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10 Things You May Not Know About Superman III
10 Things You May Not Know About Superman III
Published: 2017/11/02
Channel: Minty Comedic Arts
Superman III (6/10) Movie CLIP - Superman vs. Clark Kent (1983) HD
Superman III (6/10) Movie CLIP - Superman vs. Clark Kent (1983) HD
Published: 2016/05/12
Channel: Movieclips
Superman III (9/10) Movie CLIP - Superman vs. Supercomputer (1983) HD
Superman III (9/10) Movie CLIP - Superman vs. Supercomputer (1983) HD
Published: 2016/05/12
Channel: Movieclips
Superman III (1/10) Movie CLIP - Making It Rain (1983) HD
Superman III (1/10) Movie CLIP - Making It Rain (1983) HD
Published: 2016/05/12
Channel: Movieclips
Superman III (7/10) Movie CLIP - Superman Reborn (1983) HD
Superman III (7/10) Movie CLIP - Superman Reborn (1983) HD
Published: 2016/05/12
Channel: Movieclips
Superman III (Trailer)
Superman III (Trailer)
Published: 2013/07/26
Channel: DC
Superman III (5/10) Movie CLIP - Super Seduction (1983) HD
Superman III (5/10) Movie CLIP - Super Seduction (1983) HD
Published: 2016/05/12
Channel: Movieclips
Superman III -- Opening Credits
Superman III -- Opening Credits
Published: 2016/03/20
Channel: Sean Mulvihill
Superman Movie Collection - Superman III Clip - Smallville
Superman Movie Collection - Superman III Clip - Smallville
Published: 2011/06/14
Channel: BlockbusterUK
Superman lll Supermans Drunk/Superman vs Clark Part 1 HD
Superman lll Supermans Drunk/Superman vs Clark Part 1 HD
Published: 2011/08/04
Channel: BatmanRobinSuperman
Superman III (3/10) Movie CLIP - Superman Is Bad! (1983) HD
Superman III (3/10) Movie CLIP - Superman Is Bad! (1983) HD
Published: 2016/05/12
Channel: Movieclips
Siskel & Ebert: Superman III (1983)
Siskel & Ebert: Superman III (1983)
Published: 2017/11/15
Channel: Jarvis City
Superman III Robot FREAKY
Superman III Robot FREAKY
Published: 2009/08/19
Channel: Mara Jade
Superman gets drunk and fights Clark Kent (HD)
Superman gets drunk and fights Clark Kent (HD)
Published: 2013/09/14
Channel: Nimessa Virhe
Superman III Main Titles In Space
Superman III Main Titles In Space
Published: 2007/01/16
Channel: scoobdogg187
Superman III (1983) Retrospective / Review
Superman III (1983) Retrospective / Review
Published: 2012/01/22
Channel: Oliver Harper
Superman III (2/10) Movie CLIP - Rescuing Ricky (1983) HD
Superman III (2/10) Movie CLIP - Rescuing Ricky (1983) HD
Published: 2016/05/12
Channel: Movieclips
Superman lll Superman Destroys The Computer HD
Superman lll Superman Destroys The Computer HD
Published: 2011/08/14
Channel: BatmanRobinSuperman
What Superman III Was Suppose To Be
What Superman III Was Suppose To Be
Published: 2016/01/09
Channel: Gordon Briggs
Awfully Good Movies: Superman III
Awfully Good Movies: Superman III
Published: 2016/03/23
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Superman lll Oil Spill Scene  HD
Superman lll Oil Spill Scene HD
Published: 2011/07/28
Channel: BatmanRobinSuperman
Superman III The Wrath of Brainiac (Feature Length Fan Film)
Superman III The Wrath of Brainiac (Feature Length Fan Film)
Published: 2014/07/20
Channel: Doug Michaels
Superman III Movie Review (Schmoes Know & Chris Stuckmann)
Superman III Movie Review (Schmoes Know & Chris Stuckmann)
Published: 2013/05/29
Channel: schmoesknow
Christopher Reeve "Superman III" Interview on Johnny Carson
Christopher Reeve "Superman III" Interview on Johnny Carson
Published: 2014/03/19
Channel: Know It All Joe
Superman III: Blooper that was not edited out!!
Superman III: Blooper that was not edited out!!
Published: 2008/08/30
Channel: TonyW1000
Superman III (10/10) Movie CLIP - Superman and Gus (1983) HD
Superman III (10/10) Movie CLIP - Superman and Gus (1983) HD
Published: 2016/05/12
Channel: Movieclips
