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Superintendent goes crazy at Board of Ed Meeting in Monroe Twp. NJ
Superintendent goes crazy at Board of Ed Meeting in Monroe Twp. NJ
Published: 2013/03/11
Channel: Leo Pardza
Tulsa Superintendent: Education Budget Cuts Will Hurt Public Schools
Tulsa Superintendent: Education Budget Cuts Will Hurt Public Schools
Published: 2017/05/27
Channel: Matter of Fact
Grantham, NH School Superintendent Keith Pfeifer Discusses his Role in Public Education
Grantham, NH School Superintendent Keith Pfeifer Discusses his Role in Public Education
Published: 2010/09/09
Channel: CambridgeWhosWho
Board of Education selects Kishimoto as next schools superintendent
Board of Education selects Kishimoto as next schools superintendent
Published: 2017/05/20
Channel: KHON2 News
Louisiana Superintendent of Education Paul Pastorek on the New Orleans School Choice Revolution
Louisiana Superintendent of Education Paul Pastorek on the New Orleans School Choice Revolution
Published: 2010/07/08
Channel: ReasonTV
Superintendent of Education Debate
Superintendent of Education Debate
Published: 2014/10/20
Channel: SouthCarolinaETV
Birmingham Board of Education Tries to Fire Superintendent Dr. Witherspoon - 041012 7 50
Birmingham Board of Education Tries to Fire Superintendent Dr. Witherspoon - 041012 7 50
Published: 2012/04/11
Channel: ALSchoolConnection
Broward School Superintendent Robert Runcie Updates Status Of Education Centers Following Irma
Broward School Superintendent Robert Runcie Updates Status Of Education Centers Following Irma
Published: 2017/09/10
Channel: CBS Miami
Howard County Public Schools superintendent files lawsuit against Board of Education
Howard County Public Schools superintendent files lawsuit against Board of Education
Published: 2017/01/13
Channel: ABC 2 News - WMAR
Molly Spearman for Superintendent of Education
Molly Spearman for Superintendent of Education
Published: 2014/02/24
Channel: Molly Spearman for Education
Superintendent Summit: Future of Public Education
Superintendent Summit: Future of Public Education
Published: 2014/05/24
Channel: nwitimestv
Message for Ontario Ministry of Education: Deaf Superintendent Now and End to Audism
Message for Ontario Ministry of Education: Deaf Superintendent Now and End to Audism
Published: 2015/11/11
Channel: John Warren
EdPolicy Leaders Online: John White, Louisiana State Superintendent of Education
EdPolicy Leaders Online: John White, Louisiana State Superintendent of Education
Published: 2015/02/04
Channel: ExcelinEd
Education reform in Newark: A conversation with Superintendent Chris Cerf | LIVE STREAM
Education reform in Newark: A conversation with Superintendent Chris Cerf | LIVE STREAM
Published: 2016/10/19
Channel: American Enterprise Institute
2014 election Alameda County Office of Education, Superintendent
2014 election Alameda County Office of Education, Superintendent
Published: 2014/10/04
Channel: LWVOakland
Superintendent
Superintendent's Report to AAPS Board of Education September 27, 2017
Published: 2017/10/03
Channel: Ann Arbor Public Schools
John White, State Superintendent of Education
John White, State Superintendent of Education
Published: 2013/06/14
Channel: KLAXProduction
Morning Minute: State of Education with DPI Superintendent Tony Evers
Morning Minute: State of Education with DPI Superintendent Tony Evers
Published: 2017/09/27
Channel: WisconsinEye
Superintendent Mark Johnson
Superintendent Mark Johnson's remarks at his first State Board of Education meeting
Published: 2017/01/05
Channel: EducationNC
A Florida Superintendent Gives His Recipe for Success in Urban Education
A Florida Superintendent Gives His Recipe for Success in Urban Education
Published: 2016/10/01
Channel: National School Boards Association
Superintendent Barbara Nemko on Transforming Education
Superintendent Barbara Nemko on Transforming Education
Published: 2015/03/02
Channel: The BEST in US
Marshall Tuck, Candidate for CA State Superintendent of Education
Marshall Tuck, Candidate for CA State Superintendent of Education
Published: 2014/10/02
Channel: Choice Media
Sheri Few for Education Superintendent
Sheri Few for Education Superintendent
Published: 2014/04/23
Channel: Sheri Few
The Role of the Superintendent in Public Education
The Role of the Superintendent in Public Education
Published: 2011/04/11
Channel: Jonathan Becker
Pinellas County Superintendent Dr. Grego defends education at low-rated schools
Pinellas County Superintendent Dr. Grego defends education at low-rated schools
Published: 2015/08/24
Channel: ABC Action News
KCPS Superintendent Mark Bedell on his life, passion for students, education
KCPS Superintendent Mark Bedell on his life, passion for students, education
Published: 2016/03/23
Channel: 41 Action News
Shock: Wiseburn Superintendent Announces Dire Economic News for State Education
