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Before the Liberation War, some educational institutions were established by notable persons in Tangail. Among those schools are Bindubasini Government Boys' High School (1880) and Bindubasini Government Girls' High School (1882). In 1926, the Sa'dat Government University College, Korotia, was established by Wazed Ali Khan Panni, a zamindar and one of the most prominent educationalists of Tangail. M.M. Ali Government College was established by Maulana Vasani at Kagmari (About 5 km away from the main city). Kumudini College was established in 1943 by Ranada Prasad Saha, a philanthropist of Tangail. Later the college was converted into Kumudini Government Women's College.
Currently, there are 5 government-run high schools in the city. Among those schools are the two Bindubasini Government schools (situated in the center of the town) as well as a Technical University 
Tangail rebrands its name through Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University situated at Santosh near Tangail Town. It is mainly a government financed public university of Bangladesh.It is named after the charismatic, legendary political leader of the country Mawlana Bhashani. This University is the first of its kind among the public universities in Bangladesh.
Recently a Government Medical institution named Tangail Medical College which is situated at Sabalia-a newly populated area of Tangail Town.
Tangail was once connected with Sirajganj by ferry leading to the western shore of the river at Sirajganj.
Tangail now has a station on a new broad gauge line of Bangladesh Railways which connects the western and eastern systems via the Jamuna Bridge. There is also a connecting road. Bus services are available from Mohakhali bus terminal such as Nirala super service, Jhatika paribahan, Dhalesswary and many more.
The Sweet known as Cham Cham originated with Porabari of Tangail. The sweet is very popular in the Indian subcontinent.
Nowadays the Sweet shops have been grown up in the heart of tangail town at shahid joglu road carrying the history of Porabari. "Gopal Mistanno Vander" and "Joykali Mistanno Vander" is the two most popular sweets shop in Tangail town. People whoever visits Tangail town always buy the sweets named Cham Cham for their Family Members and Relatives.
Abdul Mannan, Home and Health and Family Planning Minister of Bangladesh (1972-1975). He was one of the important organisers for Mujib Nagar Govt of 17 April 1971 at Meherpur. He was M.N.A in charge of Shadhin Bangla Betar Kendra. He was Presidium member of Bangladesh Awami League and worked as acting President of Bangladesh Awami League in absence of Party Chief Sheikh Hasina. He became M.P for the last time from Tangail-5 constituency in 1996 to 2001. He established and inaugurated Tangail Sadar Hospital with the help of a Swiss architect.He established Katoli High School, Atiya women's High School, Sheikh Fajilatunnessa women's High School, Tangail Science and technical University and many more. He had a dream to establish a Medical College in Tangail.
Nawab Ali Chowdhury, one of the members of the Nathan commission to establish Dhaka University.
Justice Abu Sayed Chowdhury, former president, Bangladesh, Vice chancellor of Dhaka University.
Sayhanul Ehit (Bengali: স।য়হ।নুল, born 1950 Tangail), was a fighter of the Bangladesh liberation and was a member of the Kaderia Bahini, a small but effective group which were able to carry out many successful guerrilla operations in Tangail. The Kaderia Bahini is notable for the capture of a Pakistani ship with large quantities of arms and ammunitions at Bhuapur. He fought alongside an estimated 50,000-strong army of civilians in the Tangail region against the Pakistan Army. When Kader Siddique, a famous fighter and organizer, was wounded at the Makrar battle near Balla village Sayhanul Ehit was his top aid helping his recovery. Shomit Mian (his side kick) was also popular. He was also a fighter from the Bangladesh Liberation War. He was a Bengali.