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Shock: Wiseburn Superintendent Announces Dire Economic News for State Education
Shock: Wiseburn Superintendent Announces Dire Economic News for State Education
Published: 2017/06/23
Channel: Arthur Christopher Schaper
Superintendent of Education Debate
Superintendent of Education Debate
Published: 2014/10/20
Channel: SouthCarolinaETV
Howard County Public Schools superintendent files lawsuit against Board of Education
Howard County Public Schools superintendent files lawsuit against Board of Education
Published: 2017/01/13
Channel: ABC 2 News - WMAR
Tulsa Superintendent: Education Budget Cuts Will Hurt Public Schools
Tulsa Superintendent: Education Budget Cuts Will Hurt Public Schools
Published: 2017/05/27
Channel: Matter of Fact
Superintendent goes crazy at Board of Ed Meeting in Monroe Twp. NJ
Superintendent goes crazy at Board of Ed Meeting in Monroe Twp. NJ
Published: 2013/03/11
Channel: Leo Pardza
Evergreen Public Schools retiring and incoming superintendents talk about education
Evergreen Public Schools retiring and incoming superintendents talk about education
Published: 2017/06/21
Channel: The Columbian
Superintendent Knocks Down Barriers to Learning for Poor Students
Superintendent Knocks Down Barriers to Learning for Poor Students
Published: 2017/02/22
Channel: Education Week
A Florida Superintendent Gives His Recipe for Success in Urban Education
A Florida Superintendent Gives His Recipe for Success in Urban Education
Published: 2016/10/01
Channel: National School Boards Association
Board of Education selects Kishimoto as next schools superintendent
Board of Education selects Kishimoto as next schools superintendent
Published: 2017/05/20
Channel: KHON2 News
Birmingham Board of Education Tries to Fire Superintendent Dr. Witherspoon - 041012 7 50
Birmingham Board of Education Tries to Fire Superintendent Dr. Witherspoon - 041012 7 50
Published: 2012/04/11
Channel: ALSchoolConnection
TUSD Superintendent reacts to Governor Doug Ducey
TUSD Superintendent reacts to Governor Doug Ducey's education budget
Published: 2017/01/19
Channel: Governor Doug Ducey
Howard Co. Schools
Howard Co. Schools' new superintendent talks education
Published: 2012/06/12
Channel: WBAL-TV 11 Baltimore
L.I. Superintendent Dr  Michael Hynes on the state of our educational system
L.I. Superintendent Dr Michael Hynes on the state of our educational system
Published: 2017/03/06
Channel: Long Island Backstory
Education board member gets into spat with acting superintendent
Education board member gets into spat with acting superintendent
Published: 2016/10/07
Channel: kuamnews
Molly Spearman, South Carolina Superintendent of Education
Molly Spearman, South Carolina Superintendent of Education
Published: 2017/02/06
Channel: Carolina Business Review
Special Board of Education Meeting, Superintendent
Special Board of Education Meeting, Superintendent's 100 day Plan Presentation - January 12, 2017
Published: 2017/01/13
Channel: Rochester City School District Broadcast Channel
The Superintendent of Education Democrat Debate
The Superintendent of Education Democrat Debate
Published: 2014/05/27
Channel: SouthCarolinaETV
Louisiana Superintendent of Education Paul Pastorek on the New Orleans School Choice Revolution
Louisiana Superintendent of Education Paul Pastorek on the New Orleans School Choice Revolution
Published: 2010/07/08
Channel: ReasonTV
STAR Catholic Schools Catholic Education Sunday Superintendent Message
STAR Catholic Schools Catholic Education Sunday Superintendent Message
Published: 2013/10/28
Channel: STAR Catholic Schools
Message for Ontario Ministry of Education: Deaf Superintendent Now and End to Audism
Message for Ontario Ministry of Education: Deaf Superintendent Now and End to Audism
Published: 2015/11/11
Channel: John Warren
New state school superintendent talks education
New state school superintendent talks education
Published: 2016/08/23
Channel: WBAL-TV 11 Baltimore
State Education Superintendent Richard Woods Visits Hillgrove High School on Wednesday
State Education Superintendent Richard Woods Visits Hillgrove High School on Wednesday
Published: 2016/10/05
Channel: Marietta Daily Journal
Superintendent Barbara Nemko on Transforming Education
Superintendent Barbara Nemko on Transforming Education
Published: 2015/03/02
Channel: The BEST in US
The State of Education in Illinois with State Superintendent Tony Smith
The State of Education in Illinois with State Superintendent Tony Smith
Published: 2016/09/27
Channel: Illinois Principals Association
EdPolicy Leaders Online: John White, Louisiana State Superintendent of Education
EdPolicy Leaders Online: John White, Louisiana State Superintendent of Education
Published: 2015/02/04
Channel: ExcelinEd