Shock: Wiseburn Superintendent Announces Dire Economic News for State Education
Published: 2017/06/23
Channel: Arthur Christopher Schaper
Rowland Unified School District Board of Education appointed new Superintendent - March 12, 2013
Rowland Unified School District Board of Education appointed new Superintendent - March 12, 2013
Published: 2013/03/13
Channel: Rowland PEA
The State of Education in Illinois with State Superintendent Tony Smith
The State of Education in Illinois with State Superintendent Tony Smith
Published: 2016/09/27
Channel: Illinois Principals Association
Hamilton County Department of Education discusses superintendent evaluation standards
Hamilton County Department of Education discusses superintendent evaluation standards
Published: 2017/09/20
Channel: WTVC NewsChannel 9
New State Superintendent talks about plans to improve education
New State Superintendent talks about plans to improve education
Published: 2015/08/31
Channel: WXYZ-TV Detroit | Channel 7
New state school superintendent talks education
New state school superintendent talks education
Published: 2016/08/23
Channel: WBAL-TV 11 Baltimore
NY education-contractor lobbyist: superintendent Cheryl Nuciforo
NY education-contractor lobbyist: superintendent Cheryl Nuciforo
Published: 2014/11/27
Channel: Wayne Coe
STAR Catholic Schools Catholic Education Sunday Superintendent Message
STAR Catholic Schools Catholic Education Sunday Superintendent Message
Published: 2013/10/28
Channel: STAR Catholic Schools
HCDE New Faces: Kimberly McLeod, Ed.D., Superintendent for Education and Enrichment at HCDE
HCDE New Faces: Kimberly McLeod, Ed.D., Superintendent for Education and Enrichment at HCDE
Published: 2015/08/31
Channel: HCDEtv
State Superintendent June Atkinson worries about deep cuts made to public education
State Superintendent June Atkinson worries about deep cuts made to public education
Published: 2015/12/08
Channel: The Progressive Pulse
The Superintendent of Education Democrat Debate
The Superintendent of Education Democrat Debate
Published: 2014/05/27
Channel: SouthCarolinaETV
Illinois Superintendent of Education Tony Smith
Illinois Superintendent of Education Tony Smith
Published: 2015/04/23
Channel: Chicago Sun-Times
Education Grants Conference Review By Assoc. Superintendent Bob Anderson
Education Grants Conference Review By Assoc. Superintendent Bob Anderson
Published: 2017/09/29
Channel: Grant Writers Association
Superintendent Snapshot - The Education Profession
Superintendent Snapshot - The Education Profession
Published: 2015/04/08
Channel: Granite Schools
Diane Douglas reacts to nomination for Arizona Department of Education Superintendent
Diane Douglas reacts to nomination for Arizona Department of Education Superintendent
Published: 2014/08/27
Channel: Cronkite News
Stan Dobbs Superintendent | The Learning Partnership – Champions of Public Education
Stan Dobbs Superintendent | The Learning Partnership – Champions of Public Education
Published: 2016/01/21
Channel: Stan Dobbs
El Dorado Co. education superintendent accused of DUI
El Dorado Co. education superintendent accused of DUI
Published: 2015/11/06
Channel: KCRA News
#FutureReady Superintendent Symposium - CUE/Discovery Education
#FutureReady Superintendent Symposium - CUE/Discovery Education
Published: 2015/11/09
Channel: Lisa Marie Gonzales
Education Career Advice from an Asst. Superintendent from drkit.org
Education Career Advice from an Asst. Superintendent from drkit.org
Published: 2012/10/06
Channel: DrKitVideos
Candidate Forum GA State School Superintendent, Cobb County School Board of Education
Candidate Forum GA State School Superintendent, Cobb County School Board of Education
Published: 2014/05/07
Channel: Deciding the Vote
Nicole Mattson Superintendent of Education - Indiana SDA Schools
Nicole Mattson Superintendent of Education - Indiana SDA Schools
Published: 2017/01/19
Channel: Colleen Kelly
Superintendent Snapshot - Rally to Support Public Education
Superintendent Snapshot - Rally to Support Public Education
Published: 2015/03/06
Channel: Granite Schools
2017-2018 New Employee Orientation: Superintendent of Education Jodie Barrett
2017-2018 New Employee Orientation: Superintendent of Education Jodie Barrett
Published: 2017/09/14
Channel: UpperCanada DSB
Brenda Berg: House Select Committee on Education Strategy and Practices: Superintendent Atkinson
Brenda Berg: House Select Committee on Education Strategy and Practices: Superintendent Atkinson
Published: 2016/01/28
Channel: EducationNC
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Education in the United States
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In the field of education in the United States, a superintendent or superintendent of schools is an administrator or manager in charge of a number of public schools or a school district, a local government body overseeing public schools.

