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Seafire
Seafire 1.jpg
A Seafire XV in Royal Canadian Navy service.
Role Carrier-based fighter
Manufacturer Supermarine
First flight 7 January 1942
Primary users Royal Navy
French Navy
Irish Air Corps
Royal Canadian Navy
Number built 2,334
Developed from Supermarine Spitfire
Main article: Supermarine Spitfire

The Supermarine Seafire was a naval version of the Supermarine Spitfire adapted for operation from aircraft carriers. The name Seafire was arrived at by abbreviating the longer name Sea Spitfire.

Origins of the Seafire[edit]

The Admiralty first showed an interest in the idea of a carrier-borne Spitfire in May 1938 when, during a meeting with Richard Fairey (of Fairey Aviation), Fairey proposed that his company could design and build such an aircraft. The idea met with a negative response and the matter was dropped. As a result the Fleet Air Arm (FAA), at that point still part of the Royal Air Force, was forced into having to order Blackburn Rocs and Gloster Sea Gladiators both of which proved to be woefully inadequate.[1]

The matter of a seaborne Spitfire was raised again in November 1939 when the Air Ministry allowed a Commander Ermen to fly a Spitfire I. After his first flight in R6718 Ermen learned that Joseph Smith, Chief Designer at Supermarine had been instructed to fit an "A-frame" arrestor hook on a Spitfire and that this had flown on 16 October; a drawing of this aircraft had been shown to the FAA on 27 October.[2] After further discussions Supermarine submitted a drawing of a Spitfire with folding wings and an arrestor hook. In this case the wings were designed with a fold just outboard of the undercarriage bays; the outer wings would swivel and fold backwards, parallel with the fuselage. On 29 February 1940 the Admiralty asked the Air Ministry to sanction the production of 50 folding wing Spitfires, with the first deliveries to start in July. For various reasons Winston Churchill, who was First Lord of the Admiralty cancelled the order, writing to Lord Beaverbrook:[3]

I regard it as of very great importance that the production of Fulmars should be kept going.[4]

At a time of need for land Spitfires, the diversion of resources to the construction of a naval variant would reduce Spitfire production. To cover the gap until the Fulmar's replacement (Specification N.5/40 – which would be the Fairey Firefly) was able to enter service, Grumman Wildcats were ordered for the FAA. These would enter service towards the end of 1940 as the Martlet.[5]

Development[edit]

In late 1941 and early 1942, the Admiralty assessed the Spitfire for possible conversion. In late 1941 48 Spitfire Mk Vb were converted by Air Training Service Ltd. at Hamble to become "hooked Spitfires". This was the Seafire Mk Ib and would be the first of several Seafire variants to reach the Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm. This version of the Seafire was mainly used to allow the Royal Navy to gain experience in operating the Spitfire on aircraft carriers. The main structural change was made to the lower rear fuselage which incorporated an A-frame style arrestor hook and strengthened lower longerons. It was soon discovered that the fuselage, especially around hatches, was too weak for carrier operations. In an attempt to alleviate this condition, reinforcing strips were riveted around hatch openings and along the main fuselage longerons. A further 118 Seafire Mk Ib's incorporating the fuselage reinforcements were modified from Spitfire Vbs by Cunliffe-Owen at Eastleigh and Air Training Service. These aircraft were equipped with Naval HF radio equipment and IFF equipment as well as a Type 72 homing beacon. In these and all subsequent Seafires the instruments were re-calibrated to read kn and nmi rather than mph and mi. The fixed armament was the same as that of the Spitfire Vb; two 20 mm (.79 in) Hispano Mk II cannon with 60 rpg fed from a "drum" magazine and four .303 in (7.7 mm) Browning machine guns with 350 rpg. Provision was also made to carry a 30 gal (136 l) "slipper" fuel tank under the fuselage.

One front line unit, 801 Squadron operated this version on board HMS Furious from October 1942 through to September 1944.

