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Summa for Strings | Arvo Pärt
Summa for Strings | Arvo Pärt
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ANSA - SUMMA (rather be remix) (DIE VAMUMMTN)
ANSA - SUMMA (rather be remix) (DIE VAMUMMTN)
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Summa F1612
Summa F1612
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Summa - Peltolan korsu talvisodassa
::2007/12/21::
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Summa - Arvo Part - Dublin Guitar Quartet - Performance Film 2011
Summa - Arvo Part - Dublin Guitar Quartet - Performance Film 2011
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Summa DC Series Printer / Cutters
Summa DC Series Printer / Cutters
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Simulacro SUMMA 112 Accidente Múltiples Víctimas. I JIAP Arroyomolinos.
Simulacro SUMMA 112 Accidente Múltiples Víctimas. I JIAP Arroyomolinos.
::2013/10/06::
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Train D-Lay - Summa feat. JD (OFFICIAL FULL HD VIDEO)
Train D-Lay - Summa feat. JD (OFFICIAL FULL HD VIDEO)
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Summa OPOS-CAM - Contour Cutter Series
Summa OPOS-CAM - Contour Cutter Series
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Matakustix - Summa - Little Brown Couch
Matakustix - Summa - Little Brown Couch
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Arvo Part - Summa
Arvo Part - Summa
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Main Attrakionz "Summa Time"
Main Attrakionz "Summa Time"
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Alkaline - Summa Deh Yah [UIM REC] July 2013
Alkaline - Summa Deh Yah [UIM REC] July 2013
::2013/07/02::
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Hubert von Goisern   Da Summa is aussi
Hubert von Goisern Da Summa is aussi
::2013/11/03::
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Vaayamoodi Summa Iru Da  | Mugamoodi HD video Song
Vaayamoodi Summa Iru Da | Mugamoodi HD video Song
::2012/09/04::
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Arvo Part - Summa For Strings
Arvo Part - Summa For Strings
::2011/06/21::
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Three 6 Mafia - Da Summa
Three 6 Mafia - Da Summa
::2009/02/07::
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vaayeh moodi summa iruda
vaayeh moodi summa iruda
::2012/11/01::
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Muga Moodi Song-Vaayamoodi Summa Iru Da Official Song
Muga Moodi Song-Vaayamoodi Summa Iru Da Official Song
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Laura Kamhuber - Immer wieder Sonntags - Wann wird der Summa kumma?
Laura Kamhuber - Immer wieder Sonntags - Wann wird der Summa kumma?
::2014/06/23::
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DJ Paul - Underground Vol. 16 For Da Summa
DJ Paul - Underground Vol. 16 For Da Summa
::2013/05/30::
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█▬█⓿▀█▀ BATE SASHO - SUMMA DAZE (Official Video) HD
█▬█⓿▀█▀ BATE SASHO - SUMMA DAZE (Official Video) HD
::2013/07/30::
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Mugamoodi - Vaaya moodi summa iruda Lyrics
Mugamoodi - Vaaya moodi summa iruda Lyrics
::2012/09/02::
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Summa Oru (Full Song) - Kokki
Summa Oru (Full Song) - Kokki
::2013/04/01::
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East End Dubs - Summa Dis (Snilloc Remix) [Metroline Limited - MLTD063]
East End Dubs - Summa Dis (Snilloc Remix) [Metroline Limited - MLTD063]
::2013/05/31::
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Maestro Don - Summa Deh Ya | July 2014
Maestro Don - Summa Deh Ya | July 2014
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Gnackwatschn - Jetzt Is Da Summa Do
Gnackwatschn - Jetzt Is Da Summa Do
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vaayamoodi summa iru da-tamil short film
vaayamoodi summa iru da-tamil short film
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Vaayamoodi Summa Iru Da Lyrics - Mugamoodi Songs Lyrics
Vaayamoodi Summa Iru Da Lyrics - Mugamoodi Songs Lyrics
::2012/09/11::
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AYAW KO MAGING SIYA BY. OG SUMMA
AYAW KO MAGING SIYA BY. OG SUMMA
::2013/12/18::
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Summa Iruntha - Suresh Da Wun (A VALENTINES DAY SPECIAL RELEASE 2011)
Summa Iruntha - Suresh Da Wun (A VALENTINES DAY SPECIAL RELEASE 2011)
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3b 4.1.1 geometrisk summa
3b 4.1.1 geometrisk summa
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Starting Six - Hot Summa
Starting Six - Hot Summa
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Da oane Summa - Chilli da Mur
Da oane Summa - Chilli da Mur
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Ammana Summa Illada
Ammana Summa Illada
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BATE SASHO i MIRACULIX - IN DA SUMMA official video
BATE SASHO i MIRACULIX - IN DA SUMMA official video
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ammana summa illada
ammana summa illada
::2012/09/08::
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Imprecation - Theurgia Goetia Summa (Full Compilation)
Imprecation - Theurgia Goetia Summa (Full Compilation)
::2013/09/07::
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Triple Six Mafia - Da Summa (REMIX) With Lyrics
Triple Six Mafia - Da Summa (REMIX) With Lyrics
::2009/05/18::
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Madoka Magica Portable OST - Delusio summa
Madoka Magica Portable OST - Delusio summa
::2012/03/26::
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SUMMA & MANDELA - LA FELICITA
SUMMA & MANDELA - LA FELICITA' - OFFICIAL NEW VIDEO HD
::2012/09/19::
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Arvo Pärt  - Summa, vocal score.
Arvo Pärt - Summa, vocal score.
::2014/03/29::
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Puella Magi Madoka Magica Portable OST- Delusio Summa(EXTENDED)
Puella Magi Madoka Magica Portable OST- Delusio Summa(EXTENDED)
::2013/03/11::
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Supa Hype Ft. Gyptian & Fambo - Summa Dat [Overdrive Riddim] July 2013
Supa Hype Ft. Gyptian & Fambo - Summa Dat [Overdrive Riddim] July 2013
::2013/07/17::
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45
Riederinger Sänger -  Da summa is aussi
Riederinger Sänger - Da summa is aussi
::2012/09/25::
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STAUNCH NATION - SUMMA CRUSIN
STAUNCH NATION - SUMMA CRUSIN' (OFFICIAL VIDEO)
::2014/05/12::
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Ghymes: Summa koncert 2012
Ghymes: Summa koncert 2012
::2013/05/19::
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DiE Tiger - Da Summa is meins
DiE Tiger - Da Summa is meins
::2014/07/23::
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Summa Parade 2014
Summa Parade 2014
::2014/03/20::
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POPwAL - Summa (Akustik-Version)
POPwAL - Summa (Akustik-Version)
::2014/03/24::
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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For other uses, see Summa (disambiguation).

