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Inside Oil Tankers - Documentary Films
Inside Oil Tankers - Documentary Films
Published: 2015/06/08
Channel: Documentary Films
Superships -  Launching a Leviathan
Superships - Launching a Leviathan
Published: 2016/12/27
Channel: Danvideos17
Supertankers | The Largest Ship Tankers - Geographic History
Supertankers | The Largest Ship Tankers - Geographic History
Published: 2015/10/27
Channel: Geographic History
Life At Sea | Living on tanker ship
Life At Sea | Living on tanker ship
Published: 2016/11/03
Channel: The Sea Lad
Tanker in big storm
Tanker in big storm
Published: 2009/05/19
Channel: tomislavseput
Collision: Two tanker Ships Nearly Collided at high sea
Collision: Two tanker Ships Nearly Collided at high sea
Published: 2016/07/22
Channel: Humans At Sea
[ SHIP WORLD SERIES ] SINKING OF SHIPS - TANKER VESSEL
[ SHIP WORLD SERIES ] SINKING OF SHIPS - TANKER VESSEL
Published: 2017/04/29
Channel: Ship World Series
How its Made - Oil Tanker Ships
How its Made - Oil Tanker Ships
Published: 2009/10/11
Channel: Jon M
World Biggest Ship - Jahre Viking Supertanker
World Biggest Ship - Jahre Viking Supertanker
Published: 2017/02/24
Channel: Planet Plus
Ship rolling | Life at Sea | Living on tanker | HD
Ship rolling | Life at Sea | Living on tanker | HD
Published: 2016/04/19
Channel: The Sea Lad
TOP 5 SHIPS CRASHING INTO SHORE
TOP 5 SHIPS CRASHING INTO SHORE
Published: 2014/12/28
Channel: megatubeuser8000
Beaching a large Ship (Oil Tanker)
Beaching a large Ship (Oil Tanker)
Published: 2017/03/23
Channel: Pushpendra Singh
Full loaded Oil Tanker in storm
Full loaded Oil Tanker in storm
Published: 2016/08/25
Channel: Claus Tuxen
Deck Cadet
Deck Cadet's Life Onboard a Tanker Vessel
Published: 2016/06/10
Channel: Ripken Ilumin
ASIAN PROGRESS V OILTANKER SHIP VLCC タンカー
ASIAN PROGRESS V OILTANKER SHIP VLCC タンカー
Published: 2016/07/22
Channel: insatsuya's hobbybox
The life of seaman inside Tanker vessel
The life of seaman inside Tanker vessel
Published: 2017/02/25
Channel: seaman page
SHOCKING VIDEO - Big Oil Tanker Ship Fire Accidents At Sea
SHOCKING VIDEO - Big Oil Tanker Ship Fire Accidents At Sea
Published: 2016/11/03
Channel: Global Trends
Tanker Ship Arrival to New York | Time Lapse HD
Tanker Ship Arrival to New York | Time Lapse HD
Published: 2017/08/17
Channel: The Sea Lad
Big Tanker Ship in Extreme Storm With Heavy Winds
Big Tanker Ship in Extreme Storm With Heavy Winds
Published: 2014/02/17
Channel: marineinsight
Super Tanker: LNG Carrier
Super Tanker: LNG Carrier
Published: 2015/01/07
Channel: Badfish Castle
Tanker Ship Passing Bridge | Drone View | HD
Tanker Ship Passing Bridge | Drone View | HD
Published: 2016/11/06
Channel: The Sea Lad
Inside The Bridge On A Product Tanker | Life at Sea | HD
Inside The Bridge On A Product Tanker | Life at Sea | HD
Published: 2016/04/15
Channel: The Sea Lad
Safe Loading Operations
Safe Loading Operations
Published: 2012/06/29
Channel: Chamber of Shipping
Container Ship collided with Tanker ship
Container Ship collided with Tanker ship
Published: 2017/09/19
Channel: Humans At Sea
On-board poisoned tanker: Footage from stricken ship
On-board poisoned tanker: Footage from stricken ship
Published: 2011/10/13
Channel: RT
FSO CRUDE OIL TANKER - TOUR OF ENGINE ROOM
FSO CRUDE OIL TANKER - TOUR OF ENGINE ROOM
Published: 2015/06/30
Channel: samreyy
Oil Tanker - Ship cleaning operation
Oil Tanker - Ship cleaning operation
Published: 2013/02/15
Channel: Animation Studio
