alla Shah Rafai in the time of Aurangzeb; and the members became very numerous in the days of H. H. Nizam ' Ali Khan, when there were 360 houses belonging to them in Aurangabad. During the subahship of Shabar Yar Jang, the Rafais cut themselves with lances whenever alms were refused them.
Rahmat Alla, &c. Rahmat Alla came from Baghdad, and lived for thirty years in Mosafar Shah's "tekkieh" at Panchakki. He then moved into a house in Aurangpura which Aurangzeb's steward built for him. His tomb is beyond the western gate of Aurangabad. Medina Sahib came from Medina, and his frenzy as a Rafai is still spoken of by dervishes. He was buried inside the Jafar darwaza. Masum Shah was a famed Rafai of Tisgaon Mori, ten kos from Paitan towards Ahmadnagar. He often visited Kadrabad and built a "tekkieh" near the "Ranger khirki." He was buried in front of the "darga" of Nur Shah Wali. Chand Bi founded Chandaigaon in the Baijapur taluk, and held it in fief under Malik Ambar. It is said that the earth from the grave of Chand Bi has a salutary effect on those bitten by snakes, so that she probably belonged to the Saadi order, the fakirs of which go about with snakes. The ordinary snake jugglers of the district are called "Miran-Summa-ka-garuri", and are followers of Miran Sum-ma, whose shrine is at Mirj Tajgaon near Kolhapur.
BIABANI - Originated with a disciple of Nizam ud din Aulia, called 'Abdulla, who interceded with the emperor Babar on behalf of certain Saiada, but without success. He then retired to Mandur and requested the governor to be allowed to dwell unmolested in the "Biabani" or desert, from which the order took its name.
Abdul Karim The Biabanis of 'Ambad are descended from 'Abdul Karim the son of 'Abdulla. According to some writers, 'Abdul Karim and four of his relatives came from the Arabian desert to "Ambica" or 'Ambad, and hence they were called "Biabani" or children of the desert. They settled down near a Hemad Panti well called "Mahadari baoli" in proximity to the "Shamsher masjid", and were known as the "Panj Pir Biabani" or the five Biaban elders. 'Abdul Karim belonged to the Rafai order, and married the daughter of Sankaray Sultan Mushkil 'Asan, whose shrine is at Kandahar near Nanded. The tombs of the five Biabanis are within the walls of the 'Ambad fort, and are situated to the north.
Zain ud din Zain ud din Biabani, the son of Abdul Karim, who was born in H. 811 at 'Ambad, became the Rafai kaliph in H. 811, and died in H. 909. His fakirs inhabited the village of Fukrabad, a mile from 'Ambad; and a hill close by, on which he was fond of spending his time in meditation and prayer is called "Fukrabad-ka-pahar." The tombs of his mother and wife are also at Fukrabad, and are called respectively "Pirani Man" and "Bua Man." Offerings of sugar-candy and dates are made to the former. The Biabanis have a tradition that Zain ud din was on one occasion seen by a woman in a convulsive state of religious ecstasy. The woman swooned away, but recovered after an hour, and observed something moving under a scarlet cloth (sakilat). In her fright, she called out " Sakilati Sahib" several times, which attracted the attention of passers by, but on examination the movement ceased, and only a " sakilat" or scarlet cloth was found. To commemorate this event, a tomb was raised, which for eight months in the year is much frequented by the surrounding population and by the women in particular; but it is not visited during the rains. [This would seem to correspond with the Buddhist "Wassu" or period of sacred rest which was observed during the four months of the rainy season.] The tomb is called "Baghwan" and " Sakilati Sahib" or " Sakalati Bawa", and sacrifices and offerings are made to it on Thursdays and Fridays. It is thus a source of revenue, and was a subject of dispute between two rival parties. A commission was appointed in H. 1284, which settled the matter in favor of the "khadims" of Ravna and Parora. These assert that 'Alau-d din was buried beneath the tomb in the nalla, and that they are the descendants of his "kluidims."
Ala ud din was the son of Zianu-d din, a native of Gujarat, who married a daughter of Burhan ud din and died at Roza. He visited the tombs of the saints of Gulbarga and Bidar, and was returning to Roza by way of ' Ambad, when he is said to have encountered a troublesome band of demons, and in fighting with them, 'Alau-d din suffered martyrdom. The "sakilat" or scarlet cloth which he wore served as a shroud for his remains, and hence he is called " Sakilati Sahib."