Board of Education places superintendent and COO on leave
Board of Education places superintendent and COO on leave
Published: 2015/01/23
Channel: FOX 26 KNPN
Sheri Few for Education Superintendent
Sheri Few for Education Superintendent
Published: 2014/04/23
Channel: Sheri Few
KCPS Superintendent Mark Bedell on his life, passion for students, education
KCPS Superintendent Mark Bedell on his life, passion for students, education
Published: 2016/03/23
Channel: 41 Action News
Molly Spearman for Superintendent of Education
Molly Spearman for Superintendent of Education
Published: 2014/02/24
Channel: Molly Spearman for Education
Grantham, NH School Superintendent Keith Pfeifer Discusses his Role in Public Education
Grantham, NH School Superintendent Keith Pfeifer Discusses his Role in Public Education
Published: 2010/09/09
Channel: CambridgeWhosWho
Indiana State Superintendent Sues Board Of Education
Indiana State Superintendent Sues Board Of Education
Published: 2013/10/25
Channel: WTIU
City of Auburn, Maine - "Education in Auburn" featuring Superintendent Katy Grondin
City of Auburn, Maine - "Education in Auburn" featuring Superintendent Katy Grondin
Published: 2016/07/21
Channel: City of Auburn, Maine
Jack Smith MCPS Board of Education
Jack Smith MCPS Board of Education's Pick for Next Superintendent
Published: 2016/02/14
Channel: myMCMedia
Superintendent search Skype interviews 5/8/17.
Superintendent search Skype interviews 5/8/17.
Published: 2017/05/08
Channel: Hamilton County Department of Education
Superintendent
Superintendent's Report to AAPS Board of Education June 14, 2017
Published: 2017/06/20
Channel: Ann Arbor Public Schools
HCDE New Faces: Kimberly McLeod, Ed.D., Superintendent for Education and Enrichment at HCDE
HCDE New Faces: Kimberly McLeod, Ed.D., Superintendent for Education and Enrichment at HCDE
Published: 2015/08/31
Channel: HCDEtv
Superintendent Greg Goins on Education and Technology
Superintendent Greg Goins on Education and Technology
Published: 2016/12/16
Channel: IllinoisChannelTV
Stan Dobbs Superintendent | The Learning Partnership – Champions of Public Education
Stan Dobbs Superintendent | The Learning Partnership – Champions of Public Education
Published: 2016/01/21
Channel: Stan Dobbs
Expand Your Education With A Superintendent Certification
Expand Your Education With A Superintendent Certification
Published: 2014/10/10
Channel: TexasWesleyan
LA - State Superintendent of Education John White
LA - State Superintendent of Education John White
Published: 2016/09/16
Channel: Milken Family Foundation
Lawmakers Grill Guam Education Board for Handling of Superintendent Case
Lawmakers Grill Guam Education Board for Handling of Superintendent Case
Published: 2016/07/19
Channel: pncnews
AASA
AASA's Superintendent of the Year 2017 Matt Utterback Exclusive Interview with Education Today
Published: 2017/03/09
Channel: Education Today
Pinellas County Superintendent Dr. Grego defends education at low-rated schools
Pinellas County Superintendent Dr. Grego defends education at low-rated schools
Published: 2015/08/24
Channel: ABC Action News
Marshall Tuck, Candidate for CA State Superintendent of Education
Marshall Tuck, Candidate for CA State Superintendent of Education
Published: 2014/10/02
Channel: Choice Media
Education Matters - Jim Yovino, 21st Superintendent of Schools
Education Matters - Jim Yovino, 21st Superintendent of Schools
Published: 2015/01/17
Channel: Fresno CSS
Education Matters: New Superintendent Dr. Jack Smith
Education Matters: New Superintendent Dr. Jack Smith
Published: 2016/11/24
Channel: MCPSTV
Making Assessments Work: Chris A. Koch, State Superintendent of Education, ISBE
Making Assessments Work: Chris A. Koch, State Superintendent of Education, ISBE
Published: 2014/01/28
Channel: Advance Illinois
Education reform in Newark: A conversation with Superintendent Chris Cerf | LIVE STREAM
Education reform in Newark: A conversation with Superintendent Chris Cerf | LIVE STREAM
Published: 2016/10/19
Channel: American Enterprise Institute
A Race for Education (Superintendent
A Race for Education (Superintendent's 5K Challenge)
Published: 2016/04/16
Channel: Lucas Camusso
Pitt School of Education School Leadership Testimonial - Superintendent Robert Postupac
Pitt School of Education School Leadership Testimonial - Superintendent Robert Postupac
Published: 2014/02/05
Channel: University of Pittsburgh School of Education
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Education in the United States
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In the field of education in the United States, a superintendent or superintendent of schools is an administrator or manager in charge of a number of public schools or a school district, a local government body overseeing public schools.

