Play Video
1
ISLAMIC VIDEOS : Christian Sister becomes Muslim -  Tamil
ISLAMIC VIDEOS : Christian Sister becomes Muslim - Tamil
::2013/11/15::
Play Video
2
ISLAMIC VIDEOS : Hindu Sister Sushrutha becomes Muslim - Tamil
ISLAMIC VIDEOS : Hindu Sister Sushrutha becomes Muslim - Tamil
::2011/05/20::
Play Video
3
Tamil Muslim Songs  Allah Alhamdulillah  by E M hanifa
Tamil Muslim Songs Allah Alhamdulillah by E M hanifa
::2008/11/02::
Play Video
4
News on Muslim Community Protest - Dinamalar Jan 28th 2014 Tamil Video News
News on Muslim Community Protest - Dinamalar Jan 28th 2014 Tamil Video News
::2014/01/29::
Play Video
5
Tamil Muslim Songs Iraivanidam Kai by E M hanifa
Tamil Muslim Songs Iraivanidam Kai by E M hanifa
::2008/10/31::
Play Video
6
Beautiful Tamil Muslim Marriage Yasmeen & Anwar at Malaysia
Beautiful Tamil Muslim Marriage Yasmeen & Anwar at Malaysia
::2013/04/25::
Play Video
7
Two years old tamil muslim girl answers islamic Questions
Two years old tamil muslim girl answers islamic Questions
::2011/02/26::
Play Video
8
We are Tamil
We are Tamil's Then We are Muslims Director Seeman Speech Every Muslim Must Watch
::2014/06/22::
Play Video
9
Muslim Wedding | Jamal & Fazeela | Nikkah | Part3
Muslim Wedding | Jamal & Fazeela | Nikkah | Part3
::2012/07/31::
Play Video
10
Palani baba - 12(Political Status of Tamil Muslim)
Palani baba - 12(Political Status of Tamil Muslim)
::2009/02/25::
Play Video
11
TAMIL BAYAN-THE MUSLIM WIFE
TAMIL BAYAN-THE MUSLIM WIFE
::2011/07/07::
Play Video
12
மனைவியின் கடமைகள் | How a Muslim Wife Should Live - Tamil Bayan
மனைவியின் கடமைகள் | How a Muslim Wife Should Live - Tamil Bayan
::2012/12/05::
Play Video
13
சுவர்கத்தின் முதல் பெண்மணி - Tamil Muslim song
சுவர்கத்தின் முதல் பெண்மணி - Tamil Muslim song
::2007/08/24::
Play Video
14
Actress Monika converts to Islam and to quits cinema | Press meet | M.G.Rahima
Actress Monika converts to Islam and to quits cinema | Press meet | M.G.Rahima
::2014/05/30::
Play Video
15
கார் மேகம் குடை பிடிக்கும் - தப்ஸ் - Tamil Muslim Songs
கார் மேகம் குடை பிடிக்கும் - தப்ஸ் - Tamil Muslim Songs
::2013/08/08::
Play Video
16
Isai Murasu Nagoor E.M.Hanifa Tamil Muslim / Islamic Songs
Isai Murasu Nagoor E.M.Hanifa Tamil Muslim / Islamic Songs
::2012/07/24::
Play Video
17
Tamil muslim song 2
Tamil muslim song 2
::2013/09/07::
Play Video
18
Tamil Muslim Islam: Things Allah Likes and hates: Saifuddin Rashadi
Tamil Muslim Islam: Things Allah Likes and hates: Saifuddin Rashadi
::2009/11/07::
Play Video
19
Tamil Muslim Song
Tamil Muslim Song
::2012/12/26::
Play Video
20
ASMA UL HUSNA TAMIL MUSLIM SONGS BY ZAINUL ABIDEEN FAIZI
ASMA UL HUSNA TAMIL MUSLIM SONGS BY ZAINUL ABIDEEN FAIZI
::2013/02/08::
Play Video
21
Tamil Muslim Leaders were not allowed to meet the Sri Lankan High-commissioner - Red Pix
Tamil Muslim Leaders were not allowed to meet the Sri Lankan High-commissioner - Red Pix
::2013/08/14::
Play Video
22
Tamil muslim wedding
Tamil muslim wedding
::2007/12/14::
Play Video
23
New Tamil Muslim Song POORANA NILAVAAI
New Tamil Muslim Song POORANA NILAVAAI
::2013/03/29::
Play Video
24
ஈச்சமரத்து இன்பச் சோலை Tamil Muslim Song Kayal Sheik Mohamed
ஈச்சமரத்து இன்பச் சோலை Tamil Muslim Song Kayal Sheik Mohamed
::2008/09/15::
Play Video
25
Tamil Muslim song 4
Tamil Muslim song 4
::2014/01/26::
Play Video
26
Tamil Muslim Song -Iraivanidam   -Merit FmTube
Tamil Muslim Song -Iraivanidam -Merit FmTube
::2011/08/19::
Play Video
27
[Tamil] Innocence of Muslim Film -- Abdul Basith Bukhari
[Tamil] Innocence of Muslim Film -- Abdul Basith Bukhari
::2013/01/03::
Play Video
28
Tamil muslim songs Talaivaari Pooccudi By E M Hanifa