TANKER SHIP TO SHIP OPERATION (STS)
TANKER SHIP TO SHIP OPERATION (STS)
Published: 2016/11/04
Channel: CAPTAIN MARINE
Tanker ship inspection
Tanker ship inspection
Published: 2015/12/18
Channel: Michel Pisani
How it looks inside Crude Oil Tanker  - On board Video Tour
How it looks inside Crude Oil Tanker - On board Video Tour
Published: 2017/12/07
Channel: The Sea Lad
3D Animation & Motion Graphics Explainer Video - Evolution of a Super Tanker - Teekay Shipping
3D Animation & Motion Graphics Explainer Video - Evolution of a Super Tanker - Teekay Shipping
Published: 2012/08/09
Channel: Go2 Productions
Chemical tanker ship collides with massive South Korean freighter
Chemical tanker ship collides with massive South Korean freighter
Published: 2014/01/29
Channel: TomoNews US
Tanker Ship in Extreme Storm With Heavy Winds
Tanker Ship in Extreme Storm With Heavy Winds
Published: 2017/01/23
Channel: Ferkin reynan
Marchant navy -ll OIL TANKER SHIPS
Marchant navy -ll OIL TANKER SHIPS
Published: 2017/09/09
Channel: MARCHANT NAVY LIFES
Tanker ship (MT. NONA TANG II ex ISTANA V) explode at the time of the cleaning tank
Tanker ship (MT. NONA TANG II ex ISTANA V) explode at the time of the cleaning tank
Published: 2016/11/16
Channel: Akdi Pati
Hurricane Sandy: Huge Tanker Ship Ashore in NY on Front Street
Hurricane Sandy: Huge Tanker Ship Ashore in NY on Front Street
Published: 2012/10/30
Channel: Mr. Viral News
MERCHANT SHIP TANKER MAIN DECK TOUR
MERCHANT SHIP TANKER MAIN DECK TOUR
Published: 2012/09/21
Channel: MarinersPlanetStudio
Oil Tanker - Anatomy - Basics
Oil Tanker - Anatomy - Basics
Published: 2012/11/23
Channel: Sriram Balasubramanian
Emergency 20 (2018) - Tanker Ship Catastrophe! Gameplay 4K
Emergency 20 (2018) - Tanker Ship Catastrophe! Gameplay 4K
Published: 2017/11/02
Channel: dann462
Bridge of an chemical tanker
Bridge of an chemical tanker
Published: 2010/04/27
Channel: Jasper van Stratum
30 Days Timelapse at Sea | 4K | Through Thunderstorms, Torrential Rain & Busy Traffic
30 Days Timelapse at Sea | 4K | Through Thunderstorms, Torrential Rain & Busy Traffic
Published: 2017/09/10
Channel: JeffHK
Oil Tanker Sinks | Ship Simulator Extremes
Oil Tanker Sinks | Ship Simulator Extremes
Published: 2013/09/23
Channel: TheRaygan: Simulación Aérea
tanker ship video
tanker ship video
Published: 2006/12/12
Channel: capts
Oil tanker ship passing by Changi Beach...
Oil tanker ship passing by Changi Beach...
Published: 2016/03/08
Channel: Panggilan Sayup
Tanker ship runs aground in Delaware River near Burlington Bristol Bridge EXCLUSIVE!!!   YouTube
Tanker ship runs aground in Delaware River near Burlington Bristol Bridge EXCLUSIVE!!! YouTube
Published: 2015/04/02
Channel: Jacklyn Shirleen
Merchant Navy Oil Tanker - Accommodations in Ship - Must Watch
Merchant Navy Oil Tanker - Accommodations in Ship - Must Watch
Published: 2010/03/24
Channel: Pushpendra Singh
Small Oil tanker ship passing in fortkochi kerala
Small Oil tanker ship passing in fortkochi kerala
Published: 2016/09/12
Channel: Livekerala
Oil chemical Tanker Ship Golden Energy Puma
Oil chemical Tanker Ship Golden Energy Puma
Published: 2015/09/02
Channel: Aerial Drone Horizon
Tanker ship looped
Tanker ship looped
Published: 2016/11/10
Channel: J Edward P
Iran launches indigenous ocean-going tanker ship
Iran launches indigenous ocean-going tanker ship
Published: 2013/02/25
Channel: IR Iran
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Commercial crude oil supertanker AbQaiq

