Taguig (Tagalog: [taˈɡiɡ], officially the City of TaguigFilipino: Lungsod ng Tagíg), is a highly urbanized city located in south-eastern portion of Metro Manila in the Philippines. From a thriving fishing community along the shores of Laguna de Bay, it is now an important residential, commercial and industrial center. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 644,473.
The local government of Taguig currently administers Fort Bonifacio, considered as one of Metro Manila's central business districts alongside Makati CBD and Ortigas Center. Other future developments in the city include Arca South (formerly known as Food Terminal Incorporated) Ayala Land's 70-hectare business and lifestyle district, and Laguna de Bay Lakeshore Development along the Bulacan–Rizal–Manila–Cavite Regional Expressway (C-6 Road).
Taguig City lies on the western shore of Laguna de Bay and is bordered by Muntinlupa City to the south, Parañaque to the southwest, Pasay to the west, Cainta and Taytay on the northeast and Makati, Pateros, and Pasig to the north. Taguig River, a tributary of the Pasig River cuts through the northern half of the municipality and Napindan River, also a tributary of the Pasig forms the common border of Taguig with Pasig City.
The original 800-some farmer-fishermen of the area were good at threshing rice after harvest. Hence they were referred to as "mga taga-giik," (Tagalog for "rice thresher") and the settlement as "pook ng mga taga-giik." Spanish friar Fray Alonso de Alvarado, together with conquistador Ruy López de Villalobos who crossed Pasig River to reach the city's present site in 1571 found "taga-giik" difficult to pronounce. "Tagui-ig" was later shortened to its current form "Taguig."
Before the Spaniards came, Taguig was a part of the Kingdom of Tondo ruled by Rajah Soliman. There were also accounts that Chinese settlements were once present in the area as revealed by the recent archeological diggings of various artifacts like cups, plates and other utensils, which bear Chinese characters. This was believed to have originated from China's Ming dynasty.
Taguig was one of the earliest known territories to have been Christianized when the Spaniards succeeded in subjugating mainland Luzon through the Legazpi expedition in 1571. Between the years 1582 and 1583, Taguig was part of the encomienda of Tondo headed by an alcalde mayor, Captain Vergara. It was in 1587 when Taguig was established as a separate "pueblo" (town) of the then province of Manila. Captain Juan Basi was its Kapitan from 1587 to 1588. According to records, Taguig had nine (9) barrios then namely, Bagumbayan, Bambang, Hagonoy, Palingon, Sta. Ana, Tipas, Tuktukan, Ususan, and Wawa. Records show that Tipas had once petitioned to become an independent town but was denied by the Spanish government.
During that time, Taguig was accessible via the Pasig River, which was connected to two large bodies of water, the Manila Bay and Laguna de Bay. The population then was estimated to be 800 tributes. The town produced more than enough rice for consumption but had less sugar cane to mill. The men lived through fishing while women wove cotton cloth and "sawali" from bamboo strips. The people of Taguig were known to have resisted both Spanish and American colonial rule. During that early period of Spanish colonization. Don Juan Basi, "Kapitan" of Taguig from 1587 to 1588, took part in the Tondo Conspiracy, an attempt to overthrow the Spanish government which failed. Basi was exiled for two years as punishment. When the Katipunan was on its early years, many from Taguig became followers and later joined the uprising. The people of Taguig also joined the revolutionary government of General Emilio Aguinaldo on August 6, 1898.
During the American occupation, they struggled against the forces of General Wheaton under the command of General Pio del Pilar. It was recorded that on February 6, 1898, Filipino forces including Taguig "revolutionarios" dislodged an American position in the hills of Taguig, now a portion of Pateros and Fort Bonifacio. They were defeated eventually by the Americans with superiority in the armaments and training. Taguig finally fell to the contingent of the First Washington Volunteer Infantry led by Col. Wholly.
The defeat of the Filipinos after two years of struggle against the American forces subsequently subjected the Philippines to another system of governance. On August 14, 1898, United States occupied the islands and established a military government with General Wesley Meritt as the First Military Governor. He exercised legislative powers until September 1, 1900. At the start of American occupation, Taguig was proclaimed as an independent municipality with the promulgation of General Order No. 4 on March 29, 1900. The town was subsequently incorporated to the newly created province of Rizal when the Philippine Commission promulgated Act. No. 137 on June 11, 1901. On October 12, 1903, Taguig, Muntinlupa and Pateros were merged by the virtue of Act. No. 942 with Pateros hosting the seat of the municipal government. The merger did not last long as a month later Muntinlupa was segregated from it and made part of Biñan when Act. No. 1008 was enacted on November 25, 1903. However it was returned to Taguig on March 22, 1905 with the promulgation Act. No. 1308. On February 29, 1908, Taguig was again declared an independent municipality through Executive Order No. 20. Eventually, Pateros separated from Taguig and both became independent municipalities of Rizal province on January 1, 1918.
