1
Louisiana Superintendent of Education Paul Pastorek on the New Orleans School Choice Revolution
Louisiana Superintendent of Education Paul Pastorek on the New Orleans School Choice Revolution
DATE: 2010/07/08::
2
Superintendent of Education Debate
Superintendent of Education Debate
DATE: 2014/10/20::
3
Vernon, Connecticut Board of Education New Superintendent 2015
Vernon, Connecticut Board of Education New Superintendent 2015
DATE: 2015/06/25::
4
Education Matters - Jim Yovino, 21st Superintendent of Schools
Education Matters - Jim Yovino, 21st Superintendent of Schools
DATE: 2015/01/17::
5
Illinois Superintendent of Education Tony Smith
Illinois Superintendent of Education Tony Smith
DATE: 2015/04/23::
6
EdPolicy Leaders Online: John White, Louisiana State Superintendent of Education
EdPolicy Leaders Online: John White, Louisiana State Superintendent of Education
DATE: 2015/02/04::
7
The Superintendent of Education Democrat Debate
The Superintendent of Education Democrat Debate
DATE: 2014/05/27::
8
House Democrats are Working to Protect Public Education and State Superintendent Glenda Ritz
House Democrats are Working to Protect Public Education and State Superintendent Glenda Ritz
DATE: 2015/02/06::
9
BRPS Board of Education deliberates in choosing superintendent
BRPS Board of Education deliberates in choosing superintendent
DATE: 2011/06/03::
10
Superintendent Snapshot - The Education Profession
Superintendent Snapshot - The Education Profession
DATE: 2015/04/08::
11
Sheri Few, Superintendent of Education Candidate, Debates Common Core in Rock Hill South Carolina
Sheri Few, Superintendent of Education Candidate, Debates Common Core in Rock Hill South Carolina
DATE: 2014/03/01::
12
Superintendent of Education Republican Debate
Superintendent of Education Republican Debate
DATE: 2014/05/28::
13
David Garcia running for Superintendent of Public Education
David Garcia running for Superintendent of Public Education
DATE: 2014/10/04::
14
Superintendent goes crazy at Board of Ed Meeting in Monroe Twp. NJ
Superintendent goes crazy at Board of Ed Meeting in Monroe Twp. NJ
DATE: 2013/03/11::
15
Superintendent Summit: Future of Public Education
Superintendent Summit: Future of Public Education
DATE: 2014/05/24::
16
Commack Superintendent Testifies at NYS Assembly Education Forum
Commack Superintendent Testifies at NYS Assembly Education Forum
DATE: 2013/11/14::
17
Meka Bosket Childs (R) for SC. Superintendent of Education 03/03/2014 .mpg
Meka Bosket Childs (R) for SC. Superintendent of Education 03/03/2014 .mpg
DATE: 2014/03/04::
18
Mary Kay Bacallao 2014 Republican candidate for GA Superintendent of Education
Mary Kay Bacallao 2014 Republican candidate for GA Superintendent of Education
DATE: 2014/03/29::
19
Superintendent Keith Ballard Speaks During Education Funding Rally at the Capitol
Superintendent Keith Ballard Speaks During Education Funding Rally at the Capitol
DATE: 2014/03/31::
20
Board of Education places superintendent and COO on leave
Board of Education places superintendent and COO on leave
DATE: 2015/01/22::
21
Elect Sheri Few for South Carolina
Elect Sheri Few for South Carolina's Superintendent of Education!
DATE: 2014/03/18::
22
Vote for Henderson Superintendent of Education Leake County
Vote for Henderson Superintendent of Education Leake County
DATE: 2015/06/04::
23
KY School Superintendent Opposed Science Education.
KY School Superintendent Opposed Science Education.
DATE: 2012/07/10::
24
Sally Atwater for SC Superintendent of Education
Sally Atwater for SC Superintendent of Education
DATE: 2014/06/12::
25
State Superintendent of Education Molly Spearman
State Superintendent of Education Molly Spearman
DATE: 2015/02/25::
26
Molly Spearman for Superintendent of Education
Molly Spearman for Superintendent of Education
DATE: 2014/02/24::
27
Candidate Forum GA State School Superintendent, Cobb County School Board of Education
Candidate Forum GA State School Superintendent, Cobb County School Board of Education
