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Tallahassee Civil Rights Bus Boycott of 1956
Tallahassee Civil Rights Bus Boycott of 1956
Published: 2011/08/29
Channel: T. J. McCarthy IV
Tallahassee Bus Boycott and Other Tales of Road
Tallahassee Bus Boycott and Other Tales of Road
Published: 2016/06/09
Channel: Abrams Dicta
60 Anniversary Tallahassee Bus Boycott
60 Anniversary Tallahassee Bus Boycott
Published: 2017/03/15
Channel: Terrence Pride
The_Tallahassee_Bus_Boycott.wmv
The_Tallahassee_Bus_Boycott.wmv
Published: 2013/03/25
Channel: Chris Bryant
60th Anniversary of the Tallahassee Bus Boycott
60th Anniversary of the Tallahassee Bus Boycott
Published: 2016/05/11
Channel: City of Tallahassee - COTNews featuring WCOT
#Tally60 The 60th Anniversary Observance of the Tallahassee Bus Boycott
#Tally60 The 60th Anniversary Observance of the Tallahassee Bus Boycott
Published: 2016/05/12
Channel: J Lumpkin
American Freedom Stories: Montgomery Bus Boycott
American Freedom Stories: Montgomery Bus Boycott
Published: 2014/01/19
Channel: Biography
INSiiGHTS: Black History Fact: Dr Humphries Bus Boycott
INSiiGHTS: Black History Fact: Dr Humphries Bus Boycott
Published: 2016/02/29
Channel: INSiiGHTS
BATON ROUGE BUS BOYCOTT 1953
BATON ROUGE BUS BOYCOTT 1953
Published: 2015/03/15
Channel: Weekends With Whitney
Rev. C. K.  Steele
Rev. C. K. Steele
Published: 2014/04/15
Channel: On the Shoulders of Giants
LCV Cities Tour - Baton Rouge: 1953 Baton Rouge Bus Boycott
LCV Cities Tour - Baton Rouge: 1953 Baton Rouge Bus Boycott
Published: 2011/12/28
Channel: C-SPAN
Bus Boycott trailer
Bus Boycott trailer
Published: 2016/03/21
Channel: Madi Cavanagh
crazy old man on bus in tallahassee
crazy old man on bus in tallahassee
Published: 2011/03/05
Channel: diamond3y3z
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Published: 2016/12/06
Channel: NbpsSarahG
The Fading Line, Baton Rouge Bus Boycott
The Fading Line, Baton Rouge Bus Boycott
Published: 2015/03/15
Channel: Weekends With Whitney
President Nixon at Tallahassee Airport (1970)
President Nixon at Tallahassee Airport (1970)
Published: 2010/04/27
Channel: FloridaMemory
What Is The Bus Boycott?
What Is The Bus Boycott?
Published: 2017/09/04
Channel: Question Out
Hooters Tallahassee Bus Tub Race
Hooters Tallahassee Bus Tub Race
Published: 2014/05/28
Channel: Nathan Cross
Bus Boycott
Bus Boycott
Published: 2013/05/02
Channel: Keith Orr
550 Homeless Children in Tallahassee
550 Homeless Children in Tallahassee
Published: 2013/04/18
Channel: ABC27HD
Stories from the Civil Rights Movement Part II: Col. Brodes Hartley
Stories from the Civil Rights Movement Part II: Col. Brodes Hartley
Published: 2016/02/02
Channel: FAMUTube1887
Civil rights activists to be memorialized in Tallahassee
Civil rights activists to be memorialized in Tallahassee
Published: 2013/09/25
Channel: ABC27HD
What Is The Bus Boycott?
What Is The Bus Boycott?
Published: 2017/12/07
Channel: Charline Hollar Tipz
Civil Rights Heritage Walk Promo
Civil Rights Heritage Walk Promo
Published: 2013/09/24
Channel: City of Tallahassee - COTNews featuring WCOT
Reverend C.K. Steele--Part I (1979)
Reverend C.K. Steele--Part I (1979)
Published: 2010/01/21
Channel: FloridaMemory
Martin Luther King Speech/Boycott/Rosa Parks/Kkk.
Martin Luther King Speech/Boycott/Rosa Parks/Kkk.
Published: 2017/03/13
Channel: NieveHermione
What Was The Effect Of The Bus Boycott?
What Was The Effect Of The Bus Boycott?
Published: 2017/07/20
Channel: sparky heights
Bus Fares in Tallahassee
Bus Fares in Tallahassee
Published: 2013/03/05
Channel: Tanya Glover
What Is The Bus Boycott?
What Is The Bus Boycott?
Published: 2017/11/29
