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Summa for Strings | Arvo Pärt
Summa for Strings | Arvo Pärt
Published: 2009/05/16
Channel: Adam James B.
SUMMA - HUNGRY   ( OFFICIAL VIDEO )
SUMMA - HUNGRY ( OFFICIAL VIDEO )
Published: 2014/10/21
Channel: JOOKSFILMS
Summa F Series Pro Flatbed Digital Finishing System
Summa F Series Pro Flatbed Digital Finishing System
Published: 2014/07/18
Channel: Summa
Summa Ya maSumma
Summa Ya maSumma
Published: 2015/11/20
Channel: Arthur Mafokate
Summa - Arvo Part - Dublin Guitar Quartet - Performance Film 2011
Summa - Arvo Part - Dublin Guitar Quartet - Performance Film 2011
Published: 2011/07/12
Channel: DublinGuitarQuartet
Summa
Summa
Published: 2014/02/17
Channel: Jesus Redeems
Summa creasing box
Summa creasing box
Published: 2015/10/30
Channel: ImageJunctionSdnBhd
Bump J "Fuck Up The Summa" Feat. Yo Gotti & Pusha T (WSHH Exclusive - Official Audio)
Bump J "Fuck Up The Summa" Feat. Yo Gotti & Pusha T (WSHH Exclusive - Official Audio)
Published: 2017/06/16
Channel: WORLDSTARHIPHOP
Summa Time Outfits
Summa Time Outfits
Published: 2016/08/09
Channel: Sophia Chang
Summa DC Series Printer / Cutters
Summa DC Series Printer / Cutters
Published: 2010/01/25
Channel: Summa
Triple Six Mafia - Da Summa (REMIX) With Lyrics
Triple Six Mafia - Da Summa (REMIX) With Lyrics
Published: 2009/05/18
Channel: SouldjahFromTheNorth
Three 6 Mafia - Da Summa
Three 6 Mafia - Da Summa
Published: 2009/02/08
Channel: new8thjmoneybagz
Arvo Pärt  - Summa, vocal score.
Arvo Pärt - Summa, vocal score.
Published: 2014/03/29
Channel: Antonio Spagnolo
[Make up] 상큼달콤 자몽과즙 메이크업 | Orange red make up
[Make up] 상큼달콤 자몽과즙 메이크업 | Orange red make up
Published: 2017/06/12
Channel: Summa
Alkaline - Summa Deh Yah [UIM REC] July 2013
Alkaline - Summa Deh Yah [UIM REC] July 2013
Published: 2013/07/02
Channel: Alkaline Musiq
Thoongathe Thambi Thoongathe - Summa Nikkathenga song
Thoongathe Thambi Thoongathe - Summa Nikkathenga song
Published: 2012/08/06
Channel: AP International
Summa Daemoniaca Nº1
Summa Daemoniaca Nº1
Published: 2015/12/17
Channel: PADRE FORTEA
Shindigs - Summa! Goddess! (Full Album)
Shindigs - Summa! Goddess! (Full Album)
Published: 2017/05/20
Channel: Phone Sex
Arvo Pärt - Summa for String Orchestra (1992) [Score-Video]
Arvo Pärt - Summa for String Orchestra (1992) [Score-Video]
Published: 2016/04/22
Channel: George N. Gianopoulos
Main Attrakionz "Summa Time"
Main Attrakionz "Summa Time"
Published: 2013/06/28
Channel: smash house
Bump J - Fuck up the Summa feat Yo Gotti & Pusha T (Official Audio)
Bump J - Fuck up the Summa feat Yo Gotti & Pusha T (Official Audio)
Published: 2017/06/14
Channel: Bump J
ANSA - SUMMA (rather be remix) (DIE VAMUMMTN)
ANSA - SUMMA (rather be remix) (DIE VAMUMMTN)
Published: 2014/07/01
Channel: ANSA Offiziell
Thomas Aquinas — Summa Theologica {audiobook}
Thomas Aquinas — Summa Theologica {audiobook}
Published: 2015/05/06
Channel: Free Ebooks
"SUMMA JAM" by Craig Black Eagle [Dance Skool]
"SUMMA JAM" by Craig Black Eagle [Dance Skool]
Published: 2014/08/16
Channel: DanceJaSkool
█▬█⓿▀█▀ BATE SASHO - SUMMA DAZE (Official Video) HD
█▬█⓿▀█▀ BATE SASHO - SUMMA DAZE (Official Video) HD
Published: 2013/07/30
Channel: BATESASHOTV
Tommy Lee Sparta - Hot Like Summa [Krisco Riddim] August 2016
Tommy Lee Sparta - Hot Like Summa [Krisco Riddim] August 2016
Published: 2016/08/05
Channel: Krish Genius Music
[Make up] 카일리제너 커버 메이크업 | Kylie jenner cover make up
[Make up] 카일리제너 커버 메이크업 | Kylie jenner cover make up
Published: 2017/06/01
Channel: Summa
SONA: UP Biology student na summa cum laude, may pinakamataas na grado sa UP mula WWII
