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Superintendent goes crazy at Board of Ed Meeting in Monroe Twp. NJ
Superintendent goes crazy at Board of Ed Meeting in Monroe Twp. NJ
Published: 2013/03/11
Channel: Leo Pardza
A Florida Superintendent Gives His Recipe for Success in Urban Education
A Florida Superintendent Gives His Recipe for Success in Urban Education
Published: 2016/10/01
Channel: National School Boards Association
Tulsa Superintendent: Education Budget Cuts Will Hurt Public Schools
Tulsa Superintendent: Education Budget Cuts Will Hurt Public Schools
Published: 2017/05/27
Channel: Matter of Fact
Howard County Public Schools superintendent files lawsuit against Board of Education
Howard County Public Schools superintendent files lawsuit against Board of Education
Published: 2017/01/13
Channel: ABC 2 News - WMAR
Superintendent Knocks Down Barriers to Learning for Poor Students
Superintendent Knocks Down Barriers to Learning for Poor Students
Published: 2017/02/22
Channel: Education Week
Louisiana Superintendent of Education Paul Pastorek on the New Orleans School Choice Revolution
Louisiana Superintendent of Education Paul Pastorek on the New Orleans School Choice Revolution
Published: 2010/07/08
Channel: ReasonTV
Grantham, NH School Superintendent Keith Pfeifer Discusses his Role in Public Education
Grantham, NH School Superintendent Keith Pfeifer Discusses his Role in Public Education
Published: 2010/09/09
Channel: CambridgeWhosWho
New state school superintendent talks education
New state school superintendent talks education
Published: 2016/08/23
Channel: WBAL-TV 11 Baltimore
Superintendent Snapshot - The Education Profession
Superintendent Snapshot - The Education Profession
Published: 2015/04/08
Channel: Granite Schools
SC Superintendent of Education visits Upstate
SC Superintendent of Education visits Upstate
Published: 2017/03/29
Channel: WYFF News 4
Board of Education selects Kishimoto as next schools superintendent
Board of Education selects Kishimoto as next schools superintendent
Published: 2017/05/20
Channel: KHON2 News
Stan Dobbs Superintendent | The Learning Partnership – Champions of Public Education
Stan Dobbs Superintendent | The Learning Partnership – Champions of Public Education
Published: 2016/01/21
Channel: Stan Dobbs
Superintendent of Education Republican Debate
Superintendent of Education Republican Debate
Published: 2014/05/28
Channel: SouthCarolinaETV
Exploring Education PBC Schools Superintendent Bill Malone
Exploring Education PBC Schools Superintendent Bill Malone
Published: 2011/10/14
Channel: pbcgov20
Superintendent Barbara Nemko on Transforming Education
Superintendent Barbara Nemko on Transforming Education
Published: 2015/03/02
Channel: The BEST in US
Superintendent of Education Debate
Superintendent of Education Debate
Published: 2014/10/20
Channel: SouthCarolinaETV
L.I. Superintendent Dr  Michael Hynes on the state of our educational system
L.I. Superintendent Dr Michael Hynes on the state of our educational system
Published: 2017/03/06
Channel: Long Island Backstory
Education Matters State Superintendent Mark Johnson Episode 28 4/29/17
Education Matters State Superintendent Mark Johnson Episode 28 4/29/17
Published: 2017/04/28
Channel: Education Matters
Education Matters: New Superintendent Dr. Jack Smith
Education Matters: New Superintendent Dr. Jack Smith
Published: 2016/11/24
Channel: MCPSTV
#FutureReady Superintendent Symposium - CUE/Discovery Education
#FutureReady Superintendent Symposium - CUE/Discovery Education
Published: 2015/11/09
Channel: Lisa Marie Gonzales
Sheri Few for Education Superintendent
Sheri Few for Education Superintendent
Published: 2014/04/23
Channel: Sheri Few
EdPolicy Leaders Online: John White, Louisiana State Superintendent of Education
EdPolicy Leaders Online: John White, Louisiana State Superintendent of Education
Published: 2015/02/04
Channel: ExcelinEd
Alan Lumpkin - Superintendent of Education
Alan Lumpkin - Superintendent of Education
Published: 2015/09/15
Channel: PRC Instructional Technology
Transformation Talk - Superintendent Dr. Mark Edwards
Transformation Talk - Superintendent Dr. Mark Edwards
Published: 2013/04/18
Channel: Discovery Education
Commack Superintendent Testifies at NYS Assembly Education Forum
Commack Superintendent Testifies at NYS Assembly Education Forum
Published: 2013/11/14
Channel: Commack Schools
Birmingham Board of Education Votes on Superintendent
Birmingham Board of Education Votes on Superintendent's Contract Extension-041012 Part I
Published: 2012/04/11
Channel: ALSchoolConnection
Superintendent
Superintendent's Proposed 2017-2018 Budget Presentation to Rochester of Education - March 21, 2017
Published: 2017/03/22
Channel: Rochester City School District Broadcast Channel