The second semi-naval variant of the Seafire and the first to be built as such, was the Seafire F Mk IIc which was based on the Spitfire Vc. The Vc had several refinements over the Spitfire Vb. Apart from the modifications included in the main batch of Seafire Ibs this version incorporated catapult spools, and a single slinging lug on either side of the fuselage, just behind the engine bulkhead. Three subtypes were produced, the F Mk IIc and FR Mk IIc (fighter reconnaissance), powered by a Merlin 46, and the L Mk IIc powered by a low altitude Merlin 32 specifically manufactured for naval use. This version of the Merlin used a "cropped" supercharger impellor to provide greater power at low altitudes than the standard engines; delivering 1,585 hp (1,182 kW) at 2,750 ft (838 m). Both engine models drove a four bladed 10 ft 9 in (3.28 m) diameter Rotol propeller. Because this version used the "C" wing the Hispano cannon were fed from a 120-round belt magazine, otherwise the armament was the same as that of the Ib; the FR also carried two F24 cameras. After trials of Rocket Assisted Take Off Gear (RATOG) apparatus (small solid-fuel rocket motors which could be attached to the fuselage or wings of aircraft to help shorten the take-off run) in February 1943, this equipment became a standard fitting available for all Seafires.

The IIc was the first of the Seafires to be deployed operationally in large numbers, with Supermarine building 262 and 110 being built by Westland,[nb 1] who also built 30 Seafire Mk III (Hybrid) (Mk IIIs without folding wings).[nb 2] Although developed for aircraft carrier use, this version still lacked the folding wings needed to allow them to be used on board some Royal Navy carriers, some of which had small aircraft elevators unable to accommodate the full wingspan of the Seafires.

The Seafire F Mk III was the first true carrier adaptation of the Spitfire design. It was developed from the Seafire Mk IIC, but incorporated manually folding wings allowing more of these aircraft to be spotted on deck or in the hangars below. Supermarine devised a system of two straight chordwise folds; a break was introduced immediately outboard of the wheel-wells from which the wing hinged upwards and slightly angled towards the fuselage. A second hinge at each wingtip join allowed the tips to fold down (when the wings were folded the wingtips were folded outwards). This version used the more powerful Merlin 55 (F Mk III and FR Mk III) or Merlin 55M (L Mk III), driving the same four-bladed propeller unit used by the IIC series; the Merlin 55M was another version of the Merlin for maximum performance at low altitude. Other modifications that were made on the Spitfire made their way to the Seafire as well including a slim Aero-Vee air filter and six-stack ejector type exhausts. The shorter barrelled, lightweight Hispano Mk V cannon were introduced during production as were overload fuel tank fittings in the wings[6][7] This Mark was built in larger numbers than any other Seafire variant; of the 1,220 manufactured Westland built 870 and Cunliffe Owen 350. In 1947 12 Mk IIIs were stripped of their naval equipment by Supermarine and delivered to the Irish Air Corps.[8][9]

After the Mk III series the next Seafire variant to appear was the Seafire F Mk XV, which was powered by a Griffon VI (single-stage supercharger, rated at 1,850 hp (1,379 kW) at 2,000 ft (610 ft) driving a 10 ft 5 in Rotol propeller. Designed in response to Specification N.4/43 this appeared to be a naval Spitfire F Mk XII; in reality the Mk XV was an amalgamation of a strengthened Seafire III airframe and wings with the wing fuel tanks, retractable tailwheel, larger elevators and broad-chord "pointed" rudder of the Spitfire VIII. The engine cowling was different to that of the Spitfire XII series, being secured with a larger number of fasteners and lacking the acorn shaped blister behind the spinner. The final 30 Mk XVs were built with the blown "teardrop" cockpit canopy and cut down rear fuselage introduced on the Spitfire Mk XVI. On the first 50 aircraft manufactured by Cunliffe-Owen a heavier, strengthened A-frame arrestor hook was fitted to cope with the greater weight.[10] On subsequent Mk XVs a new form of "sting" type arrestor hook was used; this version was attached to the reinforced rudder post at the rear of the fuselage and was housed in a fairing below the base of the shortened rudder. A vee-shaped guard forward of the tailwheel prevented arrestor wires getting tangled up with the tailwheel.