It was also during the American Colonial Period that the US government acquired a 25.78 km² property of Taguig for military purposes. This large piece of land which had a TCT dated 1902, was turned into a camp and was then known as Fort McKinley (named after the 25th president of U.S. President William McKinley). When the Japanese occupied the Philippines in 1942, Fort McKinley was taken over by the Japanese Imperial Army. They occupied the military camp until the end of the war in 1945. After the Philippines gained its political independence from the United States on July 4, 1946, the US surrendered the Republic of the Philippines all right of possession, jurisdiction, supervision and control over the Philippine territory except the use of the military bases. On May 14, 1949, Fort William McKinley was turned over to the Philippine government by virtue of the US Embassy Note No. 0570. Fort McKinley was made the permanent headquarters of the Philippine Army in 1957 and was subsequently renamed Fort Bonifacio after the Father of the Philippine Revolution against Spain, Andres Bonifacio.
The town's political subdivision was changed to barangays following the nationwide implementation of the Integrated Reorganization Plan (IRP) in the 1970s when the country was under Martial Law. The IRP has increased its subdivisions into 18 barangays, namely, Bagong Tanyag, Bagumbayan, Bambang, Calzada, Hagonoy, Ibayo-Tipas, Ligid-Tipas, Lower Bicutan, Maharlika, Napindan, Palingon, Signal Village, Sta. Ana, Tuktukan, Upper Bicutan, Ususan, Wawa, and Western Bicutan. In the year 2009, Taguig re-organized and re-arranged the barangays making a total of 28, the 10 added being Central Bicutan, Fort Bonifacio, South Daanghari, North Daanghari, San Miguel, New Lower Bicutan, South Signal,Katuparan, North Signal, Pinagsama and Tanyag. On November 7, 1975, Taguig was carved out from the province of Rizal to form the National Capital Region through Presidential Decree No. 824. Today, Taguig is still one of the seventeen (17) cities and municipalities that make up Metro Manila.
In 1998, a bill was passed in Congress pushing for the cityhood of Taguig. The resulting plebiscite in April showed that the citizens were against cityhood. A recent petition to the Supreme Court sought a recount of the plebiscite and the Supreme Court on February 19, 2004 ordered the Commission on Elections to conduct a recount. The recount showed that the residents did want the municipality of Taguig to become a city (21,105 'yes' and 19,460 'no'). Subsequently, Taguig became a city on December 8, 2004.
In 2008, the Taguig City council enacted City Ordinances Nos. 24-27, 57-61, 67-69, and 78, Series of 2008 which created ten (10) new barangays, carving them out from the initial 18 barangays. Hence, in December 2008, after a successful plebiscite, Taguig was politically subdivided into twenty eight (28) barangays.
Like other cities in the Philippines, Taguig City is governed by a mayor and vice mayor who are elected to three-year terms. The mayor is the executive head and leads the city's departments in executing the city ordinances and improving public services. The city mayor is restricted to three consecutive terms, totaling nine years, although a mayor can be elected again after an interruption of one term. The vice mayor heads a legislative council consisting of 18 members: 8 councilors from the First District, 8 councillors from the Second District, the president of the Sangguniang Kabataan (Youth Council) Federation, representing the youth sector, and the president of the Association of Barangay Chairmen (ABC) as barangay sectoral representative. The council is in charge of creating the city's policies in the form of Ordinances and Resolutions.
The current mayor for the 2013–2016 term is Lani Cayetano, wife of former congressman and now senator Alan Cayetano. She currently holds the youngest and 1st female mayor in the City of Taguig. Ricardo Cruz, former councillor and Barangay Chairman of Lower Bicutan is the city's incumbent vice-mayor. Current district representatives of the city are Arnel Cerafica, representing the 1st district and Lino Edgardo S. Cayetano, son of the late senator Rene Cayetano, representing the 2nd district.
Bonifacio Global City - One of Metro Manila's fastest growing financial hubs, a 240 hectare world-class business district at the heart of the city, home to upscale shopping centers, hotels, condominiums, offices and international schools.
Arca South - the future industrial estate owned by Ayala Land Incorporated, it is one of the largest estates in Metro Manila home to over 300 companies.
Food Terminal, Inc. (FTI) - currently called as FTI Special Economic Zone, the business center that boasts of over 300 medium scale companies in food manufacturing, electronics, garments and service industries.
Camp Bagong Diwa - The camp is in Lower Bicutan, it is where NCRPO headquarters, prison complex and drug rehabilitation centers are located.