Birmingham Board of Education Votes on Superintendent
Birmingham Board of Education Votes on Superintendent's Contract Extension-041012 Part III
Published: 2012/04/11
Channel: ALSchoolConnection
Meka Bosket Childs (R) for SC. Superintendent of Education 03/03/2014 .mpg
Meka Bosket Childs (R) for SC. Superintendent of Education 03/03/2014 .mpg
Published: 2014/03/04
Channel: ronkpaws1
ACB Raids on AP Education & Welfare Superintendent Engineer Bhaskar Rao
ACB Raids on AP Education & Welfare Superintendent Engineer Bhaskar Rao's House in Vizag | NTV
Published: 2016/06/29
Channel: NTV Telugu
Board of Education promises transparency in search for new superintendent
Board of Education promises transparency in search for new superintendent
Published: 2017/03/08
Channel: KHON2 News
Millions returned from state surplus may not help education crisis, state superintendent says
Millions returned from state surplus may not help education crisis, state superintendent says
Published: 2016/09/13
Channel: KOCO 5 News
"Happy Spring Break!" from Dr. Wright, Superintendent of Education,  Huntsville ISD
"Happy Spring Break!" from Dr. Wright, Superintendent of Education, Huntsville ISD
Published: 2017/03/07
Channel: Huntsville ISD
Shock: Wiseburn Superintendent Announces Dire Economic News for State Education
Shock: Wiseburn Superintendent Announces Dire Economic News for State Education
Published: 2017/06/23
Channel: Arthur Christopher Schaper
Education and Technology with Robert Runcie, Superintendent of Broward Public Schools Pt.1
Education and Technology with Robert Runcie, Superintendent of Broward Public Schools Pt.1
Published: 2015/02/05
Channel: tech talk
Education superintendent Douglas announces We Are Listening state tour
Education superintendent Douglas announces We Are Listening state tour
Published: 2015/04/21
Channel: Cronkite News
The Superintendent of Education Democrat Debate
The Superintendent of Education Democrat Debate
Published: 2014/05/27
Channel: SouthCarolinaETV
Mary Kay Bacallao 2014 Republican candidate for GA Superintendent of Education
Mary Kay Bacallao 2014 Republican candidate for GA Superintendent of Education
Published: 2014/03/29
Channel: Daniel Martin
Sheri Few   for Superintendent of Education
Sheri Few for Superintendent of Education
Published: 2014/03/26
Channel: Sheri Few
Superintendent Diane Douglas says AZ Education at a crossroads  | Cronkite News
Superintendent Diane Douglas says AZ Education at a crossroads | Cronkite News
Published: 2017/01/25
Channel: Cronkite News
Cory Uselton acceptance speech for superintendent of education--DeSoto County Schools in Miss
Cory Uselton acceptance speech for superintendent of education--DeSoto County Schools in Miss
Published: 2015/08/26
Channel: Wendy King
Superintendent of Education Paul Pastorek at the Louisiana School Boards Association
Superintendent of Education Paul Pastorek at the Louisiana School Boards Association
Published: 2011/03/05
Channel: Louisiana Hometown
Rowland Unified School District Board of Education appointed new Superintendent - March 12, 2013
Rowland Unified School District Board of Education appointed new Superintendent - March 12, 2013
Published: 2013/03/13
Channel: Rowland PEA
ND Superintendent Kirsten Baesler Talks About Fed Education Policy
ND Superintendent Kirsten Baesler Talks About Fed Education Policy
Published: 2013/02/12
Channel: Say Anything
Board of Education places superintendent and COO on leave
Board of Education places superintendent and COO on leave
Published: 2015/01/23
Channel: FOX 26 KNPN
Vermont Education Champions 2016 - Mary Moran, Superintendent, Rutland City Public Schools
Vermont Education Champions 2016 - Mary Moran, Superintendent, Rutland City Public Schools
Published: 2016/09/14
Channel: Vermont PBS
John White, State Superintendent of Education
John White, State Superintendent of Education
Published: 2013/06/14
Channel: KLAXProduction
Molly Spearman for Superintendent of Education
Molly Spearman for Superintendent of Education
Published: 2014/02/24
Channel: Molly Spearman for Education
State Superintendent June Atkinson worries about deep cuts made to public education
State Superintendent June Atkinson worries about deep cuts made to public education
Published: 2015/12/08
Channel: The Progressive Pulse
Challenges Superintendent Faced in Education
Challenges Superintendent Faced in Education
Published: 2016/08/15
Channel: MCPSTV
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Education in the United States
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In the field of education in the United States, a superintendent or superintendent of schools is an administrator or manager in charge of a number of public schools or a school district, a local government body overseeing public schools.