Shah Ashraf. Shah Ashraf the son of Zain ud din assisted the army of a governor of Daulatabad, who changed the name of 'Ambika to Ambad, and endowed the " tekkieh" at Fukrabad with lands and cash. There is a local saying that "Ashraf the Biabani supplies bread to the hungry and water to the thirsty."
Sakray Sultan. Sakray Sultan is reckoned among the great saints of the Dakhan. His tomb is at Kandahar in the Bidar district, and there is a "chilla" to him on the platform above the subterranean passage in the Daulatabad fort. Some Hindus think that the "chilla" contained an image of Ganpati, and say that it was removed to Kaigaon Toka in H. 1207. The place is held in more or less reverence by both Mahomedans and Hindus, and especially by the females. According to a "khadim" at Roza, who is the guardian of this "chilla", Sakray Sultan came with the missionaries who accompanied Burhan ud din, and his proper name was Ain ud din. The missionaries separated at Roza, and Ain ud din proceeded to Kandahar, but before leaving for that place, he performed a "chilla" or fast at Daulatabad.
MADARIA - One of the four Tafuria sects founded in Asia Minor by Badi ud din Rustami surnamed Zinda Shah Madar. The Madaria is in four subdivisions,-1 Diwangan, 2 Talban, 3 Ashkan, and 4 Khadman. Some of the fakirs are jugglers, or take about bears, monkeys, &c, from place to place; while others go about playing on a fiddle and singing in praise of Shah Madar. The Madaria do not shave their beard and moustaches on being initiated; and when any person has gained the object of his desires, he invites the fakirs of this order to perform a ceremony called dhammal Those who allow their hair to grow are called malang, and adopt celibacy like their preceptor.
About H. 1000 Shah Gul Husain, also called Shah Nur Ganj Lashkar, and Shah Daud Ganj Lashkar Maghrobi,two Madaria fakirs, came to Roza and Aurangabad respectively, to propagate the tenets of their order. Shah Nur Ganj's tomb is near the " Nakhar Khana" gate of Roza; and Sultan Saiad Shah Nur, one of his kaliphs, was buried near the Pangri gate. Zabarak Ali Shah another kaliph was taken by H. H. Nizam 'Ali Khan to Hyderabad, but he subsequently returned to Roza where he died, and was buried near the Chauk. Shah Daud Ganj Lashkar Maghrobi introduced the suborder Diwangdn into Aurangabad. His tomb stands near the "tekkieh" called "Til-ki-Mundi."
There are "astanas" and "tekkiehs" at Sangwi, Salaikaon, Dhamori, Borgaon, and Lasur in the Gangapur taluk; at Kandalla in the Baijapur taluk; and at Roza, inhabited by one or more fakirs of the Khadman subdivision; while Salal Ghogargaon and other villages contain " tekkiehs" of the Diwangdn subdivision. The Talban sect is not represented.
Chingi Shah came about a hundred years ago to 'Ambad, and introduced the Ashkan subdivision. Joat 'Ali the Sain, also of this subdivision, came from northern India and died at Debgaon Murmi in the Gandapur taluk in H. 1275. He was accompanied by a Hindu ascetic, who retired to Kaigaon Toka; and was himself a Kanoja Brahman, but was subsequently converted. Joat 'Ali was also called "Malang Shall Maharaja", and was in great repute among Hindus and Mahomedans.
TABKATI - The fakirs of this order beg from door to door and many of them are athletes. The athletic arts and the "talims" of Aurangabad owe their origin to Pir Murshad Chatan Shah who came from Upper India in the 17th century of the Christian era. Fata Shah was an athlete of Aurangzeb's time, and won a wrestling match at Mujunburj, one of the bastions near the Delhi gate, against " Makhna pahalwan", an Ahir athlete. He was buried in the "Fata Shah-ki-talim" to the left of the road loading into the Paitan gate. At the foot of the grave is the tomb of his friend Mausaras, a Hindu convert; and close by are the tombs of Pir Murshad Chatan Shah and of two others.