The role and powers of the superintendent varies among areas. However, "it is often said that the most important role of the board of education is to hire its superintendent."[1]

History[edit]

The first education laws in the United States were enacted in the colonial era, when various New England colonies passed ordinances directing towns "to choose men to manage the important affairs of learning, such as deciding local taxes, hiring teachers, setting wages, and determining the length of the school year."[2] The persons responsible were frequently selectmen who had additional government responsibilities.[3] Boston established America's first permanent school committee in 1721; this became America's first school board. (Massachusetts and some other regions retain the term school committee, but school board and board of education are the more common terms nationwide, and a variety of other labels have been used).[3] In 1986, about 95 percent of school board members were elected, with the rest appointed by town boards, mayors, or others.[4]

In early America, school board members handled the day-to-day administration of schools without the need for a superintendent. By the 1830s, however, the increasing numbers of students, as well as the consolidation of one-room schoolhouses into larger districts, led districts to begin appointing the first superintendents.[4] Buffalo, New York became the first location to appoint a superintendent, with Louisville, Kentucky, following on July 31 of the same year.[4] Large cities, which had the greatest administrative needs, were the first to appoint superintendents, but as schools consolidated into districts, the practice of appointing a superintendent became more popular.[4]

A major event in the history of education in the United States was the "Kalamazoo school case" (Stuart v. School District No. 1 of the Village of Kalamazoo).[4] In 1858, Kalamazoo, Michigan established its first high school, and the following year, the Michigan Legislature enacted legislature authorizing the election of school districts and the establishment of high schools funded by local taxes.[5] In January 1873, three Kalamazoo property owners filed a lawsuit challenging the law.[5] In a unanimous decision of the Michigan Supreme Court in 1874 written by the prominent Justice Thomas M. Cooley, the law was upheld.[5] This decision led to a dramatic increase in the number of high schools operating both in Michigan and other states, which led to an increase in the number of superintendents.[4][5]

Early superintendents tended to focus on instruction, with "overall fiscal affairs, school building construction, and maintenance" remaining under school district control, becoming normal responsibilities of superintendents only in the early twentieth century.[6] By the early twentieth century, superintendents emphasized business affairs.[7] Important leaders in American education at the time were George D. Strayer, Ellwood P. Cubberley, and Edward C. Elliott, who all wrote doctoral dissertations on education finance at Columbia University in the first decade of the 20th century.[7] Cubberley served as superintendent in San Diego and later taught at Stanford University, Strayer taught at Teachers College, Columbia University, and Elliott taught at the University of Wisconsin.[7]

In 1911, the idea of the superintendent as a separate professional emerged.[7] The emergence of the superintendency was linked to the adoption of a business organizational model in education.[7] Beginning in 1914, Columbia and other universities began to teach courses on educational administration, including school finance, business methods, budgeting, and organization.[7] Cubberley wrote a book in 1916 on this "New Profession" and emphasized the role of superintendent as chief executive of schools.[8] In 1914, the U.S. Commissioner of Education wrote that America was moving "unmistakably in the direction of a profession of educational administration as distinct from teaching."[9] By 1925, journals and books on educational administration had adopted a view of superintendents as executives, as Cubberley had advocated.[8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Sources
  • William L. Sharp & James K. Walter, The School Superintendent: The Profession and the Person (2nd ed. 2004).
Notes
  1. ^ Sharp & Walter, p. 1.
  2. ^ Sharp & Walter, p. 2.
  3. ^ a b Sharp & Walter, p. 2-3.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Sharp & Walter, p. 3.
  5. ^ a b c d The Kalamazoo School Case: Supporting High School Education, Kalamazoo Public Library.
  6. ^ Sharp & Walter, p. 3-4.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Sharp & Walter, p. 4.
  8. ^ a b Sharp & Walter, p. 5.
  9. ^ Sharp & Walter, p. 4-5.

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