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Systems on a Chip (SOCs) as Fast As Possible
Systems on a Chip (SOCs) as Fast As Possible
Published: 2016/10/23
Channel: Techquickie
System on Chip (SoC) Explained
System on Chip (SoC) Explained
Published: 2017/03/31
Channel: ALL ABOUT ELECTRONICS
PSoC Lecture 1.1 ARM Lecture 2 Introduction To SOC Systems On Chip
PSoC Lecture 1.1 ARM Lecture 2 Introduction To SOC Systems On Chip
Published: 2014/07/23
Channel: Eduvance Social
Who makes the best SoC: Intel vs Qualcomm vs Samsung
Who makes the best SoC: Intel vs Qualcomm vs Samsung
Published: 2015/12/24
Channel: Android Authority
zeeSoC - Create your own System-on-a-Chip
zeeSoC - Create your own System-on-a-Chip
Published: 2015/02/28
Channel: Frenoy Osburn
A Look Inside: SoC FPGAs Introduction (Part 1 of 5)
A Look Inside: SoC FPGAs Introduction (Part 1 of 5)
Published: 2013/11/25
Channel: Intel FPGA
System on a chip
System on a chip
Published: 2014/08/27
Channel: Audiopedia
Introduction to PSoC® 4 BLE (Programmable System-on-chip with Bluetooth® Low Energy)
Introduction to PSoC® 4 BLE (Programmable System-on-chip with Bluetooth® Low Energy)
Published: 2014/11/11
Channel: Cypress Semiconductor
System On Chip SOC Basics
System On Chip SOC Basics
Published: 2016/03/17
Channel: Castor Classes
Swipe or dip? New chip credit card system
Swipe or dip? New chip credit card system
Published: 2015/10/02
Channel: 23 ABC News | KERO
Snapdragon (system on chip)
Snapdragon (system on chip)
Published: 2014/07/19
Channel: Audiopedia
SoC(system on chip) and their process....
SoC(system on chip) and their process....
Published: 2015/11/18
Channel: Srivatsa Rao
Female Reproductive System on a Chip
Female Reproductive System on a Chip
Published: 2017/03/28
Channel: Medgadget
Samsung 10nm SoC for Galaxy S8: Starts mass production.
Samsung 10nm SoC for Galaxy S8: Starts mass production.
Published: 2016/10/17
Channel: Aban Tech
Intel® Quark™ SoC x1000 | Intel
Intel® Quark™ SoC x1000 | Intel
Published: 2014/04/08
Channel: Intel
Lecture - 10 System On Chip (SOC)
Lecture - 10 System On Chip (SOC)
Published: 2008/04/16
Channel: nptelhrd
Lecture 10- System On Chip (SOC)
Lecture 10- System On Chip (SOC)
Published: 2013/07/09
Channel: Mubin Sayyed
Hackaday semifinals 2015: DIY System on Chip 5 USD
Hackaday semifinals 2015: DIY System on Chip 5 USD
Published: 2015/08/16
Channel: Antti Lukats
SoC HPS System Generation Using Qsys
SoC HPS System Generation Using Qsys
Published: 2014/06/19
Channel: Intel FPGA
Chip and Exhaust - Roo Systems
Chip and Exhaust - Roo Systems
Published: 2014/10/09
Channel: Roo Systems TV
System Złączy Spawanych SOC
System Złączy Spawanych SOC
Published: 2015/07/15
Channel: SEiT - światłowody i sieci miedziane
System-on-Chip Architecture
System-on-Chip Architecture
Published: 2013/10/30
Channel: Paul Mooney
¿Que es un SOC?
¿Que es un SOC?
Published: 2016/12/07
Channel: B-SECURE
eRIC  The Power of System on Chip
eRIC The Power of System on Chip
Published: 2013/06/07
Channel: Low Power Radio Solutions Ltd
SOC VERIFICATION WITH SYSTEM VERILOG. SYSTEM ON CHIP by Ramdas Mozhikunnath
SOC VERIFICATION WITH SYSTEM VERILOG. SYSTEM ON CHIP by Ramdas Mozhikunnath
Published: 2014/11/06
Channel: Coursmos
$10 Cypress PSoC ARM Cortex-M3 Programmable System-on-Chip
$10 Cypress PSoC ARM Cortex-M3 Programmable System-on-Chip
Published: 2015/03/26
Channel: Charbax
How to Select the Right Programmable System-on-Chip Board For Your Application
How to Select the Right Programmable System-on-Chip Board For Your Application
Published: 2013/01/24
Channel: Future Electronics
Roo Systems Diesel Chip and Exhaust Packages
Roo Systems Diesel Chip and Exhaust Packages