A tanker (or tank ship or tankship) is a merchant vessel designed to transport liquids or gases in bulk. Major types of tankship include the oil tanker, the chemical tanker, and gas carrier. In the United States Navy and Military Sealift Command, any type of tanker used to refuel other ships is called an oiler.

Background[edit]

Tankers can range in size of capacity from several hundred tons, which includes vessels for servicing small harbours and coastal settlements, to several hundred thousand tons, for long-range haulage. Besides ocean- or seagoing tankers there are also specialized inland-waterway tankers which operate on rivers and canals with an average cargo capacity up to some thousand tons. A wide range of products are carried by tankers, including:

The Thomas W. Lawson (1902), converted in 1906 into the world's first sailing tanker.

Tankers are a relatively new concept, dating from the later years of the 19th century. Before this, technology had simply not supported the idea of carrying bulk liquids. The market was also not geared towards transporting or selling cargo in bulk, therefore most ships carried a wide range of different products in different holds and traded outside fixed routes. Liquids were usually loaded in casks—hence the term "tonnage", which refers to the volume of the holds in terms of how many tuns or casks of wine could be carried. Even potable water, vital for the survival of the crew, was stowed in casks. Carrying bulk liquids in earlier ships posed several problems:

  • The holds: on timber ships the holds were not sufficiently water, oil or air-tight to prevent a liquid cargo from spoiling or leaking. The development of iron and steel hulls solved this problem.
  • Loading and discharging: Bulk liquids must be pumped - the development of efficient pumps and piping systems was vital to the development of the tanker. Steam engines were developed as prime-movers for early pumping systems. Dedicated cargo handling facilities were now required ashore too - as was a market for receiving a product in that quantity. Casks could be unloaded using ordinary cranes, and the awkward nature of the casks meant that the volume of liquid was always relatively small - therefore keeping the market more stable.
  • Free Surface Effect: a large body of liquid carried aboard a ship will impact on the ship's stability, particularly when the liquid is flowing around the hold or tank in response to the ship's movements. The effect was negligible in casks, but could cause capsizing if the tank extended the width of the ship; a problem solved by extensive subdivision of the tanks.

Tankers were first used by the oil industry to transfer refined fuel in bulk from refineries to customers. This would then be stored in large tanks ashore, and subdivided for delivery to individual locations. The use of tankers caught on because other liquids were also cheaper to transport in bulk, store in dedicated terminals, then subdivide. Even the Guinness brewery used tankers to transport the stout across the Irish Sea.

A US Navy T2 tanker in 1943

Different products require different handling and transport, with specialised variants such as "chemical tankers", "oil tankers", and "LNG carriers" developed to handle dangerous chemicals, oil and oil-derived products, and liquefied natural gas respectively. These broad variants may be further differentiated with respect to ability to carry only a single product or simultaneously transport mixed cargoes such as several different chemicals or refined petroleum products.[1] Among oil tankers, supertankers are designed for transporting oil around the Horn of Africa from the Middle East. The supertanker Seawise Giant, scrapped in 2010, was 458 meters (1,503 ft) in length and 69 meters (226 ft) wide. Supertankers are one of the three preferred methods for transporting large quantities of oil, along with pipeline transport and rail.

Despite being highly regulated, tankers have been involved in environmental disasters resulting from oil spills. See Amoco Cadiz, Braer, Erika, Exxon Valdez, Prestige oil spill and Torrey Canyon for examples of coastal accidents.

Design considerations[edit]

Many modern tankers are designed for a specific cargo and a specific route. Draft is typically limited by the depth of water in loading and unloading harbors; and may be limited by the depth of straits along the preferred shipping route. Cargoes with high vapor pressure at ambient temperatures may require pressurized tanks or vapor recovery systems. Tank heaters may be required to maintain heavy crude oil, residual fuel, asphalt, wax, or molasses in a fluid state for offloading.[2]

Tanker capacity[edit]

Tankers used for liquid fuels are classified according to their capacity.

