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Sulbutiamine Review - A Few Benefits and Important Side Effects
Sulbutiamine Review - A Few Benefits and Important Side Effects
Published: 2016/08/30
Channel: Mansal Denton
**Official Sulbutiamine Review** -- Sleepy w/ High Dose - Motivated w/ Right Dose
**Official Sulbutiamine Review** -- Sleepy w/ High Dose - Motivated w/ Right Dose
Published: 2017/03/17
Channel: Cortex Labs Nootropics Channel
Sulbutiamine -- What is it and What does it do?!
Sulbutiamine -- What is it and What does it do?!
Published: 2017/08/04
Channel: PricePlow
Sulbutiamine dosage, I love this nootropic
Sulbutiamine dosage, I love this nootropic
Published: 2009/04/07
Channel: goyaface
Sulbutiamine Review -  Insane Mental and Physical Energy
Sulbutiamine Review - Insane Mental and Physical Energy
Published: 2016/09/26
Channel: gonootropics
Episode 8 - Dr  Stephen Born talks Sulbutiamine
Episode 8 - Dr Stephen Born talks Sulbutiamine
Published: 2014/03/01
Channel: Smart Drug Smarts
"Smart Drug" Review | Sulbutiamine
"Smart Drug" Review | Sulbutiamine
Published: 2013/08/29
Channel: ThePromisedWLAN
Use of Sulbutiamine for Chronic Fatigue
Use of Sulbutiamine for Chronic Fatigue
Published: 2016/06/09
Channel: ifsmed
Sulbutiamine Review: One of my least favorite white powders
Sulbutiamine Review: One of my least favorite white powders
Published: 2016/03/18
Channel: Limitless Mindset
Nootropics For A Night On The Town
Nootropics For A Night On The Town
Published: 2016/09/29
Channel: gonootropics
Sulbutiamine Experience Report
Sulbutiamine Experience Report
Published: 2015/05/04
Channel: Akroma Jones
Study Stimulants: Modafinil and Sulbutiamine Experience
Study Stimulants: Modafinil and Sulbutiamine Experience
Published: 2015/05/30
Channel: Billy Noots
Sulbutiamine Review
Sulbutiamine Review
Published: 2017/06/30
Channel: brotropics
Sulbutiamine: The Samurai Sword of Nootropics that Calibrates the RAS and Vanquishes Social Anxiety
Sulbutiamine: The Samurai Sword of Nootropics that Calibrates the RAS and Vanquishes Social Anxiety
Published: 2014/05/18
Channel: Limitless Mindset
Best Nootropics 2017
Best Nootropics 2017
Published: 2017/05/26
Channel: NootropicsExpert
Top 5 Nootropics the Elite 1% Are Taking | This Week in Biohacking EP01
Top 5 Nootropics the Elite 1% Are Taking | This Week in Biohacking EP01
Published: 2015/12/05
Channel: Steve Cronin
Sulbutiamine - "Neuro Flow" Review @EpicBeasts
Sulbutiamine - "Neuro Flow" Review @EpicBeasts
Published: 2015/09/07
Channel: Epic Beasts
Sulbutiamine - sulbutiamine dosage
Sulbutiamine - sulbutiamine dosage
Published: 2016/07/05
Channel: MXEL Edge - Brain Enhancement Supplements
My experience with Sulbutiamine nootropic -- for cyclists
My experience with Sulbutiamine nootropic -- for cyclists
Published: 2009/04/07
Channel: goyaface
Increase Brain Performance with Mitogen by Axon Labs
Increase Brain Performance with Mitogen by Axon Labs
Published: 2016/03/12
Channel: Steve Cronin
Sulbutiamine Benefits and Dosage Review from Absorb Health Supplements
Sulbutiamine Benefits and Dosage Review from Absorb Health Supplements
Published: 2014/09/25
Channel: Absorb Health
(Sulbuiamine Review) - Synthetic Vitamin Nootropic
(Sulbuiamine Review) - Synthetic Vitamin Nootropic
Published: 2014/01/02
Channel: Jennifer Pauling
Best Nootropics Stack For Studying, Focus, and Energy
Best Nootropics Stack For Studying, Focus, and Energy
Published: 2016/10/27
Channel: gonootropics
Best Nootropic - Noopept, Aniracetam, Sulbutiamine...
Best Nootropic - Noopept, Aniracetam, Sulbutiamine...
Published: 2013/10/17
Channel: Luciminal Nootropics
3 Powerhouse Nootropics Guaranteed To Work
3 Powerhouse Nootropics Guaranteed To Work
Published: 2017/01/22
Channel: gonootropics
Day 2 Morning
Day 2 Morning
Published: 2016/09/03
Channel: William Ashley
The Health Benefits of Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