Iglesia Filipina Independiente (aka Aglipayan Church), founded June 3, 1903 in Ligid-Tipas.
Dambanang Kawayan - A century old church in Tipas made of pure, native bamboo. It was inaugurated as a parish in 1969, comprising barangays Ligid-Tipas, Ibayo-Tipas, Calzada, and Palingon.
Museo de Sta. Ana - A museum at the Shrine of St. Anne. The repository of artifacts detailing the rich religious culture and history of Taguig since 1857.
Parola - Built in the 17th century, it stands guard at the mouth of Napindan Channel where the Pasig River crosses into the Laguna Lake. It became the secret rendezvous point of the Katipunan as it planned its moves to achieve Philippine Independence. The Parola was chosen by KKK Supremo, Gat Andres Bonifacio, as a meeting place because of its strategic location being the most accessible channel from Tondo, Manila and from the Municipios along the Pasig River and the Province of Laguna.
Market! Market! - a real estate development owned by Ayala Land, a real estate subsidiary of Ayala Corporation and part of the Ayala Mall chain.
The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) was established through the enactment of "Technical Education and Skills Development Act of 1994", which was signed into law by President Fidel V. Ramos. This Act aims to encourage the full participation of and mobilize the industry, labor, local government units, and technical-vocational institutions in the skills development of the country's human resource. The TESDA complex and facilities are located at the East Service Road of the South Luzon Expressway in Taguig City.
The Philippine Public Safety College in Fort Bonifacio is an educational institution offering undergraduate and graduate programs for the training, human resource development, and continuing education of police, fire and jail personnel.
Taguig City has two Islamic educational institutions located in Maharlika Village—the Maharlika Bandara-Inged Integrated School and the Maharlika Village Islamic Madrasa.
Other notable schools in Taguig City include Taguig Science High School in Hagonoy, Taguig National High School, a state-owned secondary institution in New Lower Bicutan, the Catholic Church-owned Colegio de Sta. Ana (formerly Sta. Ana Parochial School), The Fisher Valley College, a Christian school in Hagonoy, and Saint Francis of Assisi College System, a Catholic school in Bagumbayan. Taguig City University started operations in November 2006 with night classes at two of the city's larger secondary schools. Construction of a school building will follow soon at a lot beside Taguig City Hall of Justice in Lower Bicutan. It is now the largest public college in the area. In the auditorium of TCU (Taguig City University) there is the city's musical Kilos Kabataan.
Makati City and Taguig have recently fought over the jurisdiction of Fort Bonifacio. This Philippine military base, most of which has been converted to a modern commercial and residential development area, lies in an ambiguous area. A portion of the base, including the Libingan ng mga Bayani (Heroes' Cemetery) and the Manila American Cemetery and Memorial lies within Taguig, while the northern portion where the development center is now located used to be considered part of Makati. A 2003 ruling by a judge in the Pasig Regional Trial Court has upheld the jurisdiction of Taguig over the whole of Fort Bonifacio, including the Fort Bonifacio Global City.
The Supreme Court on June 27, 2008 per Leonardo Quisumbing, dismissed the suit of the Makati City, seeking to nullify Special Patents 3595 and 3596 signed by Fidel Ramos conveying to the Bases Conversion and Development Authority public land in Fort Bonifacio, Taguig City. Because of a pending civil case filed by the Taguig City government asking the court to define its territorial boundaries, Makati therefore cannot stop Taguig from collecting taxes on land located in Fort Bonifacio. Taguig City is competing with Makati City where round-the-clock construction of office and residential towers, as well as hotels and retail and commercial areas, BPO and Call Centers are now transferring to Taguig City.
On August 22, 2013, Taguig City filed a Motion for Reconsideration before the Court of Appeal's Sixth Division affirming its claim on Fort Bonifacio.
"Taguig's claim has the backing of history—it precedes Makati as a political and corporate entity by decades. Taguig's claim has the weight of official authority behind it—in statutes, in proclamations, in public documents—while Makati can only rely on private writings and proclamations that expand the original terms of that which it sought to amend," part of the motion read.
"Taguig's claim has been established by the numerous documentary and official documents, while Makati's has been one characterized by numerous legal maneuvers and overreliance on technicalities," the motion added. With the filing of the said Motion for Reconsideration, Taguig's jurisdiction forces itself over Fort Bonifacio. According to Taguig's legal department, jurisprudence and the rules of procedure in the country's justice system all say that the filing of a motion for reconsideration suspends the execution of a decision and puts it in limbo.
Taguig City is politically subdivided into 28 barangays. In December 2008, ten new barangays were created in the city after a successful plebiscite by virtue of City Ordinance Nos. 24-27, 57-61, 67-69, and 78, Series of 2008.