Annette O
Annette O'Toole in Superman III (1983) Pt 1
Published: 2008/06/19
Channel: p0dlingface
Superman III (4/10) Movie CLIP - Thank God for Superman (1983) HD
Superman III (4/10) Movie CLIP - Thank God for Superman (1983) HD
Published: 2016/05/12
Channel: Movieclips
Superman III - Heavily-edited alternate version of Clark
Superman III - Heavily-edited alternate version of Clark's reunion with Lana
Published: 2009/11/13
Channel: reformedfruit
Superman lll Superman vs Clark Part 2 HD
Superman lll Superman vs Clark Part 2 HD
Published: 2011/08/05
Channel: BatmanRobinSuperman
SUPERMAN 3 - Computer Turns Ugly Woman Into Freaky Robot
SUPERMAN 3 - Computer Turns Ugly Woman Into Freaky Robot
Published: 2011/03/12
Channel: TheChopperTube
Annette O
Annette O'Toole in Superman III - Clip 6
Published: 2008/06/19
Channel: p0dlingface
Superman III (8/10) Movie CLIP - Superman: The Videogame (1983) HD
Superman III (8/10) Movie CLIP - Superman: The Videogame (1983) HD
Published: 2016/05/12
Channel: Movieclips
Opening to Superman III 1983 VHS [True HQ]
Opening to Superman III 1983 VHS [True HQ]
Published: 2016/01/27
Channel: Jordan Rios
Como Se Hizo: Superman 3. Especial De Televisión. Subtitulado En Español
Como Se Hizo: Superman 3. Especial De Televisión. Subtitulado En Español
Published: 2013/07/22
Channel: DocumentalesDeCine
Richard Pryor - Computer Hacker - Superman 3
Richard Pryor - Computer Hacker - Superman 3
Published: 2010/11/13
Channel: M Sday
Superman vs Supercomputer,  Superman III
Superman vs Supercomputer, Superman III
Published: 2015/09/04
Channel: Forever Eternal
Superman III - Clark help boy in bowling...
Superman III - Clark help boy in bowling...
Published: 2013/08/13
Channel: Jim Bridge
Drinking with Richard Pryor - Superman III
Drinking with Richard Pryor - Superman III
Published: 2013/07/15
Channel: Jeff Freeman
Superman 3 - Gus Gorman (Richard Pryor) makes Kryptonite.
Superman 3 - Gus Gorman (Richard Pryor) makes Kryptonite.
Published: 2017/01/11
Channel: AlexJ
Superman 3 Credits
Superman 3 Credits
Published: 2015/12/13
Channel: KaNaRy82
Annette O
Annette O'Toole in Superman III - Clip 9
Published: 2008/06/20
Channel: p0dlingface
Superman III
Superman III
Published: 2011/06/26
Channel: Warner Movies On Demand
Superman lll Clark vs Superman My Edit HD
Superman lll Clark vs Superman My Edit HD
Published: 2012/07/09
Channel: BatmanRobinSuperman
Superman III 1983 OST: End Credits
Superman III 1983 OST: End Credits
Published: 2016/08/07
Channel: PJ Santos: Official YouTube Channel
Superhero Films - Superman III (1983)
Superhero Films - Superman III (1983)
Published: 2016/08/26
Channel: HaphazardStuff
Christopher Reeve Superman III Interview
Christopher Reeve Superman III Interview
Published: 2014/03/19
Channel: Know It All Joe
Videogame Knowledge - Superman III - Retroware TV
Videogame Knowledge - Superman III - Retroware TV
Published: 2008/06/06
Channel: Retroware
SUPERMAN III rare international trailer (1983)
SUPERMAN III rare international trailer (1983)
Published: 2012/05/20
Channel: Drainpipe1981
Superman lll Superman Saves Ricky HD
Superman lll Superman Saves Ricky HD
Published: 2011/07/28
Channel: BatmanRobinSuperman
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Superman III
Superman III poster.jpg
Theatrical release poster by Larry Salk
Directed by Richard Lester[1]
Produced by
Written by
Based on Characters
by Jerry Siegel
Joe Shuster
Starring
Music by
Cinematography Robert Paynter
Edited by John Victor-Smith
Production
company
  • Cantharus Productions N.V.
  • Dovemead Films
Distributed by
Release date
  • June 17, 1983 (1983-06-17) (US)
  • July 19, 1983 (1983-07-19) (UK)
Running time
125 minutes
Country United Kingdom[2]
Language English
Budget $39 million[3]
Box office $80.2 million[4]