Channel: Sri Caution
Bus Ride From Tallahassee!
Bus Ride From Tallahassee!
Published: 2009/05/20
Channel: TheDoodles1917
We Will Rise
We Will Rise
Published: 2016/12/19
Channel: J Lumpkin
Homelessness in Tallahassee
Homelessness in Tallahassee
Published: 2011/11/06
Channel: vlashley22
What Is The Bus Boycott?
What Is The Bus Boycott?
Published: 2017/07/20
Channel: sparky heights
Civil Rights Movement and Boycott
Civil Rights Movement and Boycott
Published: 2010/06/15
Channel: ah95545
Tallahassee
Tallahassee
Published: 2014/05/12
Channel: RedShadow
USF students bus to Tallahassee to give lawmakers a piece of their minds
USF students bus to Tallahassee to give lawmakers a piece of their minds
Published: 2013/02/20
Channel: ABC Action News
Eyes on The Prize   NAN April 18, 2012  Keepers of the Dream 20130113 212253 446
Eyes on The Prize NAN April 18, 2012 Keepers of the Dream 20130113 212253 446
Published: 2013/01/14
Channel: winchrist1
tallahassee homeless package
tallahassee homeless package
Published: 2011/10/11
Channel: Scott Brooks
Financial Freedom by Design "Homeless Entrepreneur Presents The Tallahassee Business Spotlight
Financial Freedom by Design "Homeless Entrepreneur Presents The Tallahassee Business Spotlight
Published: 2011/02/03
Channel: The 100 Strong
SiCKO-Cure Road Show Rolls into Tallahassee
SiCKO-Cure Road Show Rolls into Tallahassee
Published: 2007/11/30
Channel: SickoTheMovie
Tallahassee Writers Association holding annual conference
Tallahassee Writers Association holding annual conference
Published: 2013/05/01
Channel: ABC27HD
Commission Meeting May 11th, 2016
Commission Meeting May 11th, 2016
Published: 2016/05/12
Channel: City of Tallahassee - COTNews featuring WCOT
Road Trip to Tallahassee: History of Tallahassee
Road Trip to Tallahassee: History of Tallahassee
Published: 2014/07/02
Channel: ABC27HD
Bus boycott-Margaret 1
Bus boycott-Margaret 1
Published: 2013/06/06
Channel: marg ocon
Taking The Bus Back To Tallahassee To Save My Car
Taking The Bus Back To Tallahassee To Save My Car
Published: 2016/07/28
Channel: oyby
Old Ways No More (sample clip)
Old Ways No More (sample clip)
Published: 2006/08/25
Channel: matthewmullenix
INSiiGHTS High School Game-of-the-Week: FAMU Hi at Rickards (Girls)
INSiiGHTS High School Game-of-the-Week: FAMU Hi at Rickards (Girls)
Published: 2017/02/05
Channel: INSiiGHTS
Tallahassee Trailer #2
Tallahassee Trailer #2
Published: 2016/02/21
Channel: Raymond Akbar
Footsteps to Freedom
Footsteps to Freedom
Published: 2014/02/03
Channel: City of Tallahassee - COTNews featuring WCOT
Tallahassee-Leon County Civil Rights Heritage Walk Dedication Ceremony
Tallahassee-Leon County Civil Rights Heritage Walk Dedication Ceremony
Published: 2013/10/04
Channel: City of Tallahassee - COTNews featuring WCOT
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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The Tallahassee Bus Boycott was a citywide boycott in Tallahassee, Florida that sought to end racial segregation in the employment and seating arrangements of city buses. On May 26, 1956, Wilhemina Jakes and Carrie Patterson, two Florida A&M University students, were arrested by the Tallahassee Police Department for behavior that would "incite a riot".[1] Robert Saunders, representing the NAACP, and Rev. C. K. Steele began talks with city authorities while the local African-American community started boycotting the city's buses. The Inter-Civic Council ended the boycott on December 22, 1956.[2] On January 7, 1957, the City Commission repealed the bus-franchise segregation clause because of the United State Supreme Court ruling Browder v. Gayle (1956).