DATE: 2014/05/07::
28
California State Superintendent of Public Instruction Debate - Sept. 17, 2014
California State Superintendent of Public Instruction Debate - Sept. 17, 2014
DATE: 2014/09/26::
29
Superintendent Snapshot - Rally to Support Public Education
Superintendent Snapshot - Rally to Support Public Education
DATE: 2015/03/06::
30
NY education-contractor lobbyist: superintendent Cheryl Nuciforo
NY education-contractor lobbyist: superintendent Cheryl Nuciforo
DATE: 2014/11/27::
31
John White named Louisiana Superintendent of Education
John White named Louisiana Superintendent of Education
DATE: 2012/01/11::
32
Marshall Tuck, Candidate for CA State Superintendent of Education
Marshall Tuck, Candidate for CA State Superintendent of Education
DATE: 2014/10/02::
33
Superintendent Goes Crazy At Board Of Education Meeting
Superintendent Goes Crazy At Board Of Education Meeting
DATE: 2014/11/08::
34
Indiana State Superintendent Sues Board Of Education
Indiana State Superintendent Sues Board Of Education
DATE: 2013/10/25::
35
Tess Rawls Smith for Lamar County Superintendent of Education
Tess Rawls Smith for Lamar County Superintendent of Education
DATE: 2014/10/15::
36
Office Superintendent - Education - Dadu - Press conference
Office Superintendent - Education - Dadu - Press conference
DATE: 2015/07/02::
37
Mark Bounds, Deputy Superintendent, SC Department of Education, Division of School Effectiveness
Mark Bounds, Deputy Superintendent, SC Department of Education, Division of School Effectiveness
DATE: 2012/01/18::
38
2014 election Alameda County Office of Education, Superintendent
2014 election Alameda County Office of Education, Superintendent
DATE: 2014/10/04::
39
Superintendent Brian Hunt - Saving Education Together
Superintendent Brian Hunt - Saving Education Together
DATE: 2015/03/28::
40
Superintendent License Program - The Patton College of Education at Ohio University
Superintendent License Program - The Patton College of Education at Ohio University
DATE: 2015/01/09::
41
Superintendent Diane Douglas We Are Listening Tour 2015 (May 28, Tucson, AZ)
Superintendent Diane Douglas We Are Listening Tour 2015 (May 28, Tucson, AZ)
DATE: 2015/05/28::
42
Education and Technology with Robert Runcie, Superintendent of Broward Public Schools Pt.1
Education and Technology with Robert Runcie, Superintendent of Broward Public Schools Pt.1
DATE: 2015/02/05::
43
Candidates for South Carolina State Superintendent of Education
Candidates for South Carolina State Superintendent of Education
DATE: 2014/10/01::
44
Superintendent faces angry public over Obama education speech decision
Superintendent faces angry public over Obama education speech decision
DATE: 2009/09/09::
45
Superintendent of Education, Democrat Runoff Debate
Superintendent of Education, Democrat Runoff Debate
DATE: 2014/06/19::
46
Laurie Kimbrel  |  Superintendent
Laurie Kimbrel | Superintendent
DATE: 2015/05/29::
47
Superintendent Walt Rulffes on the importance of funding K-12 education
Superintendent Walt Rulffes on the importance of funding K-12 education
DATE: 2009/04/30::
48
Interview with Jersey City Board of Education SuperIntendent Marcia V Lyles
Interview with Jersey City Board of Education SuperIntendent Marcia V Lyles
DATE: 2012/09/22::
49
Elect Sheri Few for South Carolina
Elect Sheri Few for South Carolina's Superintendent of Education!
DATE: 2014/03/11::
50
SC Superintendent of Education candidate Molly Spearman
SC Superintendent of Education candidate Molly Spearman
DATE: 2014/10/27::
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RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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In the field of education in the United States, a superintendent or superintendent of schools is an administrator or manager in charge of a number of public schools or a school district, a local government body overseeing public schools.