The role and powers of the superintendent varies among areas. However, "it is often said that the most important role of the board of education is to hire its superintendent."[1]

History[edit]

The first education laws in the United States were enacted in the colonial era, when various New England colonies passed ordinances directing towns "to choose men to manage the important affairs of learning, such as deciding local taxes, hiring teachers, setting wages, and determining the length of the school year."[2] The persons responsible were frequently selectmen who had additional government responsibilities.[3] Boston established America's first permanent school committee in 1721; this became America's first school board. (Massachusetts and some other regions retain the term school committee, but school board and board of education are the more common terms nationwide, and a variety of other labels have been used).[3] In 1986, about 95 percent of school board members were elected, with the rest appointed by town boards, mayors, or others.[4]

In early America, school board members handled the day-to-day administration of schools without the need for a superintendent. By the 1830s, however, the increasing numbers of students, as well as the consolidation of one-room schoolhouses into larger districts, led districts to begin appointing the first superintendents.[4] Buffalo, New York became the first location to appoint a superintendent, with Louisville, Kentucky, following on July 31 of the same year.[4] Large cities, which had the greatest administrative needs, were the first to appoint superintendents, but as schools consolidated into districts, the practice of appointing a superintendent became more popular.[4]

A major event in the history of education in the United States was the "Kalamazoo school case" (Stuart v. School District No. 1 of the Village of Kalamazoo).[4] In 1858, Kalamazoo, Michigan established its first high school, and the following year, the Michigan Legislature enacted legislature authorizing the election of school districts and the establishment of high schools funded by local taxes.[5] In January 1873, three Kalamazoo property owners filed a lawsuit challenging the law.[5] In a unanimous decision of the Michigan Supreme Court in 1874 written by the prominent Justice Thomas M. Cooley, the law was upheld.[5] This decision led to a dramatic increase in the number of high schools operating both in Michigan and other states, which led to an increase in the number of superintendents.[4][5]

Early superintendents tended to focus on instruction, with "overall fiscal affairs, school building construction, and maintenance" remaining under school district control, becoming normal responsibilities of superintendents only in the early twentieth century.[6] By the early twentieth century, superintendents emphasized business affairs.[7] Important leaders in American education at the time were George D. Strayer, Ellwood P. Cubberley, and Edward C. Elliott, who all wrote doctoral dissertations on education finance at Columbia University in the first decade of the 20th century.[7] Cubberley served as superintendent in San Diego and later taught at Stanford University, Strayer taught at Teachers College, Columbia University, and Elliott taught at the University of Wisconsin.[7]

In 1911, the idea of the superintendent as a separate professional emerged.[7] The emergence of the superintendency was linked to the adoption of a business organizational model in education.[7] Beginning in 1914, Columbia and other universities began to teach courses on educational administration, including school finance, business methods, budgeting, and organization.[7] Cubberley wrote a book in 1916 on this "New Profession" and emphasized the role of superintendent as chief executive of schools.[8] In 1914, the U.S. Commissioner of Education wrote that America was moving "unmistakably in the direction of a profession of educational administration as distinct from teaching."[9] By 1925, journals and books on educational administration had adopted a view of superintendents as executives, as Cubberley had advocated.[8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Sources
  • William L. Sharp & James K. Walter, The School Superintendent: The Profession and the Person (2nd ed. 2004).
Notes
  1. ^ Sharp & Walter, p. 1.
  2. ^ Sharp & Walter, p. 2.
  3. ^ a b Sharp & Walter, p. 2-3.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Sharp & Walter, p. 3.
  5. ^ a b c d The Kalamazoo School Case: Supporting High School Education, Kalamazoo Public Library.
  6. ^ Sharp & Walter, p. 3-4.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Sharp & Walter, p. 4.
  8. ^ a b Sharp & Walter, p. 5.
  9. ^ Sharp & Walter, p. 4-5.

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