390 Seafire XVs were built by Cunliffe-Owen and Westland from late 1944. Six prototypes had been built by Supermarine.

One problem which immediately surfaced was the poor deck behaviour of this mark, especially on take-off. At full power the slipstream of the propeller, which swung to the left (as opposed to the Merlin, which swung to the right), often forced the Seafire to swing to starboard, even with the rudder hard over on opposite lock. This sometimes led to a collision with the carrier's island. The undercarriage oleo legs were still the same of those of the much lighter Merlin engined Spitfires, meaning that the swing was often accompanied by a series of hops. As an interim measure it was recommended that pilots avoid using full power on take-off (+10 lb "boost" maximum was recommended). There were also problems involved with this swing being strongly accentuated in the event of an asymmetric firing of the RATOG equipment. In the event none of the "first generation" Griffon-engine Seafires were to use RATOG at sea unless they were ranged forward of the first crash barrier on deck.[11]

Operational Seafire F.XVIIs of No. 1831 Squadron RNVR at RNAS Stretton in 1950
Preserved Seafire SX336 F.XVII taxis at the Cotswold Air Show (2010).
Preserved Seafire SX336 F.XVII displays at the Cotswold Air Show (2010).

The Seafire F Mk XVII was a modified Mk XV; the most important change was the reinforced main undercarriage which used longer oleos and a lower rebound ratio. This went some way towards taming the deck behaviour of the Mk XV, reduced the propensity of the propeller tips "pecking" the deck during an arrested landing and the softer oleos stopped the aircraft from occasionally bouncing over the arrestor wires and into the crash barrier. Most production XVIIs had the cut down rear fuselage and teardrop canopy (the windscreen was modified to a rounded section, with narrow quarter windows, rather than the flat windscreen used on Spitfires) and an extra 33 gallon fuel tank fitted in the rear fuselage. The wings were reinforced, with a stronger mainspar necessitated by the new undercarriage, and they were able to carry heavier underwing loads than previous Seafire variants.[12] 232 of this variant were built by Westland (212) and Cunliffe-Owen(20).[13]

The Seafire F Mk 45 and FR Mk 45 was the next version of the Seafire to be built and the first to use a Griffon 60 series engine with a two-stage, two speed supercharger. The prototype TM379 had been modified from a Spitfire F Mk 21 prototype by Cunliffe-Owen and featured a "sting" arrestor hook. Because this version was considered to be an "interim" type the wing, which was unchanged from that of the Spitfire 21, was non-folding. The fuel capacity of this variant was 120 gal (545 l) distributed in two main forward fuselage tanks: the lower tank carried 48 gal (218 l) while the upper tank carried 36 gal (163 l), plus two fuel tanks built into the leading edges of the wings with capacities of 12.5 (57 l) and 5.5 gal (25 l) respectively.[14] The Seafire F Mk 45 entered service with 778 Squadron in November 1946 and a few were modified to FR Mk 45s in March 1947 by being fitted with two F24 cameras in the rear fuselage. Fifty F Mk 45s were built by the Castle Bromwich factory.[15]

The Seafire F Mk 46 and FR Mk 46 was a Spitfire F Mk 22 modified to naval standard and featured the cut down rear fuselage and "teardrop" canopy. Again the wing had not been modified to fold. The electrical equipment was changed from a 12 volt system to 24 volts. The fuel system was modified over that of the Seafire 45 to incorporate an extra 32 gal (145 l) fuel tank in the rear fuselage, while the wings were plumbed to allow for a 22.5 gal (102 l) combat tank to be carried underneath each wing. In addition a 50 gal (227 l) drop tank could be carried under the fuselage.[16] In April 1947, a decision was made to replace the Griffon 61s or 64s driving a five bladed Rotol propeller unit with Griffon 85s or 87s driving two three bladed Rotol contra-rotating propellers. All but the first few incorporated larger tail units from the Spiteful and Seafang. These two changes transformed the handling of the aircraft by eliminating the powerful swing to starboard of previous Griffon engined variants. 200 of the Mk 46s were ordered but only 24 were built, all by Supermarine.[17]