Superman III is a British-American 1983 superhero film directed by Richard Lester,[5] based on the DC Comics character Superman. It is the third film in the Superman film series and the last Superman film to be produced by Alexander Salkind and Ilya Salkind. The film features a cast of Christopher Reeve, Richard Pryor, Annette O'Toole, Annie Ross, Pamela Stephenson, Robert Vaughn,[6][5] Marc McClure, and Gavan O'Herlihy. This film is followed by Superman IV: The Quest for Peace, released on July 24, 1987.

Although the film still managed to recoup its budget of $39 million, it was less successful than the first two Superman movies, both financially and critically. While harsh criticism focused on the film's comedic and campy tone, as well as the casting and performance of Pryor, the special effects and Christopher Reeve's performance as a temporarily corrupted Superman were praised.

Plot[edit]

A chronically unemployed Gus Gorman discovers a talent for computer programming and gets hired at the Metropolis-based Webscoe. Gus embezzles from his employer, bringing him to the attention of CEO Ross Webster. Webster is intrigued by Gus's potential to help him rule the world financially. Joined by sister Vera and "psychic nutritionist" Lorelei Ambrosia, Ross blackmails Gus into helping him.

Clark Kent convinces his Daily Planet boss, Perry White, to let him return to Smallville for his high-school reunion. En route, as Superman, he extinguishes a fire in a chemical plant containing unstable Beltric acid, which produces corrosive vapor when superheated. At the reunion, Clark is reunited with childhood friend Lana Lang, a divorcée with a young son named Ricky, and harassed by Brad Wilson, her ex-boyfriend.

Infuriated by Colombia's refusal to do business with him, Ross orders Gus to command the Vulcan weather satellite to create a tornado to destroy Colombia's coffee crop for the next several years. Gus travels to Smallville to use the offices of WheatKing, a subsidiary of Webscoe, to reprogram the satellite. Though Vulcan creates a devastating storm, Ross's scheme is thwarted when Superman neutralizes it, saving the harvest. Ross orders Gus to use his computer knowledge to create Kryptonite, remembering Lois Lane's Daily Planet interview with Superman. Gus uses Vulcan to analyze Krypton's debris; he discovers that one of the elements of Kryptonite is an "unknown" compound, and substitutes tar.

Lana convinces Superman to appear at Ricky's birthday party, but Smallville turns it into a town celebration. Gus and Vera, disguised as United States Army officers, give Superman the Kryptonite, though it appears ineffective. Superman soon becomes selfish, focusing on his lust for Lana, causing him to delay rescuing a truck driver. Superman becomes depressed, angry and casually destructive, committing petty acts of vandalism such as blowing out the Olympic Flame and straightening the Leaning Tower of Pisa.

Gus, feeling used, gives Ross crude plans for a supercomputer and Ross agrees to build it in return for Gus directing all oil tankers to the middle of the Atlantic Ocean until further notice. When the captain of one tanker insists on maintaining his course, Ross has Lorelei seduce Superman into waylaying the tanker, causing a massive oil spill. The villains decamp to the computer's location in Glen Canyon.

Superman goes on a drinking binge, but is overcome by guilt and suffers a nervous breakdown. In a junkyard, Superman splits into two personas: the immoral, corrupted Superman and the moral, righteous Clark Kent. They engage in a battle, ending when Clark strangles his evil identity. Restored to his normal self, Superman repairs the damage his counterpart caused.

After defending himself from rockets and an MX missile, Superman confronts Ross, Vera, and Lorelei. Gus's supercomputer identifies him as a threat and attempts to determine his weakness, unleashing a beam of pure Kryptonite.

Guilt-ridden and horrified by the prospect of "going down in history as the man who killed Superman", Gus destroys the Kryptonite ray with a firefighter's axe, whereupon Superman flees. The computer becomes self-aware, defending itself against Gus's attempts to disable it. Ross and Lorelei escape the control room, but Vera is transformed into a cyborg. Vera attacks her brother and Lorelei with beams of energy that immobilize them. Superman returns with a canister of the Beltric acid. Superman places the canister by the supercomputer, which does not resist as it suspects no danger. The intense heat emitted by the supercomputer causes the acid to turn volatile, destroying the supercomputer. Superman flies away with Gus, leaving Ross and his cronies to the authorities, and drops Gus off at a West Virginia coal mine.