Dewana nawab or the mad nawab was an athlete who had charge of the great doors of the Delhi darwaza. His tomb is near the Aiwaz-Khan-ki-baradari." Aplatun Khan came with Aurangzeb. He broke the tusk of a wild elephant that was set on him, and dashed it against the "Hathi darwaza. Shah Kuds Shah was a very strong man of Jalna (city), and a large boulder which he lifted is shown within the Nagar darwaza. This stone is chunamed every year, and is held in great reverence. A smaller boulder which stands near is said to cure persons suffering from lumbago. The Hindus ascribe the healing properties to a certain "taili" or oilman; and offer "gur" and "chana" to the stone. Shah Kuds Shah was buried near his "talim" outside the Nagar darwaza; and mothers bring their children when they begin to walk, and present offerings to the tomb.
SADA SOHAG owes its origin to Musa Sohag of Ahmedabad. The members dress in women's attire, and wear a "dupata" of deep red colour. About 50 years ago, Bahar' Ali Shah of Tonk sent two Sada Sohag fakirs, Golah Shah and Chamali Shah, to Aurangabad. They lived in Nawabpura, and erected a "tekkieh" to the right of the Jafar darwaza. Chamili Shah went to Haidarabad, and Golah Shah subsequently joined him, but died soon after his arrival and was buried at Gadjigora. Shah Bungri Lahil of this order was buried in front of the "Rakash-ki-masjid" at Jalna. Young Mahomedan. females visit the tomb to consult their prospects of marriage, and tie a piece of cloth on the " turbet" in evidence of their "nazars" or vows. After marriage, they offer prayers at the tomb, and present one of their marriage bangles.
Ehl-ul-Huk. Hakkam Sahib accompanied Aurangzeb, and probably belonged to the " Ehl-ul-Huk" or People of Truth. His tomb is at Goraigaon in the Baijapur taluk.
Kourgaon, an ancient village in the Baijapur taluk, has a tomb to Said Sahib under a "bar" tree (ficus indica). Bhikan Shah Wali accompanied Burhan ud din, and his tomb is under an old tree at Loni Khurd on the Nandgaon road. He came with his mother and his horse; and the latter is buried close to his master. The tomb is called "Ghora-Pir-ki-kabar", and the Kunbis make offerings to it when their cattle fall sick. A large and elegant mausoleum was erected about 400 years ago at Wakla, by a Hindu convert, Bibi Bohra Khatum. It has seven tombs inside, with two smaller ones in two of the inner corners, and eighteen other tombs in the verandah. There is a story current that a certain person Achal Rao had two sons, Amai Rao and Yeswant Rao. Amai Rao became a Mahomedan, and he and his family are buried in this mausoleum.
Mir Mahomed Shah &c. Mir Mahomed Shah of Badakshan was made killadar of Peotala fort by Aurangzeb. He belonged to the Vaisi sect, and was buried at Harsul. Mir Fukru-d din Aurangabadi Tirmusi was a Sufi doctor who composed several Persian verses. Shah 'Ali Sahib Barri was a recluse who lived in the hill to the north-west of Aurangabad. Shah Ali Sahib Shairi lived within the city; and so did Shah Ali Sahib Nabari, who constructed canals. Saiadi Sahib, a religious Abyssinian, lived in the shop of a poor dyer in the "chauk "of Aurangabad. Offerings of flowers, &c, are placed on his tomb. A ruined mosque inside one of the gateways of the Daulatabad fort was erected by a Mohammadan of great sanctity; and to the right of the last entrance is Pir Kudus Sahib's darga. Elora has a shrine to a Mahomedan saint which is visited by large numbers of Hindus and Mahomedans.
Tuttu sodagar, &c. Tuttu Sodagar was a wealthy merchant of Surat and a Bohra by caste, who built the "Tuttu " darwaza of Jalna (city) in H. 1126. He died near the 'Ambad gate, on his way back from Rakisbon, and was buried near the mosque which he built. There were six other rich Musalmans, and in former days Jalna was noted for its wealth. According to an old Urdu proverb, "the children in Jalna were lulled to sleep in cradles of gold", and a kasar or dealer in bangles named Gangaji, is said to have had such a cradle. Malis and poor people offer fruit to Pir Ghaib Sahib's tomb in front of the "Tuttu " darwaza. Similar presents are made to the darga of Dervash Shah Awaz on the Aurangabad road, - especially by the dhobis, in order to preserve the clothes in the " bhattis" from getting burnt The inhabitants of Jalna pray for worldly success at Shah Shumli's tomb; and mothers offer supplications at Pir Darbari's tomb, so that their children may attend " darbars", or become Courtiers. Shah Mauik's tomb is in the "churi mohulla "of Jalna, where glass bangles are manufactured and sold. Shah Shubli had his residence in the "manik chauk", and was a follower of 'Abu Bekr Shubli, a renowned mystic Shaikh of Baghdad. Musi Makai possessed a valuable library, and was buried in the Ashaba to the north of Jalna.