The final version of the Seafire was the Seafire F Mk 47 and FR Mk 47. There was no true prototype, instead the first production aircraft PS944 and PS945 served as trials aircraft. As the "definitive" carrier based Seafire the Mk 47 incorporated several refinements over earlier variants. After the first four aircraft, with manually folded wings, the Mk 47 incorporated hydraulically powered wing folding, the outer wings folding upwards in one piece, without the folding wingtips of earlier marks. All Mk 47s adopted the Rotol contra-rotating propellers. The Mk 47 also featured a long supercharger air-duct, the intake of which started just behind the spinner and a modified curved windscreen, similar to that used on the Mk XVII. Other features unique to the Mk 47s were spring-loaded elevator tabs, a large inertia weight in the elevator control system and beading on the trailing edges of the elevators. These changes improved longitudinal stability, especially when the aircraft was fully loaded. The modified windscreen proved to be unpopular with pilots because of continual problems with misting and the thicker, repositioned frames obstructed visibility during deck landings. In spite of recommendations to change the windscreen back to a standard Spitfire 24 unit, this was never done. Performance tests showed that the Mk 47 was slightly slower than the Mk 46 in maximum and climbing speeds, mainly due to the long supercharger air intake, which was less efficient than the shorter type fitted to earlier Seafires. The Seafire 47 saw action with 800 Squadron on board HMS Triumph during the Malayan Emergency of 1949 and during the Korean War in 1950. However, in 1951 all Seafires were withdrawn from front-line service.[18] In all 90 F Mk 47s and FR Mk 47s were built, all by Supermarine. The last aircraft of the 22,000 of the entire Spitfire/Seafire lineage VR971 left the production line at Supermarine on 28 January 1949.

Assessment[edit]

The Spitfire's original role, and the one at which it proved to be a formidable aircraft, was that of short-range land-based interceptor. As a carrier based fighter the design was a compromise and suffered many losses through structural damage caused by heavy landings on carrier decks: this problem continued even with the stiffening introduced by the Mk II. The Seafire had a narrow undercarriage track, which meant that it was not well suited to deck operations. The many modifications had shifted the centre-of-gravity aft, making low-speed control difficult and the aircraft's gradual stall characteristics meant that it was difficult to land accurately on the carrier, resulting in many accidents. Other problems included the basic Spitfire's short range and endurance (fine for an interceptor fighter but not for carrier operation), limited weapons load and that it was dangerous in ditching.[nb 3] The first Seafire variant to overcome many of these problems was the Mk XVII with its new undercarriage design, reinforced structure and extra fuel tanks, although there were still some compromises and it entered service well after the war was over.

The low point of Seafire operations came during Operation Avalanche the invasion of Salerno in September 1943. Of the 106 Seafires available to the British escort carriers on 9 September only 39 were serviceable by the dawn of D-Day plus Two (11 September). Part of this was attributed to flat, calm conditions meaning that there was not enough headwind to stop the "Spitfire float" on landing: many Seafires missed picking up the arrestor wires and flew into the crash barriers while others had their arrestor hooks pulled off the fuselage because they caught the wires at too high a speed.[19] In spite of these problems the Seafires (especially the L Mk IIs and L Mk IIIs, with their low altitude rated Merlin engines) were given the role of low to medium altitude interceptor, acting as a CAP protecting the immediate vicinity of the carrier fleet from low altitude attackers, while the longer ranging fighters, such as the Hellcats, took on a similar role further out and at higher altitudes.

Operational history[edit]

Seafire F.XVII SX336

The Seafire II outperformed the A6M5 (Zero) at low altitudes when the two types were tested against each other in World War II. Contemporary Allied carrier aircraft which were designed as naval fighters, such as the F6F Hellcat and the F4U Corsair, were considerably more robust and generally more powerful. The more powerful Seafire III enjoyed better climb rates and acceleration than these other fighters. Late-war Seafire models equipped with Griffon engines enjoyed a considerable increase of performance compared to their Merlin-engined predecessors. The Griffon powered Seafires had some serious faults; the main problem was a result of the increased power yielded by the Griffon engine; the increase in torque meant the pilot had to continuously correct the flight of the aircraft (to prevent the frame of the aircraft rotating in the other direction to that of the propeller). This was huge problem when attempting to take off and land from an aircraft carrier. The torque also affected the lift of the right wing (the Griffon engines rotated anti-clockwise) which would lose lift and even stall at reasonable speeds. The increased weight of the engine meant that the take-off had to be longer and proved very dangerous from most British carriers. The increased weight of the engine further affected the centre of gravity that Mitchell had concentrated on so carefully in the original Spitfire. As a result the handling of the aircraft suffered. Eventually most of these problems were fixed in Seafire 47 when the 6 bladed contra-rotating propeller was adopted.