SONA: UP Biology student na summa cum laude, may pinakamataas na grado sa UP mula WWII
Published: 2015/06/26
Channel: GMA News
Mugamoodi - Vaaya moodi summa iruda Lyrics
Mugamoodi - Vaaya moodi summa iruda Lyrics
Published: 2012/09/02
Channel: sithan1000
SUMMA IRU - (சும்மா இரு)  Healer Baskar (Peace O Master)
SUMMA IRU - (சும்மா இரு) Healer Baskar (Peace O Master)
Published: 2017/04/07
Channel: Healer Baskar
Blacastan ft Apathy  - Summa Cum Laude
Blacastan ft Apathy - Summa Cum Laude
Published: 2017/05/18
Channel: Apathy Demigodz
Summa - Peltolan korsu talvisodassa
Summa - Peltolan korsu talvisodassa
Published: 2007/12/21
Channel: PalaSuomenHistoriaa
Ummi summa ummi Song by lebanese
Ummi summa ummi Song by lebanese
Published: 2014/09/02
Channel: Faruk Atris
Kadhalna Summa Illai full Movie Comedy scenes | Ravi Krishna Comedy | Tamil Movie Comedy Senes
Kadhalna Summa Illai full Movie Comedy scenes | Ravi Krishna Comedy | Tamil Movie Comedy Senes
Published: 2017/05/24
Channel: Ayngaran
Newhart 69 "Summa Cum Larry"
Newhart 69 "Summa Cum Larry"
Published: 2012/07/24
Channel: PumpkinGoo
Summa Theologica, Prima Pars, Questions 1-26, by Thomas Aquinas (1/2)
Summa Theologica, Prima Pars, Questions 1-26, by Thomas Aquinas (1/2)
Published: 2014/12/02
Channel: LibriVox - Audiobooks
Three 6 mafia - Da Summa Remix
Three 6 mafia - Da Summa Remix
Published: 2011/08/25
Channel: zae c
Summa Starter Kit By Artery
Summa Starter Kit By Artery
Published: 2016/05/15
Channel: Big Tom Vaping Crew
Summa Pictorica - 10 - Vanguardia - Postmodernismo
Summa Pictorica - 10 - Vanguardia - Postmodernismo
Published: 2013/09/12
Channel: Manga Lugo
Rappler Talk: UP summa cum laude from Marawi on breaking barriers, pushing for peace
Rappler Talk: UP summa cum laude from Marawi on breaking barriers, pushing for peace
Published: 2017/06/29
Channel: Rappler
"SUMMA"
"SUMMA"
Published: 2017/07/13
Channel: Rosewood Renegade
UB: Panayam kay Tiffany Grace Uy, Summa Cum Laude, UP Diliman
UB: Panayam kay Tiffany Grace Uy, Summa Cum Laude, UP Diliman
Published: 2015/06/26
Channel: GMA News
Simulacro SUMMA 112 Accidente Múltiples Víctimas. I JIAP Arroyomolinos.
Simulacro SUMMA 112 Accidente Múltiples Víctimas. I JIAP Arroyomolinos.
Published: 2013/10/06
Channel: Prolife061
Puella Magi Madoka Magica Portable OST- Delusio Summa(EXTENDED)
Puella Magi Madoka Magica Portable OST- Delusio Summa(EXTENDED)
Published: 2013/03/11
Channel: TheForgottenCherish
Arvo Part - Summa For Strings
Arvo Part - Summa For Strings
Published: 2011/06/21
Channel: TERFragette Kim
Sivaji The Boss - Summa Athiruthilla
Sivaji The Boss - Summa Athiruthilla
Published: 2013/12/30
Channel: AVM Productions - Movies
Summa College Modeshow
Summa College Modeshow
Published: 2017/06/23
Channel: studio040nl
Artery Summa Review | Combination Of The Aspire Plato & NEBOX?
Artery Summa Review | Combination Of The Aspire Plato & NEBOX?
Published: 2016/05/21
Channel: AVAndy
SUMMA & MANDELA - LA FELICITA
SUMMA & MANDELA - LA FELICITA' - OFFICIAL NEW VIDEO HD
Published: 2012/09/19
Channel: VALLENTO POSSE
Gnackwatschn - Jetzt Is Da Summa Do
Gnackwatschn - Jetzt Is Da Summa Do
Published: 2013/09/06
Channel: GnackwatschnMusic
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Summa and its diminutive summula (plural summae and summulae, respectively) are mainly used, in English and other modern languages, for texts that 'sum up' knowledge in a field, such as the compendiums of theology, philosophy and canon law which were used both as textbooks in the schools and as books of reference during the Middle Ages.