Summa and its diminutive summula (plural summae and summulae, respectively) are mainly used, in English and other modern languages, for texts that 'sum up' knowledge in a field, such as the compendiums of theology, philosophy and canon law which were used both as textbooks in the schools and as books of reference during the Middle Ages.

History[edit]

Some historians of theology cite Origen's peri archon as the first summary of Catholic theology. Others consider that the first in point of time is "De Trinitate" by St. Hilary of Poitiers. The distinction has also been accorded to Radulfus Ardens, an eleventh-century theologian and preacher, a native of Beaulieu, author of a comprehensive "Speculum Universale", still in Manuscript. In this wide sense of the word, however, the encyclopedic treatises of St. Isidore of Seville, Rabanus Maurus etc., entitled "De Etymologiis" or "De Universo" might also be considered to be summaries of theology and philosophy.

In the stricter sense of the word, "Summa" is applied to the more technical systematic compendiums which began to appear in the twelfth century. According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, the form was invented by the grammarian Peter Helias.[1] An alternative title is "Sentences" (Latin Libri Sententiarum), the diminutive, "Summulæ", being of later origin. What is peculiar to "summists" or "sententiaries", as the authors of these works are called, is the adoption of the method first suggested by Gerbert in his "De Rationali et Ratione Uti", and used by Abelard in his "Sic et Non", consisting in an exposition of contradictory views, the affirmative and negative. Progress towards the final form of the thirteenth-century "Summæ" is marked by the greater care which was taken, as time went on, to explain in a systematic manner the apparent contradiction among the conflicting opinions presented. Besides this method of exposition, the twelfth-century summists adopted dialectic definitely as a means of elucidating, not only philosophical, but also theological truth. Finally the summists adopted more or less unanimously a fixed division of the field of theology and philosophy, and adhered more or less closely to a definite order of topics. Here, of course, there was room for individual preferences in the matter of arrangement and sequence of problems, as we see when we compare with one another the "Summæ" even of the latest period of Scholasticism.

The first great summist was Peter Lombard (died 1160), author of the Books of Sentences and surnamed "Master of Sentences". The order of topics in the Books of Sentences is as follows: In the first place, the topics are divided into res and signa, or things and signs. "Things" are subdivided into: the object of our happiness, God — to this topic Peter devotes the first book; means of attaining this object, viz., creatures — the topic treated in the second book; virtues, men and angels, that is, special means of happiness and subjects of happiness — the topic of the third book; the fourth book is devoted to signs: the sacraments.