Superman returns to Metropolis. As Clark, he pays a visit to Lana, who has found employment as Perry White's new secretary. He is attacked by Brad, who has stalked Lana to Metropolis, only to end up falling into a room service cart. He restores the Leaning Tower of Pisa, and the film ends with Superman flying into the sunrise for further adventures.

Cast[edit]

  • Christopher Reeve as Clark Kent / Superman: After discovering his origins in the earlier films, he sets himself to helping those on Earth. After beating arch enemy Lex Luthor twice, Superman meets a new villain: Ross Webster, who is determined to control the world's coffee and oil supplies. Superman also battles personal demons after an exposure to a synthetic form of kryptonite that corrupts him.
  • Richard Pryor as August "Gus" Gorman: A bumbling computer genius who works for Ross Webster and inadvertently gets mixed up in Webster's scheme to destroy Superman.
  • Robert Vaughn as Ross Webster: A villainous multimillionaire. After Superman prevents him from taking over the world's coffee supply, Ross is determined to destroy Superman before he can stop his plan to control the world's oil supply. He is an original character created for the movie.
  • Annette O'Toole as Lana Lang: Clark's high school friend who reconciles with Clark after seeing him during their high school reunion. O'Toole later portrayed Martha Kent on the Superman television series Smallville.
  • Annie Ross as Vera Webster: Ross' sister and partner in his corporation and villainous plans.
  • Pamela Stephenson as Lorelei Ambrosia: Ross' assistant and girlfriend. Lorelei, a voluptuous blonde bombshell, is well-read, articulate and skilled in computers, but conceals her intelligence from Ross and Vera, to whom she adopts the appearance of a superficial fool. As part of Ross' plan, she seduces Superman.
  • Jackie Cooper as Perry White: The editor of the Daily Planet.
  • Margot Kidder as Lois Lane: A reporter at the Daily Planet who has a history with both Clark Kent and Superman. She is away from Metropolis on vacation to Bermuda, which put her in the middle of a front-page story.
  • Marc McClure as Jimmy Olsen: A photographer for the Daily Planet.
  • Gavan O'Herlihy as Brad Wilson: Lana's former boyfriend.

Film director/puppeteer Frank Oz originally had a cameo in this film as a surgeon, but the scene was ultimately deleted, though it was later included in the TV extended version of the film.

Production[edit]

Development[edit]

Series producer Ilya Salkind originally wrote a treatment for this film that included Brainiac, Mister Mxyzptlk and Supergirl, but Warner Bros. did not like it.[7] The treatment was released online in 2007.[8] The Mr. Mxyzptlk portrayed in the outline varies from his good-humored comic counterpart, as he uses his abilities to cause serious harm. Dudley Moore was the top choice to play the role.[9] Meanwhile, in the same treatment, Brainiac was from Colu and had discovered Supergirl in the same way that Superman was found by the Kents. Brainiac is portrayed as a surrogate father to Supergirl and eventually fell in love with his "daughter", who did not reciprocate his feelings, as she had fallen in love with Superman.

Both Gene Hackman and Margot Kidder were angry with the way the Salkinds treated Superman director Richard Donner, with Hackman retaliating by refusing to reprise the role of Lex Luthor.[10] After Margot Kidder publicly criticized the Salkinds for their treatment of Donner,[11] the producers reportedly "punished" the actress by reducing her role in Superman III to a brief appearance.[10][12] However, Hackman later denied such claims, stating that he had been busy with other movies and general consensus that making Luthor a constant villain would be akin to incessant horror movie sequels where a serial killer keeps coming back from the grave. Hackman did reprise his role as Lex Luthor in Superman IV, of which the Salkinds had no involvement.

In his commentary for the 2006 DVD release of Superman III, Ilya Salkind denied any ill will between Margot Kidder and his production team and denied the claim that her part was cut for retaliation. Instead, he said, the creative team decided to pursue a different direction for a love interest for Superman, believing the Lois and Clark relationship had been played out in the first two films (but could be revisited in the future). With the choice to give a more prominent role to Lana Lang, Lois' part was reduced for story reasons. Salkind also denied the reports about Gene Hackman being upset with him, stating that Hackman was unable to return because of other film commitments.