History[edit]

Some historians of theology cite Origen's peri archon as the first summary of Catholic theology. Others consider that the first in point of time is "De Trinitate" by St. Hilary of Poitiers. The distinction has also been accorded to Radulfus Ardens, an eleventh-century theologian and preacher, a native of Beaulieu, author of a comprehensive "Speculum Universale", still in Manuscript. In this wide sense of the word, however, the encyclopedic treatises of St. Isidore of Seville, Rabanus Maurus etc., entitled "De Etymologiis" or "De Universo" might also be considered to be summaries of theology and philosophy.

In the stricter sense of the word, "Summa" is applied to the more technical systematic compendiums which began to appear in the twelfth century. According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, the form was invented by the grammarian Peter Helias.[1] An alternative title is "Sentences" (Latin Libri Sententiarum), the diminutive, "Summulæ", being of later origin. What is peculiar to "summists" or "sententiaries", as the authors of these works are called, is the adoption of the method first suggested by Gerbert in his "De Rationali et Ratione Uti", and used by Abelard in his "Sic et Non", consisting in an exposition of contradictory views, the affirmative and negative. Progress towards the final form of the thirteenth-century "Summæ" is marked by the greater care which was taken, as time went on, to explain in a systematic manner the apparent contradiction among the conflicting opinions presented. Besides this method of exposition, the twelfth-century summists adopted dialectic definitely as a means of elucidating, not only philosophical, but also theological truth. Finally the summists adopted more or less unanimously a fixed division of the field of theology and philosophy, and adhered more or less closely to a definite order of topics. Here, of course, there was room for individual preferences in the matter of arrangement and sequence of problems, as we see when we compare with one another the "Summæ" even of the latest period of Scholasticism.

The first great summist was Peter Lombard (died 1160), author of the Books of Sentences and surnamed "Master of Sentences". The order of topics in the Books of Sentences is as follows: In the first place, the topics are divided into res and signa, or things and signs. "Things" are subdivided into: the object of our happiness, God — to this topic Peter devotes the first book; means of attaining this object, viz., creatures — the topic treated in the second book; virtues, men and angels, that is, special means of happiness and subjects of happiness — the topic of the third book; the fourth book is devoted to signs: the sacraments.