Jamshad Khan. &c.
Jamshad Khan built the "Kali" masjid, inside the Mecca gate, together with the "hammam "or bath, and the "sarai." He also constructed the large tank at Jalna, and laid down pipes and reservoirs for the water supply of the city. Jamshad Khan flourished in the 10th century of the Hijri, and was buried in his garden to the north of Jalna. The cultivators sacrifice to his tomb, so that their erops may not suffer. A masjid at Georahi, not far from Jalna, is resorted to by Hindus and Mahomedans, as it is believed to possess powers of divination. A saint Rafi ud din is said to have possessed similar powers, and his masjid has a " woqf " or pious legacy of 200-bigahs of land, granted by Aurangzeb.
Bahar Khan, was a religious man that came from Bidar to Ranjani in the 8th century Hijri. A mosque beyond Ranjani was built by his wife Ayisha Bi; and near it is the darga of Latif Shah Aulia. Gudar Shah Wali arrived in Aurangzeb's time, he erected a mosque. A mound called "Islam tekri" at 'Ambad contains an old Mahomedan building known as "Fatehay Islam" or the "conquest of Islam". A piece of land at the foot of the tekri is appropriated as a "waqf" in support of the mosque. Nur Shah Wili's tomb is outside the Shahgarh darwaza. He made lanterns, which the inhabitants purchased as votive offerings; and at his death he left his money to a Hindu devotee. The"chilla" of Maul 'Ali is on one of the tekris of ' Ambad. The Jumma masjid is ascribed to Malik Ambar. The Mecca masjid is attributed to a devout Musalman who constructed it about 200 years ago; while others affirm that it was raised by the Kharar Khani Pathans who served in Holkar's army. A colony of these Pathans settled at 'Ambad, and built a mosque to the west of the town. 'Ambad further contains a " Kadami Resul" or footprint of the Prophet, which is placed on a brick platform covered over with a small dome, within the Auranga'bad gate There is a tradition that seven Saiads of Arabia were commissioned to deliver Paitan from four goddesses, Hatai Devi, Durga Devi, Revona Devi, and Agna Devi; and that on their arrival, they were arrested and imprisoned in a cave.
Muizu-d din. Maulana Muiz ud din, popularly called Maulana Moaz, or Maulana Sahib, a native of Shiraz, proceeded to Mecca at an early age, and was directed to liberate the seven Saiads. He left for Paitan, which was then presided over by Revona Devi; and in a battle fought outside its walls, lost many faithful attendants and disciples. The Maulana triumphed in the end, and the seven Saiads were released; but they died soon afterwards, and their tombs are pointed out in a mosque called "Sat-Saiadon-ki-masjid." The saint's darga, which stands in front of this mosque, has a little room attached to it for holy meditation; and his disciples resort to this room in times of difficulty. Each Momin or Mahomedan weaver of Paitan subscribes 8 annas per cent from his income for the maintenance of the darga. According to some people, the Maulana obtained his surname of " Moaz", which means a " wave, from having saved a ship that was foundering; and according to others, he received the name from having miraculously brought up waves of water to quench the fires of the goddess Agni. Dancing is allowed at his darga, and the Urus is observed by Hindus as well as Mahomedans.
Abdulla Changal, &c. 'Abdulla Changal accompanied Maulana, and had a contest with a demon called Goglia, who presided over a village of that name in British territory 1½ miles from Paitan. Both 'Abdulla and Goglia perished, and the former was buried beyond the mud walls of the village. Sona Mian, called also Eusaini Saiad and Siddiki Shaikl was another companion of the Maulana's, and suffered martyrdom at Seogaon, 14 miles from Paitan. His head was buried at Khontaphul, 2 miles nearer Paitan, and the body at Seogaon. Shah Mian Duryai, a general merchant of Arabia, possessed many ships, and it was one of these that Maulana Moaz is said to have saved in a storm. He gave up his wealth and joined Maulana's band, and his tomb is inside the gateway of the saint's darga. Shah Mian erected a mosque, nakarkhana, and house for travellers, within the precincts of the darga.