Published: 2011/11/23
Channel: Roo Systems TV
FreeBSD on Cavium ThunderX System on a Chip
FreeBSD on Cavium ThunderX System on a Chip
Published: 2016/06/19
Channel: BSDCan
Acer BYOC partnership with SoC (System on a Chip) vendors, Marvell, MediaTek, and Realtek
Acer BYOC partnership with SoC (System on a Chip) vendors, Marvell, MediaTek, and Realtek
Published: 2015/10/21
Channel: Acer BYOC
System-on-Chip (SoC), ELEC6235, University of Southampton, 2016
System-on-Chip (SoC), ELEC6235, University of Southampton, 2016
Published: 2016/07/24
Channel: Terrence Mak
Master
Master's programme in System-on-Chip Design
Published: 2013/06/03
Channel: KTHKista
KATAA - S.O.C
KATAA - S.O.C
Published: 2016/08/19
Channel: S.O.C
Cavium ThunderX 48 Core 2.5Ghz ARM Server SoC
Cavium ThunderX 48 Core 2.5Ghz ARM Server SoC
Published: 2014/06/06
Channel: Charbax
Getting Started with Microsemi SmartFusion2 SoC (Part 1) - Product Architecture and Capabilities
Getting Started with Microsemi SmartFusion2 SoC (Part 1) - Product Architecture and Capabilities
Published: 2015/10/05
Channel: Michael Klopfer
Cost-effective and eco-friendly LED system-on-a-chip (SoC)
Cost-effective and eco-friendly LED system-on-a-chip (SoC)
Published: 2016/07/08
Channel: Research Grants Council, Hong Kong
SoC showdown 2016: Snapdragon 821 vs Exynos 8890 vs Kirin 960 vs MediaTek Helio X25
SoC showdown 2016: Snapdragon 821 vs Exynos 8890 vs Kirin 960 vs MediaTek Helio X25
Published: 2016/12/13
Channel: Android Authority
On-Chip Networks: The Future of SoC Design
On-Chip Networks: The Future of SoC Design
Published: 2013/05/06
Channel: IP WATCH
Under The Raspberry Pi CPU: The Actual Soc / CPU
Under The Raspberry Pi CPU: The Actual Soc / CPU
Published: 2015/06/28
Channel: Geek Till It Hertz
Bypass your pats alarm system no chip key
Bypass your pats alarm system no chip key
Published: 2014/11/16
Channel: iamgod Zayne
MedTech - System-on-chip for battery-powered wearable ECG monitoring
MedTech - System-on-chip for battery-powered wearable ECG monitoring
Published: 2016/02/09
Channel: CSEMtechnologies
RockSolid Floors Chip System Installation
RockSolid Floors Chip System Installation
Published: 2014/04/16
Channel: RockSolidFloors
A Look Inside: SoC FPGAs System Performance (Part 2 of 5)
A Look Inside: SoC FPGAs System Performance (Part 2 of 5)
Published: 2013/11/25
Channel: Intel FPGA
Chipex Car Paint Chip Repair System
Chipex Car Paint Chip Repair System
Published: 2012/03/22
Channel: Chipex
ONELAN Digital Signage System-on-Chip (SOC) Player for LG webOS
ONELAN Digital Signage System-on-Chip (SOC) Player for LG webOS
Published: 2017/02/20
Channel: onelan
Chip Verification -- Trends and Challenges
Chip Verification -- Trends and Challenges
Published: 2012/01/14
Channel: Anita Borg Institute
PSoC Truely Programmable Embedded System-on-Chip from Cypress
PSoC Truely Programmable Embedded System-on-Chip from Cypress
Published: 2011/10/11
Channel: Cypress Semiconductor
Mouser Presents: Terasic Atlas-SoC Kit for Altera FPGAs
Mouser Presents: Terasic Atlas-SoC Kit for Altera FPGAs
Published: 2016/08/04
Channel: Mouser Electronics
MB86R11 "Emerald-L" 2D/3D Graphics System-on-a-Chip (SoC) with Integrated GDC and GPU
MB86R11 "Emerald-L" 2D/3D Graphics System-on-a-Chip (SoC) with Integrated GDC and GPU
Published: 2012/03/29
Channel: FujitsuSemiUS
3. Lauf SOC Torgau 2016
3. Lauf SOC Torgau 2016
Published: 2016/06/12
Channel: GrenzNic640
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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The Raspberry Pi uses a system on a chip as an almost fully-contained micro computer (this SoC doesn't contain any kind of data storage which is common for microprocessor SoC).