How far Peter Lombard was influenced by earlier summists, such as Robert Pullen, Hugh of St. Victor and the author of the "Summa Sententiarum" which was immediately inspired by Abelard's work, historians have not determined. It is generally admitted that the Lombard was not entirely original. He deserves his renown as the first great summist chiefly because, in spite of the opposition which his work met during his lifetime, its influence grew greater in time, until in the thirteenth century it was universally adopted as a text. Notwithstanding all that hostile critics of Scholasticism have said about the dryness and unattractiveness of the medieval "Summæ", these works have many merits from the point of view of pedagogy, and a philosophical school which supplements, as Scholasticism did, the compendious treatment of the "Summæ", with the looser form of treatment of the "Quæstiones Disputatæ" and the "Opuscula", unites in its method of writing the advantages which modern philosophy derives from the combination of textbook and doctor's dissertation. The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, begun when Aquinas was Regent Master at the studium provinciale at Santa Sabina the forerunner of the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum, is often considered the most perfect specimen of this kind of literature.

The term "Summulæ" was used, for the most part, to designate the logical compendiums which came to be adopted as texts in the schools during the thirteenth century. The best known of these is the "Summulæ Logicales" of Peter Hispanus, afterwards Pope John XXI.

Dominican works[edit]

Manuals of theology and more especially manuals, or summae, on penance for the use of confessors were composed in great numbers. The oldest Dominican commentaries on the "Sentences" are those of Roland of Cremona, Hugh of Saint Cher, Richard Fitzacre, Robert of Kilwardby and Albertus Magnus. The series begins with the year 1230 if not earlier and the last are prior to the middle of the thirteenth century.[2]

The "Summa" of St. Thomas (1265–75) is still the masterpiece of theology. The monumental work of Albertus Magnus is unfinished. The "Summa de bono" of Ulrich of Strasburg (d. 1277), a disciple of Albert is still unedited, but is of interest to the historian of the thought of the thirteenth century.[3] The theological summa of St. Antoninus is highly esteemed by moralists and economists.[4] The "Compendium theologicæ veritatis" of Hugh Ripelin of Strasburg (d. 1268) is the most widespread and famous manual of the Middle Ages.[5]

The chief manual of confessors is that of Paul of Hungary composed for the Brothers of St. Nicholas of Bologna (1220–21) and edited without mention of the author in the "Bibliotheca Casinensis"[6] and with false assignment of authorship by Raymund Duellius.[7] The "Summa de Poenitentia" of Raymond of Pennafort, composed in 1235, was a classic during the Middle Ages and was one of the works of which the manuscripts were most multiplied. The "Summa Confessorum" of John of Freiburg (d. 1314) is, according to F. von Schulte, the most perfect product of this class of literature.

The Pisan Bartolommeo of San Concordio has left us a "Summa Casuum" composed in 1338, in which the matter is arranged in alphabetical order. It was very successful in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The manuals for confessors of John Nieder (d. 1438), St. Antoninus, Archbishop of Florence (d. 1459), and Girolamo Savonarola (d. 1498) were much esteemed in their time[8][9]

References[edit]

Attribution

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Summæ". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. 

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Literary Forms of Medieval Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
  2. ^ Mandonnet, Siger de Brabant, I, 53.
  3. ^ Grabmann, "Studien ueber Ulrich von Strassburg" in "Zeitschrift für Kathol. Theol.", XXIX, 1905, 82.
  4. ^ Ilgner, "Die Volkswirtschaftlichen Anschaungen Antonins von Florenz", Paderborn, 1904.
  5. ^ Mandonnet, "Des écrits authentiques de St. Thomas", Fribourg, 1910, p. 86.
  6. ^ IV, 1880, 191.
  7. ^ "Miscellan. Lib." (Augsburg, 1723, 59.
  8. ^ Quétif-Echard, "Script. Ord. Praed."; I, passim, Hurter, "Nomenclator literarius; aetas media", Innsbruck, 1906, passim; F. von Schulte, "Gesch. der Quellen und Literatur des canonischen Rechts", Stuttgart, II, 1877, p. 410 sqq.; Dietterle, "Die Summæ confessorum ... von ihren Anfängen an bis zu Silvester Prierias" in "Zeitschrift für Kirchengesch.", XXIV, 1903; XXVIII, 1907).
  9. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Order of Preachers". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 

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