Operational Seafire F.47s of 1833 Squadron RNVR in May 1953

The first use of Seafires in carrier operations was Operation Torch. Seafires saw most service in the Far East Pacific campaigns, serving with No. 887 and 894 Squadrons, Fleet Air Arm, aboard HMS Indefatigable and joining the British Pacific Fleet late in 1944. Due to their good high altitude performance and lack of ordnance-carrying capabilities (compared to the Hellcats and Corsairs of the Fleet) the Seafires were allocated the vital defensive duties of Combat Air Patrol (CAP) over the fleet. Seafires were thus heavily involved in countering the kamikaze attacks during the Iwo Jima landings and beyond. The Seafires' best day was 15 August 1945, shooting down eight attacking aircraft for one loss. During the campaign 887 NAS claimed 12 kills and 894 NAS claimed 10 kills (with two more claims earlier in 1944 over Norway).

The top scoring Seafire pilot of the war was Sub-Lieutenant R.H. Reynolds DSC of 894, who claimed 4.5 air victories in 1944–5.

Post war, the Fleet Air Arm replaced its Merlin powered Seafires with Griffon powered aircraft, initially with the Seafire Mk XV and Mk 17 and from 1948 by the definitive Seafire Mk 47.[20] In 1950, HMS Triumph started a tour of the Far East, embarking 800 Naval Air Squadron with Seafire 47s along with 827 Naval Air Squadron equipped with Fairey Fireflys. Following the outbreak of the Korean War, HMS Triumph was diverted to operations to try to stem the North Korean offensive, Seafires flying ground attack and combat air patrols from July until September 1950, when HMS Triumph was replaced by HMS Theseus, equipped with Sea Furys. During operations off Korea, Seafires flew 360 operational sorties, losing one aircraft shot down by friendly fire from a B-29 Superfortress and a second aircraft lost when its arrestor hook failed to extend. The Seafire proved more vulnerable to the stresses of carrier operation with many aircraft suffering wrinkling of the rear fuselage brought about by heavy landings. Following the end of operations, when peacetime airworthiness rules were re-imposed, all but three of 800 Squadron's Seafires were declared unserviciable owing to wrinkling.[21]

The Royal Canadian Navy and French Aviation Navale also obtained Seafires to operate from ex-Royal Navy aircraft carriers following the end of World War II. Canada's Seafire Mk XVs were flown from HMCS Magnificent and HMS Warrior before being replaced by Sea Furies in 1948.[22] France received 65 Seafire Mk IIIs, 24 of these being deployed on the carrier Arromanches in 1948 when it sailed for Vietnam to fight in the First Indochina War, the Seafires operating from land bases and from Arromanches on ground attack missions against the Viet Minh before being withdrawn from combat operations in January 1949. After returning to European waters, the Seafire units were re-equipped with Seafire XVs but these were quickly replaced by F6F Hellcats from 1950.[22]

The Irish Air Corps operated Seafires for a time after the war, despite having no naval air service nor aircraft carriers. The aircraft were operated from Baldonnel (Casement Aerodrome) much in the same way as normal Spitfires but retaining the folding wings. An attempt to recycle the Merlin engines was made in the 1950s, by replacing the ailing Bedford engine in a Churchill tank with an engine from a scrapped Seafire.[23] The project collapsed from lack of funds.

In the Fleet Air Arm, Spitfires and Seafires were used by a number of squadrons, the Spitfires used by training and land based squadrons. Twelve 800 series squadrons used Spitfires and Seafires (Numbers 801 NAS, 802 NAS, 808 NAS, 809 NAS, 879 NAS, 880 NAS, 884 NAS, 885 NAS, 886 NAS, 887 NAS, 897 NAS and 899 NAS). Several units of the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve also flew Seafires postwar, including 1831, 1832 and 1833 squadrons.

Operators[edit]

 Canada
 France
 Ireland
 United Kingdom

Specifications (LF Mk III)[edit]

Seafire F.46

Data from British Aircraft of World War II[24] and The Virtual Aviation Museum[25]