How far Peter Lombard was influenced by earlier summists, such as Robert Pullen, Hugh of St. Victor and the author of the "Summa Sententiarum" which was immediately inspired by Abelard's work, historians have not determined. It is generally admitted that the Lombard was not entirely original. He deserves his renown as the first great summist chiefly because, in spite of the opposition which his work met during his lifetime, its influence grew greater in time, until in the thirteenth century it was universally adopted as a text. Notwithstanding all that hostile critics of Scholasticism have said about the dryness and unattractiveness of the medieval "Summæ", these works have many merits from the point of view of pedagogy, and a philosophical school which supplements, as Scholasticism did, the compendious treatment of the "Summæ", with the looser form of treatment of the "Quæstiones Disputatæ" and the "Opuscula", unites in its method of writing the advantages which modern philosophy derives from the combination of textbook and doctor's dissertation. The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, begun when Aquinas was Regent Master at the studium provinciale at Santa Sabina the forerunner of the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum, is often considered the most perfect specimen of this kind of literature.

The term "Summulæ" was used, for the most part, to designate the logical compendiums which came to be adopted as texts in the schools during the thirteenth century. The best known of these is the "Summulæ Logicales" of Peter Hispanus, afterwards Pope John XXI.

Dominican works[edit]

Manuals of theology and more especially manuals, or summae, on penance for the use of confessors were composed in great numbers. The oldest Dominican commentaries on the "Sentences" are those of Roland of Cremona, Hugh of Saint Cher, Richard Fitzacre, Robert of Kilwardby and Albertus Magnus. The series begins with the year 1230 if not earlier and the last are prior to the middle of the thirteenth century.[2]

The "Summa" of St. Thomas (1265–75) is still the masterpiece of theology. The monumental work of Albertus Magnus is unfinished. The "Summa de bono" of Ulrich of Strasburg (d. 1277), a disciple of Albert is still unedited, but is of interest to the historian of the thought of the thirteenth century.[3] The theological summa of St. Antoninus is highly esteemed by moralists and economists.[4] The "Compendium theologicæ veritatis" of Hugh Ripelin of Strasburg (d. 1268) is the most widespread and famous manual of the Middle Ages.[5]

The chief manual of confessors is that of Paul of Hungary composed for the Brothers of St. Nicholas of Bologna (1220–21) and edited without mention of the author in the "Bibliotheca Casinensis"[6] and with false assignment of authorship by Raymund Duellius.[7] The "Summa de Poenitentia" of Raymond of Pennafort, composed in 1235, was a classic during the Middle Ages and was one of the works of which the manuscripts were most multiplied. The "Summa Confessorum" of John of Freiburg (d. 1314) is, according to F. von Schulte, the most perfect product of this class of literature.

The Pisan Bartolommeo of San Concordio has left us a "Summa Casuum" composed in 1338, in which the matter is arranged in alphabetical order. It was very successful in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The manuals for confessors of John Nieder (d. 1438), St. Antoninus, Archbishop of Florence (d. 1459), and Girolamo Savonarola (d. 1498) were much esteemed in their time[8][9]

References[edit]

Attribution

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Summæ". Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company. 

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Literary Forms of Medieval Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
  2. ^ Mandonnet, Siger de Brabant, I, 53.
  3. ^ Grabmann, "Studien ueber Ulrich von Strassburg" in "Zeitschrift für Kathol. Theol.", XXIX, 1905, 82.
  4. ^ Ilgner, "Die Volkswirtschaftlichen Anschaungen Antonins von Florenz", Paderborn, 1904.
  5. ^ Mandonnet, "Des écrits authentiques de St. Thomas", Fribourg, 1910, p. 86.
  6. ^ IV, 1880, 191.
  7. ^ "Miscellan. Lib." (Augsburg, 1723, 59.
  8. ^ Quétif-Echard, "Script. Ord. Praed."; I, passim, Hurter, "Nomenclator literarius; aetas media", Innsbruck, 1906, passim; F. von Schulte, "Gesch. der Quellen und Literatur des canonischen Rechts", Stuttgart, II, 1877, p. 410 sqq.; Dietterle, "Die Summæ confessorum ... von ihren Anfängen an bis zu Silvester Prierias" in "Zeitschrift für Kirchengesch.", XXIV, 1903; XXVIII, 1907).
  9. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg "Order of Preachers". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. 
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