Tamil muslim songs Talaivaari Pooccudi By E M Hanifa
::2010/08/20::
Play Video
29
ISLAMIC VIDEOS : Hindu Sister Malathi becomes Muslim Aysha -  Tamil
ISLAMIC VIDEOS : Hindu Sister Malathi becomes Muslim Aysha - Tamil
::2013/11/17::
Play Video
30
Tamil Muslim Islam: Do we need recommendation (Safa
Tamil Muslim Islam: Do we need recommendation (Safa'at) to enter Paradise? - Saifuddin Rasadi
::2009/11/08::
Play Video
31
Tamil muslim songs MAUTAYE By E M Hanifa
Tamil muslim songs MAUTAYE By E M Hanifa
::2008/08/27::
Play Video
32
Arumai Nabigal Thootram - Tamil Muslim Songs. flv
Arumai Nabigal Thootram - Tamil Muslim Songs. flv
::2013/05/15::
Play Video
33
Ellorum Kondaaduvom - Nagoor E.M.Hanifa Tamil Muslim Song
Ellorum Kondaaduvom - Nagoor E.M.Hanifa Tamil Muslim Song
::2011/08/02::
Play Video
34
Tamil Muslim Songs SUNTARA NABIKU SOBANAM By Mugavai Seeni Mohd
Tamil Muslim Songs SUNTARA NABIKU SOBANAM By Mugavai Seeni Mohd
::2011/11/21::
Play Video
35
Muslimah - Short Flim Quality of Muslim Girl Tamil subtitle.
Muslimah - Short Flim Quality of Muslim Girl Tamil subtitle.
::2012/04/07::
Play Video
36
Tamil Muslim Song 5
Tamil Muslim Song 5
::2014/01/26::
Play Video
37
Anti muslim attack against Tamil muslims by Bodu Bala Sena
Anti muslim attack against Tamil muslims by Bodu Bala Sena
::2014/06/16::
Play Video
38
Tamil Muslim Songs NAAYAGAM SOLLVATHAI KEL By E M Hanifa
Tamil Muslim Songs NAAYAGAM SOLLVATHAI KEL By E M Hanifa
::2011/11/01::
Play Video
39
india muslim history tamil song(PFI)
india muslim history tamil song(PFI)
::2011/02/14::
Play Video
40
Tamil Muslim Songs IRU KANGAL NAM HASSAN By E M Hanifa
Tamil Muslim Songs IRU KANGAL NAM HASSAN By E M Hanifa
::2011/10/29::
Play Video
41
ERUVADI MUSLIM JAMAATH (JAQH) TAMIL ISLAMIC DAWA BAYANS BY ASMA ARABIC COLLEGE 01
ERUVADI MUSLIM JAMAATH (JAQH) TAMIL ISLAMIC DAWA BAYANS BY ASMA ARABIC COLLEGE 01
::2012/03/07::
Play Video
42
தமிழ் முஸ்லீம் Nikkah Tamil Muslim Marriage Advt.
தமிழ் முஸ்லீம் Nikkah Tamil Muslim Marriage Advt.
::2012/08/26::
Play Video
43
Question and Answer Session From Non-Muslim brothers  - Tamil - Part 4
Question and Answer Session From Non-Muslim brothers - Tamil - Part 4
::2010/05/02::
Play Video
44
Tamil Muslim Songs Makkal Yaavarum By E M hanifa
Tamil Muslim Songs Makkal Yaavarum By E M hanifa
::2008/09/09::
Play Video
45
அல்லாவுக்கு அஞ்சி வாழுங்கள் - Tamil Muslim song
அல்லாவுக்கு அஞ்சி வாழுங்கள் - Tamil Muslim song
::2007/08/22::
Play Video
46
பன்னிரெண்டு நாளிதே TAMIL MUSLIM SONGS
பன்னிரெண்டு நாளிதே TAMIL MUSLIM SONGS
::2011/08/16::
Play Video
47
Tamil Muslim Songs SONNAAL MUDINTIDUMO by E M Hanifa
Tamil Muslim Songs SONNAAL MUDINTIDUMO by E M Hanifa
::2011/11/01::
Play Video
48
Tamil Muslim bayan - Dowry & Interest by  Movlavi Syed Mohamed Misbahi 1/2
Tamil Muslim bayan - Dowry & Interest by Movlavi Syed Mohamed Misbahi 1/2
::2008/11/21::
Play Video
49
மூட்டுக்களும் தர்மமும்  By Terizhandur Tajudeen Faizee - Tamil Muslim song
மூட்டுக்களும் தர்மமும் By Terizhandur Tajudeen Faizee - Tamil Muslim song
::2014/01/17::
Play Video
50
Tamil muslim songs SINGAPORE ENUM NAADU  By E M Hanifa
Tamil muslim songs SINGAPORE ENUM NAADU By E M Hanifa
::2010/08/20::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Tamil Muslims
Total population
6 - 7 million
Regions with significant populations
India Tamil Nadu 3.5 - 4 million
 Sri Lanka 1.8 - 2 million
 Malaysia 500,000
 Singapore 20,000 as of 1992[1]
Rest of the World 500,000
Religion
Islam
Related ethnic groups
Indian Muslims, Indian Tamils of Sri Lanka, Dravidian people, Jawi Peranakan, Kilakarai Moors