The Health Benefits of Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
Published: 2014/07/12
Channel: Lifestyle Medicine
Booster votre productivité Arcalion (sulbutiamine, nootropique)
Booster votre productivité Arcalion (sulbutiamine, nootropique)
Published: 2017/01/14
Channel: NAYL DEWITTE : NOOTROPIQUE & BIOHACKING
Sulbutiamine [30g NutraPlanet]
Sulbutiamine [30g NutraPlanet]
Published: 2012/07/07
Channel: Nootropics101
The Social Anxiety Protocol: The Methodology
The Social Anxiety Protocol: The Methodology
Published: 2016/02/29
Channel: Limitless Mindset
Tyrosine: a Military Grade Nootropic for Hacking Acute Stress and Sleep Deprivation
Tyrosine: a Military Grade Nootropic for Hacking Acute Stress and Sleep Deprivation
Published: 2015/01/24
Channel: Limitless Mindset
Top 10 Best Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Supplements
Top 10 Best Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Supplements
Published: 2017/02/08
Channel: Mike Jason
Liftmode Phenibut Review
Liftmode Phenibut Review
Published: 2016/10/16
Channel: MokaShift
What
What's In My Current Stack? Pt.1
Published: 2014/02/07
Channel: ThePromisedWLAN
nootropics with euphoria
nootropics with euphoria
Published: 2016/08/07
Channel: vidranker
Picamilon - picamilon dosage
Picamilon - picamilon dosage
Published: 2016/07/05
Channel: MXEL Edge - Brain Enhancement Supplements
How to Pronounce Sulbutiamine
How to Pronounce Sulbutiamine
Published: 2015/06/02
Channel: Pronunciation Guide
Top 5 Best Vitamin B1 Reviews 2017
Top 5 Best Vitamin B1 Reviews 2017
Published: 2017/09/07
Channel: Susan C
Using Nootropics For Depression and Anxiety 2
Using Nootropics For Depression and Anxiety 2
Published: 2016/12/31
Channel: gonootropics
(Adrafinil Review) - Benefits & Dangers
(Adrafinil Review) - Benefits & Dangers
Published: 2014/01/02
Channel: Jennifer Pauling
Les conseils Supersmart - La pyramide de la nutrition
Les conseils Supersmart - La pyramide de la nutrition
Published: 2016/06/29
Channel: Super Smart
Powerful Nootropic Stack Supplements (review)
Powerful Nootropic Stack Supplements (review)
Published: 2016/11/17
Channel: Brain Supplements
GABA as a Nootropic: Biohacking the Metaphorical Little Devil on Your Shoulder
GABA as a Nootropic: Biohacking the Metaphorical Little Devil on Your Shoulder
Published: 2014/05/26
Channel: Limitless Mindset
Relax and Focus with L-Theanine
Relax and Focus with L-Theanine
Published: 2016/04/22
Channel: Steve Cronin
School stack day 5
School stack day 5
Published: 2016/09/06
Channel: William Ashley
Modafinil and Other Supplements I use
Modafinil and Other Supplements I use
Published: 2014/04/12
Channel: Luciminal Nootropics
Armodafinil Review - The Better Modafinil (Part 1) - There is No NZT-48 from the movie Limitless
Armodafinil Review - The Better Modafinil (Part 1) - There is No NZT-48 from the movie Limitless
Published: 2013/10/30
Channel: Luciminal Nootropics
schoolstack day 10 - day 2 driver training
schoolstack day 10 - day 2 driver training
Published: 2016/09/11
Channel: William Ashley
Noopept et mémoire : Miracle ou Arnaque ?
Noopept et mémoire : Miracle ou Arnaque ?
Published: 2015/03/04
Channel: Nootropiques.org
School Stack Day 12
School Stack Day 12
Published: 2016/09/15
Channel: William Ashley
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Sulbutiamine
Skeletal formula of sulbutiamine
Space-filling model of the sulbutiamine molecule
Clinical data
Synonyms Arcalion, bisibuthiamine, enerion, youvitan
AHFS/Drugs.com International Drug Names
Routes of
administration
Oral
ATC code
Pharmacokinetic data
Biological half-life 5 hours
Excretion Renal
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ECHA InfoCard 100.019.944
Chemical and physical data
Formula C32H46N8O6S2
Molar mass 702.89 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)
 NYesY (what is this?)  (verify)