The role and powers of the superintendent varies among areas. However, "it is often said that the most important role of the board of education is to hire its superintendent."[1]

History[edit]

The first education laws in the United States were enacted in the colonial era, when various New England colonies passed ordinances directing towns "to choose men to manage the important affairs of learning, such as deciding local taxes, hiring teachers, setting wages, and determining the length of the school year."[2] The persons responsible were frequently selectmen who had additional government responsibilities.[3] Boston established America's first permanent school committee in 1721; this became America's first school board. (Massachusetts and some other regions retain the term school committee, but school board and board of education are the more common terms nationwide, and a variety of other labels have been used).[3] In 1986, about 95 percent of school board members were elected, with the rest appointed by town boards, mayors, or others.[4]

In early America, school board members handled the day-to-day administration of schools without the need for a superintendent. By the 1830s, however, the increasing numbers of students, as well as the consolidation of one-room schoolhouses into larger districts, led districts to begin appointing the first superintendents.[4] Buffalo, New York became the first location to appoint a superintendent, with Louisville, Kentucky, following on July 31 of the same year.[4] Large cities, which had the greatest administrative needs, were the first to appoint superintendents, but as schools consolidated into districts, the practice of appointing a superintendent became more popular.[4]

A major event in the history of education in the United States was the "Kalamazoo school case" (Stuart v. School District No. 1 of the Village of Kalamazoo).[4] In 1858, Kalamazoo, Michigan established its first high school, and the following year, the Michigan Legislature enacted legislature authorizing the election of school districts and the establishment of high schools funded by local taxes.[5] In January 1873, three Kalamazoo property owners filed a lawsuit challenging the law.[5] In a unanimous decision of the Michigan Supreme Court in 1874 written by the prominent Justice Thomas M. Cooley, the law was upheld.[5] This decision led to a dramatic increase in the number of high schools operating both in Michigan and other states, which led to an increase in the number of superintendents.[4][5]

Early superintendents tended to focus on instruction, with "overall fiscal affairs, school building construction, and maintenance" remaining under school district control, becoming normal responsibilities of superintendents only in the early twentieth century.[6] By the early twentieth century, superintendents emphasized business affairs.[7] Important leaders in American education at the time were George D. Strayer, Ellwood P. Cubberley, and Edward C. Elliott, who all wrote doctoral dissertations on education finance at Columbia University in the first decade of the 20th century.[7] Cubberley served as superintendent in San Diego and later taught at Stanford University, Strayer taught at Teachers College, Columbia University, and Elliott taught at the University of Wisconsin.[7]

In 1911, the idea of the superintendent as a separate professional emerged.[7] The emergence of the superintendency was linked to the adoption of a business organizational model in education.[7] Beginning in 1914, Columbia and other universities began to teach courses on educational administration, including school finance, business methods, budgeting, and organization.[7] Cubberley wrote a book in 1916 on this "New Profession" and emphasized the role of superintendent as chief executive of schools.[8] In 1914, the U.S. Commissioner of Education wrote that America was moving "unmistakably in the direction of a profession of educational administration as distinct from teaching."[9] By 1925, journals and books on educational administration had adopted a view of superintendents as executives, as Cubberley had advocated.[8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Sources
  • William L. Sharp & James K. Walter, The School Superintendent: The Profession and the Person (2nd ed. 2004).
Notes
  1. ^ Sharp & Walter, p. 1.
  2. ^ Sharp & Walter, p. 2.
  3. ^ a b Sharp & Walter, p. 2-3.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Sharp & Walter, p. 3.
  5. ^ a b c d The Kalamazoo School Case: Supporting High School Education, Kalamazoo Public Library.
  6. ^ Sharp & Walter, p. 3-4.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Sharp & Walter, p. 4.
  8. ^ a b Sharp & Walter, p. 5.
  9. ^ Sharp & Walter, p. 4-5.

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