Tamil Muslims (Tamilதமிழ் முஸ்லிம்கள், tamiḻ muslimgal ?) are Tamil-speaking people with Islam as their faith. There are about 3 to 4 million Tamil Muslims in India mostly in Tamil Nadu state and also in neighbouring Kerala. A significant Tamil-speaking Muslim population numbering 1.8 million[2] or more live in the Northern, Eastern provinces and Colombo in Sri Lanka and many other pockets across central, southwest provinces; however they are listed as a separate ethnic group in official statistics.[3] There are around 500,000 in Malaysia and 20,000 in Singapore.[4] Tamil Muslims are largely urban traders rather than farmers. There is a substantial diaspora of Tamil Muslims, particularly in South East Asia, which has seen their presence as early as the 13th century.[5] In the late 20th century, the diaspora expanded to the North America and Western Europe. They are called Cholias in Myanmar, Mamak in Malaysia and Rathas in South Africa.[6]

Ethnic identity[edit]

A typical minaret of a mosque in Tamil Nadu as seen here of Erwadi in Ramanathapuram District

Tamil Muslims are identifiable and bonded only by a common language and religion. Otherwise, they belong to multiple ethnic backgrounds such as Dravidian, Aryan, Oriental, Semitic, etc. Hence, their complexions range from fair to dark; facial bone structures range from sharp/oval to rounded. This was due to the frequent trading and miscegenation in South Asia. These races, by the 20th century, began to be listed as social classes in official gazettes of different nations as Lebbai, Marakayar, Rowther, Dekkani, Kayalar (in Maharashtra), Jawi Peranakan or Mamak[disambiguation needed] in Malaysia,[7][8][9][10] Chulia[11] (in Singapore), etc. Jainism and Buddhism was under stress by the resurgence of Hinduism when Islam was introduced to Tamil Nadu and Kerala regions of southern India (650–750 AD). The majority of Jains embraced Islam and they still retain some Jain habits.[12] As a result, there is no uniformity in customs and ceremonies within and between districts and nations on occasions like births, marriages and deaths.[13]

Law and politics[edit]

Tamil Muslim mosque, in the village of Thiruppanandal, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu
A mosque in Jaffna, Sri Lanka

In early 19th century, Munshi Abdullah's provocative essays on good governance and education reforms began to shape the modern Malaysian political system.

Sir Mohammad Usman was the most prominent among the early political leaders of the community. In 1930, Jamal Mohammad became the first Tamil Muslim president of the Madras Presidency Muslim League.[14] Until then, the party was dominated by Urdu-speaking Muslims from the Nizamat of Hyderabad. Yakub Hasan Sait was an Urdu-speaking Gujarati Muslim who settled in Tamil Nadu and served as a minister in the Rajaji government. Allama Karim Gani, veteran Freedom Fighter and a close associate of Netaji Subash Chandra Bose, who hailed from Ilayangudi, served as Information Minister in Netaji BAMA Ministry during 1930's.

Since late 20th century, politicians like Quaid E Millath (a close friend of Annadurai, former MP and leader Tamil Nadu Muslim League) and Dawood Shah advocated Tamil to be made an official language of India due to its antiquity in parliamentary debates[15] New leaders like Daud Sharifa Khanum have been active in pioneering social reforms like independent mosques for Tamil Muslim women.[16][17][18][19] MM Ismail was appointed additional judge of the Delhi High Court in 1967 and was transferred to the Madras High Court later. He became Chief Justice in 1979. On October 27, 1980 Justice MM Ismail was sworn in as acting Governor of Tamil Nadu. As Kamban Kazhagam president, he was responsible for organising literary festivals, which focussed on classical Tamil literature. In a message, the Governor, Surjit Singh Barnala, said the former Chief Justice was a legal luminary and contributed a lot to the judiciary. He evinced keen interest in Tamil literature and established the Kamban Kazhagam. Another prominent legal luminary is Justice SA Kader who was the Judge of Madras High Court from 1983 to 1989. He was held in high esteem for his quick grasp and speedy disposal of cases. On retirement, he held the office of President of the Tamil Nadu State Government Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission. At present, he is a Senior Advocate of the Supreme Court.[20]