Moiz ud din. Moizu-d din the Bhandari came with the band of missionaries that accompanied Mantajabu-d din; and his duty was to take charge of the stores and distribute cooked provisions to the different members. He was also surnamed "Nanpash", or the bread-giver. After the party arrived at Roza, Moizu-d din and five others left for Gangapurbarri, the present Gangapur. A gosain was practising austerities in a "mat", from which he retired before the new-comers; and the Nanpash and his party dismantled the building and erected a mosque on the site. Gangapurbarri was then infested with freebooting Mangs, the Mangs offered human sacrifices. The saint tried to convert these outlaws, when a religious war ensued; and in H. 748, the Nanpash, Saiad Kharay Pir Pakhar Sahib, and many others suffered martyrdom. The survivors however, succeeded and a mausoleum to the Nanpash was built. Newly married couples kiss the threshold of the tomb; and presents of food, &c. are offered in times of sickness. The nakarkhana attached to the darga was built by a Kharar Khani Pathan in fulfilment of a vow. The tomb of Saiad Kharay Pir Pakhar Sahib is to the east of Gangapur, and is frequented by the poorer people on Thursdays.
The seven Saidas &c. The Mangs continued their depredations till the advent of the seven Saiads, who surprised the freebooters, and numbers of the latter settled down to a peaceful life; but the wilder spirits still kept at large, and in a subsequent raid, succeeding in killing the seven Saiads. After this, the depredations gradually ceased, as the Saiads destroyed the jungle of brush wood that was used as an ambush. The descendants of the Saiads were also made patels of Gangapurbarri, an office which is still partly in their hands. A legend about Gangapurbarri relates that a Mahomedan saint miraculously supplied a large quantity of "ganda" or sugar-cane juice, to some ruler who was passing by and was famishing with thirst. When the prince heard the name of the place, he requested that it should be called "Naishakarpur,'" in reference to the sugar-cane juice; and this was changed to a similar word in Hindostani, Gandapur. The "Shahi Bagh", or royal garden, commemorates the event, but it exists in name only, and is covered with cultivation. When the"janazah" or bier of the emperor Aurangzeb was being carried from Ahmadnagar to Kuldabad, it was kept for the night in the "Shahi Bagb." A "chilla" or cenotaph was erected on the spot, but it has since fallen down. A similar "chilla" was built at Botaibargaon, 12 miles north of Gandapur.
Saiad sadat. Saiad Sadat of Waluj came with the Mahomedan missionaries of the 8th century Hijri, and lost his head in fighting at Balore in Berar; but the body is reputed to have continued fighting till it reached Waluj, where it fell down and was buried. The darga was erected in H. 1100 by a Beldar, in fulfilment of a vow, and is frequently visited by the villagers. Behind the darga is the tomb of Saiad Sadat's brother, Saiad Summon, who came with him from Balore. A niee tree close by is said to possess some remarkable qualities. Kanhar has a darga to Saiad Sahib, another to Sidi Sahib, and a third to Imam Sahib. A mosque near the kacheri was built by Momin Khan, one of the Khatkar Pathans who were stationed at Kanhar to protect the country from the ravages of the Bhils. There is a darga at Pisora to Muskin Shah Mian; and another called "Chihal-tan-ki-darga " contains a brick that was brought from Medina. Sillode possesses a masjid erected by Haji Kabir of Northern India. He was made Kazi, as well as Khatib, of the Seona pargana, by Aurangzeb. Arif ud din surnamed Mogar Shah Wali, is the patron saint of Ajanta, which was formerly called Ranjani or Anjani. He died in H. 1101, and was buried beneath a neem tree. His tomb is propitiated in times of sickness, and the "Dub ghat, " or " Chusmah Mogar Shah", where he occasionally performed a "chilla" or fast, is also visited. Bokardan has a darga to Bahir Shah Walli.
|Sufism and Tariqa|
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