Following the release of this movie, Pryor signed a five-year contract with Columbia Pictures worth $40 million.[13]

Effects and animation[edit]

This movie included "the same special effects team" from the prior two movies.[14][15] Atari, part of Warner, created the video game computer animation for the missile defense scene.[16][17][18]

Music[edit]

As with the previous sequel, the musical score was composed and conducted by Ken Thorne, using the Superman theme and most other themes from the first film composed by John Williams, but this time around there is more original music by Thorne than the Williams re-arrangements. To capitalize on the popularity of synthesizer pop, Giorgio Moroder was hired to create songs for the film (though their use in the film is minimal).

Distribution[edit]

Promotion[edit]

William Kotzwinkle wrote a novelization of the film published in paperback by Warner Books in the U.S. and by Arrow Books in the United Kingdom to coincide with the film's release; Severn House published a British hardcover edition. Kotzwinkle thought the novelization "a delight the world has yet to find out about."[19] However, writing in Voice of Youth Advocates, Roberta Rogow hoped this would be the final Superman film and said, "Kotzwinkle has done his usual good job of translating the screenplay into a novel, but there are nasty undertones to the film, and there are nasty undertones to the novel as well. Adults may enjoy the novel on its own merits, as a Black Comedy of sorts, but it's not written for kids, and most of the under-15 crowd will either be puzzled or revolted by Kotzwinkle's dour humor."[20]

A video game for Superman III was developed for the Atari 8-bit family of computers by Atari, Inc. in 1983, but was ultimately cancelled. A prototype box for the Atari 5200 version also exists, although existence of the actual game for this console remains unconfirmed.[21]

Reception[edit]

Box office[edit]

The total domestic box office gross (not adjusted for inflation[22]) for Superman III was $59,950,623.[23] The film was the 12th highest-grossing film of 1983 in North America.[24]

Critical response[edit]

Audience and critics' reviews were generally negative. At Rotten Tomatoes, only 26% of critics have given the film positive reviews, based on 43 reviews. "When not overusing sight gags, slapstick and Richard Pryor," states the Rotten Tomatoes summary, "Superman III resorts to plot points rehashed from the previous Superman flicks."[25] A frequent criticism of Superman III was the inclusion of comedian Richard Pryor. Film critic Leonard Maltin said that Superman III was an "appalling sequel that trashed everything that Superman was about for the sake of cheap laughs and a co-starring role for Richard Pryor". After an appearance by Pryor on The Tonight Show,[11] telling Johnny Carson how much he enjoyed seeing Superman II, the Salkinds were eager to cast him in a prominent role in the third film, riding on Pryor's success in Silver Streak, Stir Crazy and The Toy.[12] The film was nominated for two Razzie Awards including Worst Supporting Actor for Richard Pryor and Worst Musical Score for Giorgio Moroder.[26]

Audiences also saw Robert Vaughn's villainous Ross Webster as an inferior fill-in for Lex Luthor.[11][27] Fans of the Superman series also placed a great deal of the blame on director Richard Lester.[11] Richard Lester made a number of popular comedies[11] in the 1960s — including The Beatles' A Hard Day's Night — before being hired by the Salkinds in the 1970s for their successful Three Musketeers series, as well as Superman II. Lester broke tradition by setting the opening credits for Superman III during a prolonged slapstick sequence rather than in outer space.

On Richard Lester's direction of Superman III, Christopher Reeve stated:

[He] was always looking for a gag — sometimes to the point where the gags involving Richard Pryor went over the top. I mean, I didn't think that his going off the top of a building, on skis with a pink tablecloth around his shoulders, was particularly funny.[28]

The film's screenplay, by David and Leslie Newman, was also criticized.[11] When Richard Donner was hired to direct the first two films, he found the Newmans' scripts so distasteful that he hired Tom Mankiewicz for heavy rewrites. Since Donner and Mankiewicz were no longer attached to the franchise, the Salkinds were finally able to bring their "vision" of Superman to the screen and once again hired the Newmans for writing duties.[10] Reeve also stated in his autobiography that the original script for Superman I had had so many puns and gags that it risked having Superman earn a reputation akin to that of Batman being associated with the campy TV show of the 1960s. "In one scene in this script, Superman would be in pursuit of Lex Luthor, identified by his bald head and grab him, only to realize he had captured Telly Savalas who would remark "Who loves ya, baby?" and offer Superman a lollipop. Dick {Donner} had done away with much of that inanity."