Tamil Muslim representatives such as J. M. Haroon, Abdul Rahman, Jinna, SHEIK UMAR(TUT), Khaleelur Rahman, Ubayadullah, Hussan Ali and T. P. M. Mohideen Khan are found across all major Dravidian political parties like Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK), Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam (DMDK) and All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK), as well as the Indian National Congress (INC). Former Prime Minister of Malaysia Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad as well Malaysian politicians Kadir Sheikh Fadzir, Zainuddin Maidin, Anwar Ibrahim, Khairy Jamaluddin, Nor Mohamed Yakcop and Zambry Abdul Kadir too are of Tamil Muslim origins. Broadly speaking, Tamil Muslims tend to support laissez faire and free trade; and have thus been unimpressed by Communism as a public policy though fringe working class groups often call for affirmative action in the last quarter of 20th century.[21]

Quaid-e-Millath Muhammad Ismail Sahib, the first President of Indian Union Muslim League, soon after the partition in independent India. The Tamil Muslims in India were united in a single political party under his statesmanship. Their support was inevitable for ruling parties in the state, as well as in the Centre. He was instrumental in framing and obtaining the minority status and privileges for minorities in India. His newspaper "Urimaikkural" was a very popular daily. He hailed from the Trinelvelli district of Tamil Nadu.

S.M Muhammed Sheriff, a.k.a 'Madurai Sheriff Sahib'. A charismatic and prominent Indian Union Muslim League leader groomed by Quaid-e-Millath Muhammad Ismail Sahib. He was a zealous social worker, professor, lawyer and a politician. The first elected Muslim League MP from Tamil Nadu in independent India. He played a vital role in many committees as a parliamentarian from the historic Ramanathapuram and Periyakulam Constituencies. He produced clear documentary evidences that Kachchatheevu belonged to India and spoke vehemently in Parliament that it should not be ceded to Sri Lanka and the consequences in such a turn of event. During Emergency rule in Smt. Indira Gandhi's period, he was the advisor to the Governor on the legislation of Tamil Nadu. He gave moral lectures to prisoners in jails and arranged for Jumma prayers to be conducted regularly in Madurai Central Prison. He was a close associate of Sayyid Abdur Rahman Bafaqi Thangal, C. H. Mohammed Koya, Panakkad Shihab Thangal, Ebrahim Sulaiman Sait, G.M. Banatwalla, A.K. Rifayee & Siraj-ul-Millath Abdul Sammad, and the bosom friend of Nagore E.M. Hanifa, Justice Basheer Ahmed Sayeed and B. S. Abdur Rahman. He was a powerful speaker in many Indian languages. As Propaganda Secretary of the IUML, he strengthened, expanded and ignited the spirit of the league from grass-root level. The most fondly remembered personality for his honesty, simplicity, philanthropy and secularism.

P. Kalifullah (1888–1961), was a politician of the Madras Presidency, British India. He served as the minister for public works in the Cabinet of Kurma Venkata Reddy Naidu during April–July 1937. His father T.A. Pitchai Rowther was an affluent entrepreneur from Tiruchirapalli. He belonged to the All-India Muslim League and was elected to the Madras Legislative Assembly from Tiruchirappalli in the 1937 elections. He was sympathetic to the cause of Periyar E. V. Ramasamy (Periyar) and his Self-Respect Movement. In 1937, he spoke against the introduction of compulsory Hindi classes in the Madras legislature and later participated in the anti-Hindi agitation started by Periyar. He was a lawyer by profession and was known by his honorifics as Khan Bahadur. He was also a member of the Madras Legislative Council during the early 1930s. He was the Dewan of Pudukottai after his withdrawal from political work.

In Tamil Nadu and other Indian states, Indian Union Muslim League (IUML) led by Quaid-e-Millath M. Muhammad Ismail Sahib was famous among Tamil Muslims till the early 1990s. After the demolition of the Babri Masjid in 1992, a feeling of insecurity gripped the community. Tamil Muslim youths swayed from general apathy, sought change to more involvement and interest in active politics. The elderly preferred the status quo and continued to support IUML. Subsequent to the events arising out of the Babri Masjid Demolition, the Indian National League was formed under the aegis of Ebrahim Sulaiman Sait who split from the Indian Union Muslim League.