The role and powers of the superintendent varies among areas. However, "it is often said that the most important role of the board of education is to hire its superintendent."[1]

History[edit]

The first education laws in the United States were enacted in the colonial era, when various New England colonies passed ordinances directing towns "to choose men to manage the important affairs of learning, such as deciding local taxes, hiring teaches, setting wages, and determining the length of the school year."[2] The persons responsible were frequently selectmen who had additional government responsibilities.[3] Boston established America's first permanent school committee in 1721; this became America's first school board. (Massachusetts and some other regions retain the term school committee, but school board and board of education are the more common terms nationwide, and a variety of other labels have been used).[4] In 1986, about 95 percent of school board members were elected, with the rest appointed by town boards, mayors, or others.[5]

In early America, school board members handled the day-to-day administration of schools without the need for a superintendent. By the 1830s, however, the increasing numbers of students, as well as the consolidation of one-room schoolhouses into larger districts, led districts to begin appointing the first superintendents.[6] Buffalo, New York became the first location to appoint a superintend ant, with Louisville, Kentucky, following on July 31 of the same year.[7] Large cities, which had the greatest administrative needs, were the first to appoint superintendents, but as schools consolidated into districts, the practice of appointing a superintendent became more popular.[8]

A major event in the history of education in the United States was the "Kalamazoo school case" (Stuart v. School District No. 1 of the Village of Kalamazoo).[9] In 1858, Kalamazoo, Michigan established its first high school, and the following year, the Michigan Legislature enacted legislature authorizing the election of school districts and the establishment of high schools funded by local taxes.[10] In January 1873, three Kalamazoo property owners filed a lawsuit challenging the law.[10] In a unanimous decision of the Michigan Supreme Court in 1874 written by the prominent Justice Thomas M. Cooley, the law was upheld.[10] This decision led to a dramatic increase in the number of high schools operating both in Michigan and other states, which led to an increase in the number of superintendents.[10][11]

Early superintendents tended to focus on instruction, with "overall fiscal affairs, school building construction, and maintenance" remaining under school district control, becoming normal responsibilities of superintendents only in the early twentieth century.[12] By the early twentieth century, superintendents emphasized business affairs.[13] Important leaders in American education at the time were George D. Strayer, Ellwood P. Cubberley, and Edward C. Elliott, who all wrote doctoral dissertations on education finance at Columbia University in the first decade of the 20th century.[14] Cubberley served as superintendent in San Diego and later taught at Stanford University, Strayer taught at Teachers College, Columbia University, and Elliott taught at the University of Wisconsin.[15]

In 1911, the idea of the superintendent as a separate professional emerged.[16] The emergence of the superintendency was linked to the adoption of a business organizational model in education.[17] Beginning in 1914, Columbia and other universities began to teach courses on educational administration, including school finance, business methods, budgeting, and organization.[18] Cubberley wrote a book in 1916 on this "New Profession" and emphasized the role of superintendent as chief executive of schools.[19] In 1914, the U.S. Commissioner of Education wrote that America was moving "unmistakably in the direction of a profession of educational administration as distinct from teaching."[20] By 1925, journals and books on educational administration had adopted a view of superintendents as executives, as Cubberley had advocated.[21]

References[edit]

  • William L. Sharp & James K. Walter, The School Superintendent: The Profession and the Person (2nd ed. 2004).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sharp & Walter, p. 1.
  2. ^ Sharp & Walter, p. 2.
  3. ^ Sharp & Walter, p. 2-3.
  4. ^ Sharp & Walter, p. 2-3.
  5. ^ Sharp & Walter, p. 3.
  6. ^ Sharp & Walter, p. 3.
  7. ^ Sharp & Walter, p. 3.
  8. ^ Sharp & Walter, p. 3.
  9. ^ Sharp & Walter, p. 3.
  10. ^ a b c d The Kalamazoo School Case: Supporting High School Education, Kalamazoo Public Library.
  11. ^ Sharp & Walter, p. 3.
  12. ^ Sharp & Walter, p. 3-4.
  13. ^ Sharp & Walter, p. 4.
  14. ^ Sharp & Walter, p. 4.
  15. ^ Sharp & Walter, p. 4.
  16. ^ Sharp & Walter, p. 4.
  17. ^ Sharp & Walter, p. 4.
  18. ^ Sharp & Walter, p. 4.
  19. ^ Sharp & Walter, p. 5.
  20. ^ Sharp & Walter, p. 4-5.
  21. ^ Sharp & Walter, p. 5.
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