Despite such harsh criticisms, Superman III was praised for Reeve's performance of a corrupted version of the Man of Steel, particularly the junkyard battle between this newly darkened Superman and Clark Kent.[25] One of the film's positive reviews was from the fiction writer Donald Barthelme, who praised Reeve as "perfect" and described Vaughn as "essentially playing William Buckley - all those delicious ponderings, popping of the eyes, licking of the corner of the mouth."[29]

Release[edit]

Superman III was released in theatres on June 17, 1983, in the United States and July 19, 1983, in the United Kingdom.[citation needed] The film was released on DVD on November 28, 2006, by Warner Home Video.[30]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "UGO's World of Superman - Superman Movies: Superman III". UGO Networks. 2006. Retrieved 2010-10-15. 
  2. ^ "Superman III". BFI. 
  3. ^ "Superman III". 
  4. ^ Box office
  5. ^ a b "Superman III". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved December 10, 2016. 
  6. ^ Ryan, Mike (August 10, 2013). "'Superman III': Rewatching 30 Years Later". The Huffington Post. United States: AOL. Retrieved December 10, 2016. 
  7. ^ Ilya Salkind commentary, Superman III DVD, 2006 version
  8. ^ "s3_original_idea.pdf" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-05-05. 
  9. ^ Salkind, Ilya. Story Outline for Superman III; (PDF file); Accessed September 4, 2010
  10. ^ a b c "The Superman Super Site - Superman II". Retrieved 2008-01-10. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f "The Superman Super Site - Superman III". Retrieved 2008-01-10. 
  12. ^ a b "Article on Superman III". fast-rewind.com. United States. Retrieved August 7, 2006. 
  13. ^ "Comedian Richard Pryor dead at 65". BBC News. 2005-12-10. Retrieved 2010-05-24. 
  14. ^ "h2g2 - 'Superman III' - The Film - Edited Entry". h2g2.com. Not Panicking, Ltd. 
  15. ^ "Superman III". 17 June 1983. 
  16. ^ Robley, Les Paul (September 1983). "Computer Graphics for SUPERMAN III". American Cinematographer. 64 (9). Retrieved 1 March 2017. 
  17. ^ Mace, Scott (12 September 1983). "Superman dodges missile foes made by Atari animation experts". InfoWorld. InfoWorld Media Group, Inc. Retrieved 1 March 2017. 
  18. ^ "Steve Wright Digital FX | Steve's Atari Days". www.swdfx.com. Retrieved 1 March 2017. 
  19. ^ Giles, James Richard Giles; Giles, Wanda H. (1996). Dictionary of Literary Biography: American Novelists Since World War II. 173 (7 ed.). Gale Research. p. 105. ISBN 9780810399365. 
  20. ^ Rogow, Roberta (December 1983). "Superman III". Voice of Youth Advocates (VOYA). 6: 282. 
  21. ^ Reichert, Matt. "Superman III". AtariProtos.com. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  22. ^ "$59,950,623.00 in 1983 had about the same buying power as $132,646,281.62 in 2010". Dollartimes.com. Retrieved 2010-06-17. 
  23. ^ IMDb.com > Business
  24. ^ "Top Films of 1983". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 2012-04-14. 
  25. ^ a b "m/Superman_iii "Superman III". Rotten Tomatoes. United States: Fandango. Retrieved 2008-07-25. 
  26. ^ Wilson, John (2005). The Official Razzie Movie Guide: Enjoying the Best of Hollywood's Worst. New York City: Grand Central Publishing. ISBN 978-0446693349. 
  27. ^ Wallace Harrington and Michael George O'Connor. "Superman III - Film Review". Retrieved 2008-01-10. 
  28. ^ Wikipedians (ed.). Superman: The Man of Steel Mythology. Mainz: PediaPress. p. 427. 
  29. ^ Barthelme, Donal (1999). Not-Knowing: the essays and interviews. New York City: Random House Value Publishing. pp. 129–130. ISBN 978-0609000762. 
  30. ^ "Superman III". Warner Home Video. Burbank, California: Warner Bros. November 28, 2006. ASIN B000059XUJ. Retrieved December 10, 2016. 

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