In several taluks of Tamil Nadu, where the Tamil Muslims are concentrated, Indian Union Muslim League also split and the Indian National League was formed under Abdul Latheef.Indian Union Muslim League was headed by Adbus Samad. These two leaders continued to head the respective parties till their death. In Jan, 2011, the Tamil Nadu State Unit of Indian Nation League was dissolved.[22] After the demolition of the Babri Masjid, the Ahle-Hadith (Ghair Muqallid) reform movements began to take the front stage[citation needed] movement was spearheaded by P. Jainulabdeen and consequently the organization, Tamil Nadu Muslim Munnetra Kazagham was constituted in 1995. This non-profit organisation quickly became popular and assertive[citation needed] among the Tamil Muslim working class while the Indian National League irreversibly lost its bearing. MMK wanted to take part in active politics, the organization split due to different reasons, and the non-political arm Tamil Nadu Towheed Jamath was formed under the leadership P. Jainulabdeen. Later TMMK constituted Manithaneya Makkal Katchi (MMK) as a political party in 2009 and contested in three seats and won two Assembly seats viz. Ambur (A. Aslam Basha) and Ramanathapuram (M.H. Jawahirullah). The Tamil Muslim vote bank is not a monolithic mass. They vote for all parties (based on immediate parochial issues) like Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, AIADMK, Congress etc. MMK aims to accumulate a strong homogenous Tamil Muslim vote bank (across dozens of classes and races) to play an important collective bargaining role while seeking affirmative action. DMK tries to maintain its substantial Tamil Muslim vote bank since its founding, which was built on strong personal friendship with the Quaid-e-Millath. Various benefit schemes for Tamil Muslims like 3.5% reservation in education and government jobs, Ulema Welfare Board, and Quaid-e-Milleth memorial have been given.

Culture[edit]

There are Two main holidays in Islam: Eid Al-Fitr, Ramadan and Eid Al-Adha. Eid Al-Fitr is celebrated at the end of Ramadan (a month of fasting), and Muslims usually give zakat (charity) on the occasion. Eid Al-Adha is celebrated at the end of Hajj (annual pilgrimage to Mecca), which is one of the Five five pillars, and Muslims usually sacrifice an animal and distribute its meat among family, friends and the poor. All Islamic holidays follow the lunar calendar, and thus move each year relative to the solar calendar. The Islamic calendar has 12 months and 354 days on a regular year, and 355 days on a leap year.

Economy[edit]

The global purchasing power of Tamil Muslims in 2011 was estimated at almost $13 billion viz. $5 billion in Tamil Nadu, $4 billion in Malaysia, $3 billion in Sri Lanka, $600 million in Singapore. Tamil Muslims have historically been money changers[23] (not money lenders) throughout South and South East Asia especially in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Hong Kong are dominated by them.[24] Generally Tamil Muslims are involved in various trades like retail, mutton shops, shops in foreign bazaar.[25] They are also involved in pearl/gem trade[26] and leather industry.[27] The coloured stones business which Sri Lanka is famous for is in the hands of Tamil speaking Muslims. Other than Gujarati and Marwadis the only community doing wholesale diamond business in Hong Kong, Dubai, Belgium, Thailand other than Mumbai is Tamil Muslims from Ramnad. Semiprecious stones like peridot, rubilite, amethyst, or moonstone are led by Tamil Muslims from Tanjore district in countries like China, Thailand, Japan, Singapore, and Malaysia. Paper business by people from Erwadi. Department store, textile showrooms by people from Pallapatti. Burma bazar is led by entrepreneurs from Ramanathapuram district. Due to new emerging opportunities, lot of Tamil Muslims went to the Persian Gulf. Now lakhs of Tamil Muslims are spread over in GCC countries and also in Singapore, Malaysia and Brunei.[28] This brought prosperity to the Tamil Muslim community. There are about 600 millionaires within the community and at least one billionaire viz. B.S. Abdur Rahman (better known as the Buhari Group) who founded the conglomerate ETA Star Group, Chennai Citi Centre, Chepauk Stadium, Marina Lighthouse, Valluvar Kottam, Government General Hospital, Gemini Flyover, Crescent Engineering College, et al.. He owns over 70 ocean-going vessels.[29] Periya Thambi Nainar of 17th century was widely regarded as the first millionaire from the Tamil Muslim community.[30][31]

Education[edit]

After independence, Tamil Muslim entrepreneurs begun to create lot of schools and colleges. Jamal Mohamed College in Trichy, Khadir Mohideen College, Adirampattinam, New College in Chennai, Waqf Board College in Madurai, are some of famous service based Tamil Muslim colleges. In mid 1980s, scores of Tamil Muslim self-financing educational institutions were started. Crescent Engineering College was upgraded to BS Abdur Rahman University. In Tamil Nadu, the school education of the Tamil Muslims is above-average compared to general literacy level. But in higher and technical education Tamil Muslims lag behind, due to entrepreneurial commitments and jobs in the Persian Gulf and south east Asia {mainly Singapore, Malaysia and Brunei}. But now the picture is changing slowly. There are over 65 Tamil Muslim educational institutions in Tamil Nadu.