Details[edit]

Jakes and Patterson boarded a city bus and sat in the only open seats, which were next to a white woman. The driver declared that the two women could not sit where they were sitting, and Jakes agreed to get off the bus if she received her bus fare in return. The driver would not return Jakes' bus fare and drove to a service station, where he then called the police, who subsequently arrested the women. Later that day, the students were bailed out by the Dean of Students.[3]

The day after the incident, a cross was burned in front of the women's residence. News of the cross-burning quickly spread throughout the campus, and Student Government Association officers, led by Brodes Hartley, called for a meeting of the student body. The incidents (the cross-burning and the arrest) were discussed in the meeting. Student leaders called for the withdrawal of student support of the bus company and for students to seek participation in the boycott throughout the community. Reverend Steele, a member of the Tallahassee Interdenominational Ministerial Alliance (IMA) and leader in the NAACP, organized a mass meeting that night. In the meeting, the Inter-Civic Council (ICC) was born from the joining of the NAACP, IMA, and Tallahassee Civic League. The ICC was formed in response to community fear that a NAACP-led protest would be met with state repression. Its leaders held weekly meetings and the Council was highly active in Civil Rights-related activism. The NAACP became involved well after the boycott had been started, when leaders sent a lawyer to defend drivers of boycotters (carpool drivers) who were arrested for driving unlicensed "for hire" vehicles.[3]

Three months into the boycott, the demand for the employment of black bus drivers was met. For months after Browder v. Gayle, the government upheld de facto segregation, with the instantiation of an ordinance mandating assigned seats on buses. That led to arrests of blacks who did not sit in the seats assigned to them. Efforts persisted in resisting bus segregation and enforcement of the ordinance became less strict, when blacks again rode the buses.

In 1959, members of the Tallahassee Congress of Racial Equality tested the success of the boycott by riding the newly-integrated buses; they found that the integration was successful.[3]

Sociologist Lewis Killian points out that organizational and community leaders did not gather until after the initiation of the boycott, which highlights the spontaneity of the student-initiated boycott. Furthermore, the boycott was initiated during a time in which Tallahassee's civil rights-related organizational activity was markedly low and the black community in Tallahassee was unprepared for a protest as large as the boycott.

The creation of the ICC provides an example of the emergence of new norms and structures. Although it is widely believed that the centers of Civil Rights Movement activity were organizational and structural bodies such as the black church and the NAACP, a new normative structure emerged in the Tallahassee Bus Boycott.

The boycott presents an overlooked departure from the circumstances of the Montgomery Bus Boycott, which was planned and precipitated by active individuals and organizations; in addition, the Tallahassee boycott, at least in its initial stages, was separate from and did not model the latter.

Killian finds the formation of the ICC and the spontaneous and irregular nature of the boycott's initiation commensurate with traditional collective behavior theory, which includes such superficially irrational elements as spontaneity.[3][4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rabby, pp. 9-10, 19.
  2. ^ Spagna, p. 36.
  3. ^ a b c d Killian, Lewis M. (1984). "Organization, Rationality, and Spontaneity in the Civil Rights Movement". American Sociological Review. 49: 770–783. 
  4. ^ Rohall, David E.; Milkie, Melissa A.; Lucas, Jeffrey W. (2014). "11. Collective Behavior". Social Psychology. pp. 298–299. 

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Fairclough, Adam (August 1986). "The Preachers and the People: The Origins and Early Years of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, 1955-1959". The Journal of Southern History. 52 (3): 403–440. doi:10.2307/2209569. 
  • Fendrich, James Max (1993). Ideal Citizens: The Legacy of the Civil Rights Movement. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 9780791413241. 
  • Padgett, Gregory B. (1994). C.K. Steele: A Biography (M.A. thesis). Florida State University. OCLC 31536742. 
  • Padgett, Gregory B. (2003). "The Tallahassee Bus Boycott". In Hyde, Samuel C. Sunbelt Revolution: The Historical Progression of the Civil Rights Struggle in the Gulf South, 1866-2000. University Press of Florida. pp. 190–209. ISBN 9780813025773. 
  • Pope, Mike (2002). Denial of Justice: Malcolm Johnson and the Tallahassee Bus Boycott (M.A. thesis). Florida State University. OCLC 50874219. 
  • Smith, Charles U.; Killian, Lewis M. (1958). The Tallahassee Bus Protest. Anti-defamation League of B'nai B'rith. OCLC 1855060. 
  • White, Robert M. (1964). The Tallahassee Sit-ins and CORE, a Nonviolent Revolutionary Submovement (Ph.D. thesis). Florida State University. OCLC 25103755. 

External links[edit]

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