General characteristics

Performance

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Westland Aircraft Ltd, better known as Westland.
  2. ^ In addition to building Seafires, Westland also carried out most of the design work.
  3. ^ The large underwing radiator openings scooped up large amounts of water very quickly - the Seafire would either flip over or sink quickly.
Citations
  1. ^ Morgan and Shacklady 2000, pp. 505–6.
  2. ^ Morgan and Shacklady 2000, p. 506.
  3. ^ Morgan and Shacklady 2000, pp. 506–7
  4. ^ Morgan and Shacklady 2000, p. 507.
  5. ^ Buttler British Secret Projects: Fighters and Bombers 1935–1950 p. 175
  6. ^ Morgan and Shacklady 2000, pp. 534–536.
  7. ^ Stone, Phil. "The Seafire." The Supermarine Spitfire1 March 2006. Retrieved: 5 December 2009.
  8. ^ Air International, Vol 15 No 4, pp. 177–181.
  9. ^ Robertson 1973, pp. 194–196.
  10. ^ Air International, Vol 15 No 4, pp.181-183, 185
  11. ^ Air International, Vol. 15 No. 4, pp. 182–183.
  12. ^ Air International, Vol. 15 No. 4, p. 183
  13. ^ Robertson 1973, p. 198.
  14. ^ Admiralty 1948, pp. 6-7.
  15. ^ Robertson 1973, pp. 198–200.
  16. ^ Admiralty 1948, pp. 8-9.
  17. ^ Robertson 1973, p. 200.
  18. ^ Morgan and Shacklady 2000, pp.576-587.
  19. ^ Brown 1980, p. 131.
  20. ^ Price Wings of Fame 1999, pp. 57—59.
  21. ^ Price Wings of Fame 1999, pp. 60—64.
  22. ^ a b Price Wings of Fame 1999, p. 85.
  23. ^ Martin, Karl (2002). Irish Army Vehicles, transport and armour since 1922. Karl Martin. ISBN 0-9543413-0-9.
  24. ^ Teeuwen, Jaap. "Supermarine Seafire (Merlin, fighter)." archived at web.archive.com British Aircraft of World War II. Retrieved: 14 June 2011.
  25. ^ "Supermarine Seafire Mk III." The Virtual Aviation Museum. Retrieved: 5 December 2009.
Bibliography
  • Admiralty. Pilot's Notes for Seafire 45 & 46:Mark 45 - Griffon 61 Engine; Mark 46 - Griffon 87 Engine: A.P 2290 F & G . Minister of Supply, 1948.
  • Bachelor, Len. Supermarine Seafires (Merlins). Windsor, Berkshire, UK: Profile Publications Ltd., 1971.
  • Brown, David. The Seafire: The Spitfire That Went to Sea. London: Greenhill Books, 1989. ISBN 1-85367-039-1.
  • Brown, Eric. "Spitfires with Sea-Legs". Air International, September 1978, Vol 15 No 3. pp. 143–146.
  • Brown, Eric. "Spitfires with Sea-Legs: Part Two." Air International, October 1978, Vol 15 No 4. pp. 176–187.
  • Brown, Eric. Wings of the Navy. London: Pilot Press Limited, 1980. ISBN 0-7106-0002-X
  • Bussy, Geoffrey. Supermarine Seafire, Griffon-engined variants - Mks.F.XV, F.XVII, F.45, F.46 and FR.47 (Warpaint series No.20). Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, UK: Hall Park Books Ltd., 1999. ISSN 1363-0369.
  • Freeman. Jon. Supermarine Seafire Mk.Ib - Mk.47. Wantage, Oxfordshire, UK: The Aviation Workshop Publications Ltd., 2004. ISBN 1-904643-07-8.
  • Morgan, Eric B. and Edward Shacklady. Spitfire: The History. Stamford: Key Books Ltd, 2000. ISBN 0-946219-48-6.
  • Price, Alfred. "Supermarine Spitfire (Griffon-engined variants and Seafire)" Wings of Fame, Volume 16, 1999, pp. 30–85. London: Aerospace. ISBN 1-86184-037-3.
  • Quill, Jeffrey. "Spitfire: a Test Pilot's Story". 1996, reprinted 1998, 2001, 2005, 2008, pp. 270–281. Crecy Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-947579-72-9, alternate edition ISBN 0-947554-72-6
  • Robertson, Bruce. Spitfire: The Story of a Famous Fighter. Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire, UK: Model & Allied Publications Ltd., 1960. Third revised edition 1973. ISBN 0-900435-11-9.
  • Sturtivant, Ray and Theo Balance. The Squadrons of the Fleet Air Arm. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd., 2nd revised edition, 1994. ISBN 0-85130-223-8.
  • Sturtivant, Ray and Mick Burrow. Fleet Air Arm Aircraft 1939 to 1945. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd., 1995. ISBN 0-85130-232-7.

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