Legends and rituals[edit]

The Aqidah of the Tamil Muslims is based on Sunnah heavily influenced by the Shadhili and Qadiri flavours of Sufism. Tamil Muslim families are patrilocal and the nikkah (marriage) registers mahr (dower) and witness. For instance, it is common to see a groom pay the bride mahr (dower) of INR10,000. Tamil Muslims practice monogamy and male circumcision.[32] Like the thali of Tamil Hindu brides, Tamil Muslim women wear a chain strung with black beads called Karugamani which is tied by the groom's elder female relative to the bride's neck on the day of nikkah.[33] As a mark of modesty Tamil Muslim women usually wear white thuppatti (whilst travelling only) which is draped over their whole body on top of the saree. Many Tamil Muslims go for (Dargah) ziyarat which is an important Sunnah.[34]

Literature[edit]

Letters unique to Arwi The erstwhile Tamil-Arabic tongue of Muslims in Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka.

Tamil Muslim culture and literature are heavily influenced by the Shadhili and Qadiri flavours of Sufism. Their domain range from mystical to medical, from fictional to political, from philosophical to legal. Few Tamil Muslims wrote Tamil literature in Nastaliq script, known as Arwi.[35] The Arwi language is a written register of the Tamil language with some alphabets and usages borrowed from the Arabic language. It is the widely used dialect among Tamil Muslims of Sri Lanka.[36] A few Islamic schools still teach the basics of Arwi as part of their curricula. The earliest Tamil Muslim literary works could be traced to 14th century in the form of Palsanthmalai, a small work of eight stanzas. In 1572, Seyku Issaku, better known as Vanna Parimala Pulavar, published Aayira Masala Venru Vazhankum Adisaya Puranam detailing the Islamic principles and beliefs in a FAQ format. In 1592, Aali Pulavar wrote the Mikurasu Malai. The epic Seerapuranam by Umaru Pulavar is dated to 17th century[37] and still considered as the crowning achievement of Tamil Muslim literature. Other significant works of 17th century include Thiruneri Neetham by Sufi master Pir Mohammad, Kanakabhisheka Malai by Seyku Nainar Khan (alias Kanakavirayar), Tirumana Katchi by Sekathi Nainan and the Iraq war ballad Sackoon Pataippor.[38] Notable publications of 18th century include Yakobu Sithat Patal, a medical primer on Siddha Vaithyam (distinguished from Ayurvedic medicine).[39] Nevertheless, an independent Tamil Muslim identity evolved only in the last quarter of the 20th century triggered by the rise of Dravidian politics as well as the introduction of new mass communications and lithographic technologies.[40][41] The world's first Tamil Islamic Literature Conference was held in Trichy in 1973. In early 2000. the Department of Tamil Islamic Literature was set up in the University of Madras.[42] Literati such as Kavikko Abdur Rahman, Mu Metha, Jainulabudeen, Pavalar Inqulab, A. Rokkiah[43] and A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, the 11th President of India, helped push the frontiers of enlightenment into the 21st century.[44] The pioneering fortnightly journal Samarasam was established in 1981 to highlight and cater to the ethnic Tamil Muslim community's issues. Aayiram Masala (Questions) was dated to be 450–500 years old, other than the popularly known Seera Puranam written by Umaru pulavar. In the modern times, Tamil poetry was enriched by contributions from Kavikko Abdur Rahman, Kavi Kaa Mu Sheriff, Kavignar Mu Metha, Bismi, Manavai Musthafa, Salma, APJ Abdul Kalam etc.[45] Established in 1979, Islamic Foundation Trust has published 129 books in Tamil, 14 in English and 16 in Arabic languages. It has also brought out audio Cassettes and CDs of the Noble Quran.[46]

Vocabulary[edit]

Tamil Muslim vocabulary includes several peculiar Malay[47] loanwords like thuppatti (purdah), nabi (messenger of god),[48] thozhugai (prayer), nonbu (fasting), kayili (lungi), chicha (younger paternal uncle), peribaapu (elder paternal uncle), peribuvva (wife of elder paternal uncle), chichani (wife of younger paternal uncle), pallivaasal/masoodhi (mosque), aanam (curry), valavoodu (backside of a house), theruvoodu (frontside of a house), et al.. The vocabulary varies across Tamil Muslim settlements. Coastal communities and Tamil Muslims of southern districts use different terminologies whereas Tamil Muslims from western and Northern Tamil Nadu use different words.[49]

Art[edit]

Artistes like Nagore E.M. Hanifa, Mano, Nassar (actor), Shaam (actor), Ameer Sultan, Rajkiran, B. H. Abdul Hameed, Shahul Hameed, A. R. Rahman, Poorna and Pakoda Kader are popular in the Tamil film industry.