A system on a chip or system on chip (SoC or SOC) is an integrated circuit (also known as an "IC" or "chip") that integrates all components of a computer or other electronic systems. It may contain digital, analog, mixed-signal, and often radio-frequency functions—all on a single substrate. SoCs are very common in the mobile computing market because of their low power-consumption.[1] A typical application is in the area of embedded systems.

The contrast with a microcontroller, SoC integrates microcontroller (or microprocessor) with advanced peripherals like graphics processing unit (GPU), Wi-Fi module, or coprocessor. Seen this way, the SoC is for microcontroller what microcontroller is for processors, if we accept the definition of a microcontroller as a system that integrates a microprocessor with peripheral circuits and memory. As long as we remember that the SoC does not necessarily contain built-in memory. In general, we can distinguish three types of SoC. SoC built around a microcontroller, SoC built around a microprocessor (this type can be found in mobile phones), and specialized SoC designed for specific applications that do not fit into the above two categories. A separate category may be Programmable SoC (PSoC), part of elements is not permanently defined and can be programmable in a manner analogous to the FPGA or CPLD.

When it is not feasible to construct a SoC for a particular application, an alternative is a system in package (SiP) comprising a number of chips in a single package. In large volumes, SoC is more cost-effective than SiP since it increases the yield of the fabrication and because its packaging is simpler.[2]

Another option, as seen for example in higher-end cell phones, is package on package stacking during board assembly. The SoC includes processors and numerous digital peripherals, and comes in a ball grid package with lower and upper connections. The lower balls connect to the board and various peripherals, with the upper balls in a ring holding the memory buses used to access NAND flash and DDR2 RAM. Memory packages could come from multiple vendors.

AMD Am286ZX/LX, SoC based on 80286

Structure[edit]

Microcontroller-based system on a chip

A typical SoC consists of:

A bus – either proprietary or industry-standard such as the AMBA bus from ARM Holdings – connects these blocks. DMA controllers route data directly between external interfaces and memory, bypassing the processor core and thereby increasing the data throughput of the SoC.

Design flow[edit]

System-on-a-chip design flow

A SoC consists of both the hardware, described above, and the software controlling the microcontroller, microprocessor or DSP cores, peripherals and interfaces. The design flow for a SoC aims to develop this hardware and software in parallel.

Most SoCs are developed from pre-qualified hardware blocks for the hardware elements described above, together with the software drivers that control their operation. Of particular importance are the protocol stacks that drive industry-standard interfaces like USB. The hardware blocks are put together using CAD tools; the software modules are integrated using a software-development environment.

Once the architecture of the SoC has been defined, any new hardware elements are written in an abstract language termed RTL which defines the circuit behaviour. These elements are connected together in the same RTL language to create the full SoC design.

Chips are verified for logical correctness before being sent to foundry. This process is called functional verification and it accounts for a significant portion of the time and energy expended in the chip design life cycle (although the often quoted figure of 70% is probably an exaggeration).[3] With the growing complexity of chips, hardware verification languages like SystemVerilog, SystemC, e, and OpenVera are being used. Bugs found in the verification stage are reported to the designer.

Traditionally, engineers have employed simulation acceleration, emulation and/or an FPGA prototype to verify and debug both hardware and software for SoC designs prior to tapeout. With high capacity and fast compilation time, acceleration and emulation are powerful technologies that provide wide visibility into systems. Both technologies, however, operate slowly, on the order of MHz, which may be significantly slower – up to 100 times slower – than the SoC's operating frequency. Acceleration and emulation boxes are also very large and expensive at over US$1 million. FPGA prototypes, in contrast, use FPGAs directly to enable engineers to validate and test at, or close to, a system’s full operating frequency with real-world stimuli. Tools such as Certus[4] are used to insert probes in the FPGA RTL that make signals available for observation. This is used to debug hardware, firmware and software interactions across multiple FPGAs with capabilities similar to a logic analyzer.

In parallel, the hardware elements are grouped and passed through a process of logic synthesis, during which performance constraints, such as operational frequency and expected signal delays, are applied. This generates a logical netlist which is a file describing the circuit as a collection of connected silicon gate elements from a library provided by the silicon manufacturer.

This netlist is used as the basis for the physical design (place and route) flow to convert the designers' intent into the polygonal design of the SoC. Throughout this conversion process, the design is analysed with static timing modelling, simulation and other tools to ensure that it meets the specified operational parameters such as frequency, power consumption and dissipation, functional integrity vs. the RTL and electrical integrity.

When all known bugs have been rectified and these have been re-verified and all physical design checks are done, the physical design files describing each layer of the chip are sent to the foundry's mask shop where a full set of glass lithographic masks will be etched. These are sent to the wafer fabrication plant to create the SoC dice before packaging and testing.

Fabrication[edit]

SoCs can be fabricated by several technologies, including:

SoC designs usually consume less power and have a lower cost and higher reliability than the multi-chip systems that they replace. And with fewer packages in the system, assembly costs are reduced as well.

However, like most VLSI designs, the total cost is higher for one large chip than for the same functionality distributed over several smaller chips, because of lower yields and higher non-recurring engineering costs.

Benchmarks[edit]

SoC research and development often compares many options. Benchmarks, such as COSMIC,[5] are developed to help such evaluations.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pete Bennett, EE Times. "The why, where and what of low-power SoC design." December 2, 2004. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
  2. ^ EE Times. "The Great Debate: SOC vs. SIP." March 21, 2005. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
  3. ^ EE Times. "Is verification really 70 percent?." June 14, 2004. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
  4. ^ Brian Bailey, EE Times. "Tektronix hopes to shake up ASIC prototyping." October 30, 2012. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
  5. ^ "COSMIC Heterogeneous Multiprocessor Benchmark Suite"

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

  • SOCC Annual IEEE International SOC Conference
  • Baya free SoC platform assembly and IP integration tool

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