Sulbutiamine (brand name: Arcalion) is a synthetic derivative of thiamine (vitamin B1). As a dimer of two modified thiamine molecules, it is a lipophilic compound that crosses the blood–brain barrier more readily than thiamine and increases the levels of thiamine and thiamine phosphate esters in the brain.[1] Sulbutiamine was discovered in Japan in an effort to develop more useful thiamine derivatives since it was hoped that increasing the lipophilicity of thiamine would result in better pharmacokinetic properties.[2]

Although its clinical efficacy is uncertain,[3] it is the only compound used to treat asthenia that is known to selectively target the areas that are involved in the condition.[4] In addition to its use as a treatment for chronic fatigue, sulbutiamine may improve memory, reduce psycho-behavioural inhibition, and improve erectile dysfunction[citation needed]. At therapeutic dosages, it has few reported adverse effects. It is available for over-the-counter sale as a nutritional supplement.

History[edit]

Thiamine

The history of sulbutiamine is closely tied to the study of thiamine in Japan. A deficiency of thiamine causes a nervous system disorder called beriberi.[5] Until the twentieth century, beriberi was prevalent in Japan and other Asian countries due to the widespread dependence on white rice as a staple food. The relationship between beriberi and diet was first noted by a navy surgeon named Takaki Kanehiro.[6] Additional work resulted in the discovery of thiamine, which was isolated in 1926 and synthesized in 1936. The establishment of a Vitamin B Research Committee in Japan led to additional scientific investigation into the properties of thiamine and its derivatives.[6]

The first lipophilic thiamine derivative to be discovered was allithiamine, which was isolated from garlic (Allium sativum) in 1951.[7] Allithiamine is an allyl disulfide derivative. After the discovery of allithiamine, several additional derivatives were synthesized with the hope that they would have better pharmacokinetic properties than thiamine. Thiamine is unable to diffuse across plasma membranes because it has a positively charged thiazole moiety. Instead, it must be transported across plasma membranes by high affinity carriers, and the rate of transport is low.[8] Sulbutiamine overcomes the poor oral bioavailability of thiamine because it is highly lipophilic. The synthesis of sulbutiamine was reported by Taisho Pharmaceutical Co. in 1965.[9]

Therapeutic uses[edit]

Sulbutiamine is indicated for the treatment of asthenia. Asthenia is a condition of chronic fatigue that is cerebral rather than neuromuscular in origin.[10][needs update]

Availability[edit]

Sulbutiamine is available in several forms. Arcalion is supplied in 200 mg tablets,[11] and generic sulbutiamine is supplied in tablets, capsules, and powder. The manufacturer of Arcalion recommends no more than 600 mg per day.[11]

Adverse effects[edit]

Sulbutiamine has few reported adverse effects at therapeutic dosages. According to the manufacturer of Arcalion, a mild skin allergy may occur, and mild agitation has also been observed in elderly patients.[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bettendorff L, Weekers L, Wins P, Schoffeniels E (1990). "Injection of sulbutiamine induces an increase in thiamine triphosphate in rat tissues". Biochem Pharmacol. 40 (11): 2557–60. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(90)90099-7. PMID 2268373. 
  2. ^ Volvert ML, Seyen S, Piette M, Evrard B, Gangolf M, Plumier JC, Bettendorff L (2008). "Benfotiamine, a synthetic S-acyl thiamine derivative, has different mechanisms of action and a different pharmacological profile than lipid-soluble thiamine disulfide derivatives". BMC Pharmaco. 8: 10. doi:10.1186/1471-2210-8-10. PMC 2435522Freely accessible. PMID 18549472. 
  3. ^ Tiev KP, Cabane J, Imbert JC (1999). "[Treatment of chronic postinfectious fatigue: randomized double-blind study of two doses of sulbutiamine (400-600 mg/day) versus placebo]". Rev Med Interne. 20 (10): 912–8. PMID 10573727. 
  4. ^ Van Reeth O (1999). "Pharmacologic and therapeutic features of sulbutiamine". Drugs Today (Barc). 35 (3): 187–92. PMID 12973384. 
  5. ^ Inouye K, Katsura E. "Etiology and pathology of beriberi." In: Shimazono N, Katsura E, editors. Beriberi and Thiamine Igaku Shoin Ltd (1965) p. 1–28
  6. ^ a b Lonsdale D (2006). "A Review of the Biochemistry, Metabolism and Clinical Benefits of Thiamin(e) and Its Derivatives". Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 3 (1): 49–59. doi:10.1093/ecam/nek009. PMC 1375232Freely accessible. PMID 16550223. 
  7. ^ Lonsdale D (2004). "Thiamine tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide: a little known therapeutic agent". Med Sci Monit. 10 (9): 199–203. PMID 15328496. 
  8. ^ Bettendorff L, Wins P (1994). "Mechanism of thiamine transport in neuroblastoma cells. Inhibition of a high affinity carrier by sodium channel activators and dependence of thiamine uptake on membrane potential and intracellular ATP". J Biol Chem. 269 (20): 14379–85. PMID 8182042. 
  9. ^ Ammo T, Sakai T, Fujihira EL, Aizawa T (1965). "Thiamine disulfide derivatives. I. Syntheses of thiamine disulfide derivatives". Bitamin. 32 (2): 260–4.  ; Ammo T, Sakai T, Aizawa T, Fujihira E, Naganuma A (1965). "Thiamine disulfide derivatives. II. Biological activities of thiamine disulfide derivatives". Bitamin. 32 (2): 265–77.  ; DE granted 1620538, Ammo T, Sakai T, Fujihira E, Aizawa T, "Vitamin-B1-Derivat, Verfahren zu dessen Herstellung und dessen Verwendung [Vitamin B1 derivative, process for its preparation and its use]", published 1969-10-16, issued 1977-12-31, assigned to Taisho Pharma Co Ltd . DE1620538 in turn claims a priority date of 1965-03-18 from the Japanese patent application JP19650015344.
  10. ^ Layzer RB (1998). "Asthenia and the chronic fatigue syndrome". Muscle Nerve. 21 (12): 1609–11. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4598(199812)21:12<1609::AID-MUS1>3.0.CO;2-K. PMID 9843061. 
  11. ^ a b c "Serdia Pharmaceuticals Arcalion summary". Retrieved 1 August 2012. 

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