Cuisine[edit]

Tamil Muslim cuisine is a syncretic mixture of Tamil Hindu and Northern Muslim recipes and flavours.[50] Its distinguishing feature is the total absence of hot kebab and pungent colorful spices that tend to permeate most Indian non-vegetarian food. The spice used is basically the same as those used by other South Indian communities, though the mixtures might vary. One special dish is 'kuruma' which is very low on chilly where the hotness is substituted by increasing the amount of white pepper, and with a heavy dose of poppy seed paste. This dish is further made richer by adding ground almonds and cashew nuts. Pandanus amaryllifolius Pandan leaves are used where it's available, especially in Sri Lanka and the Malay archipelago. This leaf gives out a distinct flavour only when cooked. In deltaic towns like Karaikal and Ambagarathur, sahan saappaadu is the main style of food presentation in banquets (where two or more guests eat from one large round plate, while seated on the floor). Tamil Muslim cuisine also includes the use of masi or cured/dried tuna fish, which is powdered and used with many different items. But this is limited to the coastal districts. They also use ada urugai, which is whole lime pickled in salt without chillies; this is mashed and mixed with the masi powder. The combination gives a sour taste and a distinctly different flavor. The diet of Tamil Muslims is non-vegetarian and seldom includes beef. Coconut oil is used for dressing while a few older generation folks chew betel tobacco after a heavy lunch.[51]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mani, A. (1992). "Aspects of identity and change among Tamil Muslims in Singapore Aspects of identity and change among Tamil Muslims in Singapore". Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, Journal 13 (2): 337–357. doi:10.1080/02666959208716253. 
  2. ^ Mattison Mines, Social stratification among the Muslims in Tamil Nadu, South India, Caste and Social Stratification Among Muslims in India, ed. Imtiaz Ahamed, New Delhi, 1978; Muslim Merchants - The Economic Behaviours of the Indian Muslim Community, Shri Ram Centre for Industrial Relations and Human Resources, New Delhi, 1972
  3. ^ de Silva, C.R. Sri Lanka — A History, pp. 3–5, 9
  4. ^ Sinnappa Arasaratnam, Merchants, Companies and Commerce on the Coromandel Coast 1650 - 1740, New Delhi 1986; Maritime India in the Seventeenth Century, New Delhi 1994; Maritime Commerce and English Power (South East India), 1750 - 1800, New Delhi 1996; Dutch East Indian Company and the Kingdom of Madura, 1650 - 1700, Tamil Culture, Vol. 1, 1963, pp. 48-74; A Note on Periyathambi Marakkayar, 17th century Commercial Magnate, Tamil Culture, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1964, pp. 1-7; Indian Merchants and the Decline of Indian Mercantile Activity, the Coromandel case, The Calcutta Historical Journal, Vol. VII, No. 2/1983, pp. 27-43; Commerce, Merchants and Entrepreneurship in Tamil Country in 18th century, paper presented in the 8th World Tamil Conference seminar, Thanjavur, 1995
  5. ^ Tamil Muslims in Zheng He's fleet. 1421.tv. Retrieved on 2012-06-27.
  6. ^ A. R. Sayeed, Indian Muslims and some Problems of Modernisation, Dimensions of Social Changes in India, ed. M. N. Srinivas, New Delhi, 1977, p.217
  7. ^ Tamil Muslims dominate restaurant industry in Malaysia
  8. ^ Kings, Sects and Temples in South India. Ier.sagepub.com (1977-01-01). Retrieved on 2012-06-27.
  9. ^ Understanding Backward Classes of Muslim Society. Scribd.com (2010-08-21). Retrieved on 2012-06-27.
  10. ^ Hiltebeitel, A (1999) Rethinking India's oral and classical epics. p. 376 (11). University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-34050-3
  11. ^ Zafar Anjum, Indians Roar In The Lion City. littleindia.com
  12. ^ Conversion of Jains to Islam in Kerala. Jaina.in (2008-07-17). Retrieved on 2012-06-27.
  13. ^ M. Abdul Rahim, History of Nagapattinam and surrounding from 16th century, unpublished M.Lit. thesis, University of Madras, 1971; Muslims of Tamil Nadu 1800 - 1900, unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Madras
  14. ^ J.B.P.More (1 January 1997). Political Evolution of Muslims in Tamilnadu and Madras 1930–1947. Orient Blackswan. pp. 116–. ISBN 978-81-250-1192-7. Retrieved 27 June 2012. 
  15. ^ Tamil Muslim Periyar Thatstamil.oneindia.in. Retrieved on 2012-06-27
  16. ^ Biswas, Soutik. (2004-01-27) World's first Masjid for Women. BBC News. Retrieved on 2012-06-27.
  17. ^ Pandey, Geeta. (2005-08-19) World | South Asia | Women battle on with mosque plan. BBC News. Retrieved on 2012-06-27.
  18. ^ S.T.E.P.S.
  19. ^ TMMK opposes a mosque!. News.newamericamedia.org. Retrieved on 2012-06-27.
  20. ^ http://www.supremecourtofindia.nic.in/circular/senioradvocates.pdf
  21. ^ Susan Bayly, Saints, Goddesses and Kings — Muslims and Christians in South Indian Society, Cambridge, 1989
  22. ^ Tamil Nadu / Chennai News : Indian National League State unit dissolved. The Hindu (2011-01-21). Retrieved on 2012-06-27.
  23. ^ N. Seeralan, The Survey of Ports and Harbours in Madras Presidency 1858 - 1900, unpublished M.Phil. thesis, Bharatidasan University, Tiruchirapalli, 1987, p. 31
  24. ^ Historical dominance on money changing business. Books.google.com. Retrieved on 2012-06-27.
  25. ^ C. W. E. Cotton, Handbook of Commercial Information for India, Trivandrum, 1942, p. 67
  26. ^ S. Arunachalam, The History of Pearl Fishery of Tamil Coast, Annamalai Nagar 1952, p. 11
  27. ^ Sanjay Subramanian, The Political Economy of Commerce, Southern India 1500 - 1650, New York 1990
  28. ^ T. Jayarajan, Social and Economic Customs and Practices of Marakkayars of Tamil Nadu — a case study of Marakkayars of Adiramapattinam, unpublished M.Phil. thesis, Bharatidasan University, Tiruchirapalli, 1990
  29. ^ Buhari Group's global reach[dead link]
  30. ^ Burten Stein, All the Kings' Manas and Papers on Medieval South Indian History, Madras 1984, p. 243
  31. ^ R. E. M. Wheeler and A. Ghosh Arikkamedu — an Indo-Roman Trading Centre on the East Coast of India, Ancient India, No.2, New Delhi 1956, pp. 17-124
  32. ^ Robert Caldwell, A Political and General History of the District of Tirunelveli in the Presidency of Madras, from the earliest period to its cession to the English Government in 1801 (Rpt) New Delhi, 1989, pp. 282-288
  33. ^ Syed Abdul Razack, Social and Cultural Life of the Carnatic Nawabs and Nobles — as gleaned through the Persian sources, unpublished M.Phil. thesis, University of Madras, 1980
  34. ^ Stephen F' Dale Recent Researches on the Islamic Communities of Peninsular India, Studies in South India, ed. Robert E. Frykenbers and Paulin Kolenda (Madras 1985)
  35. ^ Islam in Tamilnadu: Varia. (PDF) Retrieved on 2012-06-27.
  36. ^ 216 th year commemoration today: Remembering His Holiness Bukhary Thangal Sunday Observer – January 5, 2003. Online version accessed on 2009-08-14
  37. ^ The Diversity in Indian Islam. International.ucla.edu. Retrieved on 2012-06-27.
  38. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, London 1886, VIII p. 216; N. A. Ameer Ali, Vallal Seethakkathiyin Vaazhvum Kaalamum, Madras 1983, p. 30-31, Ka. Mu. Sheriff, Vallal Seethakkathi Varalaru, 1986, pp. 60-62, M. Idris Marakkayar, Nanilam Potrum Nannagar Keelakkarai, 1990
  39. ^ Durate Barbosa, The Book of Durate Barbosa: An Account of the Countries Bordering on the Indian Ocean and their Inhabitants, ed. M. L. Dames, London Hakluyt Society, 1980, II, p. 124
  40. ^ Tamil Muslim identity. Hindu.com (2004-10-12). Retrieved on 2012-06-27.
  41. ^ J.B.P.More (1 January 2004). Muslim Identity, Print Culture, and the Dravidian Factor in Tamil Nadu. Orient Blackswan. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-81-250-2632-7. Retrieved 27 June 2012. 
  42. ^ Islamic Voice (magazine)
  43. ^ Irandaam Jaamangalin Kathai. Hindu.com. Retrieved on 2012-06-27.
  44. ^ Rebel Poet in the Panchayat. Boloji.com (2004-06-26). Retrieved on 2012-06-27.
  45. ^ Islamic Foundation Trust(IFT). Ift-chennai.org. Retrieved on 2012-06-27.
  46. ^ Samarasam tamil Magazine. Samarasam.net. Retrieved on 2012-06-27.
  47. ^ J. H. Garstin, Manual of South Arcot District, Madras 1878, p. 408
  48. ^ A Manual of Madras Presidency (ed) C. D. Macleans, Madras 1885, II, p. 423
  49. ^ S. M. H. Nainar (Tr) Tuhfat-ul-Mujahidin of Zainuddin, University of Madras, 1942, p. 6; Arab Geographers' knowledge of South India, University of Madras, 1942, pp. 53-56
  50. ^ Business Line[dead link]
  51. ^ Kumar Suresh Singh (2004). People of India: Maharashtra. Popular Prakashan. pp. 1930–. ISBN 978-81-7991-102-0. Retrieved 27 June 2012. 

External links[edit]

Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License
Powered by YouTube
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2014