The small coastal tanker Pegasus on the River Weser
The Very Large Crude Carrier (VLCC) MV Sirius Star in 2008 after her capture by Somali pirates

In 1954, Shell Oil developed the average freight rate assessment (AFRA) system which classifies tankers of different sizes. To make it an independent instrument, Shell consulted the London Tanker Brokers’ Panel (LTBP). At first, they divided the groups as General Purpose for tankers under 25,000 tons deadweight (DWT); Medium Range for ships between 25,000 and 45,000 DWT and Large Range for the then-enormous ships that were larger than 45,000 DWT. The ships became larger during the 1970s, and the list was extended, where the tons are long tons:[3]

  • 10,000–24,999 DWT: Small tanker
  • 25,000–34,999 DWT: Intermediate tanker
  • 35,000–44,999 DWT: Medium Range 1 (MR1)
  • 45,000–54,999 DWT: Medium Range 2 (MR2)
  • 55,000–79,999 DWT: Large Range 1 (LR1)
  • 80,000–159,999 DWT: Large Range 2 (LR2)
  • 160,000–319,999 DWT: Very Large Crude Carrier (VLCC)
  • 320,000–549,999 DWT: Ultra Large Crude Carrier (ULCC)

Very Large Crude Carrier Size Range

At nearly 380 vessels in the size range 279,000 t DWT to 320,000 t DWT, these are by far the most popular size range among the larger VLCCs. Only seven vessels are larger than this, and approximately 90 between 220,000 t DWT and 279,000 t DWT.[4]

Distribution of supertanker sizes.png

Fleets of the world[edit]

Flag states

As of 2005, the United States Maritime Administration's statistics count 4,024 tankers of 10,000 LT DWT or greater worldwide.[5] 2,582 of these are double-hulled. Panama is the leading flag state of tankers with 592 registered ships. Five other flag states have more than two hundred registered tankers: Liberia (520), The Marshall Islands (323), Greece (233), Singapore (274) and The Bahamas (215). These flag states are also the top six in terms of fleet size in terms of deadweight tonnage.[5]

Largest fleets

Greece, Japan, and the United States are the top three owners of tankers (including those owned but registered to other nations), with 733, 394, and 311 vessels respectively. These three nations account for 1,438 vessels or over 36% of the world's fleet.[5]

Builders

Asian companies dominate the construction of tankers. Of the world's 4,024 tankers, 2,822 or over 70% were built in South Korea, Japan or China.[5]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Morrell, p.1
  2. ^ Morrell, pp.1&8
  3. ^ Evangelista, Joe, Ed. (Winter 2002). "Scaling the Tanker Market" (PDF). Surveyor. American Bureau of Shipping (4): 5–11. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2008-02-27. 
  4. ^ Auke Visser (22 February 2007). "Tanker list, status 01-01-2007". International Super Tankers. Retrieved 2008-02-27. 
  5. ^ a b c d Office of Data and Economic Analysis (July 2006). "World Merchant Fleet 2001–2005" (.PDF). United States Maritime Administration: 3, 5, 6. Retrieved 2008-02-27. 

References[edit]

  • Central Intelligence Agency. CIA World Factbook 2008. New York: Skyhorse Publishing. ISBN 1-60239-080-0. Retrieved 2008-02-27. 
  • Encyclopædia Britannica (1911). "Petroleum". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 21 (Eleventh ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 316–322. OCLC 70608430. Retrieved 2008-02-22. 
  • Encyclopædia Britannica (1911). "Ship". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 24 (Eleventh ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 881–889. OCLC 70608430. Retrieved 2008-02-22. 
  • Hayler, William B.; Keever, John M. (2003). American Merchant Seaman's Manual. Centerville, MD: Cornell Maritime Press. ISBN 0-87033-549-9. 
  • Morrell, Robert W. (1931). Oil Tankers (Second ed.). New York: Simmons-Boardman Publishing Company. 
  • Turpin, Edward A.; McEwen, William A. (1980). Merchant Marine Officers' Handbook (Fourth ed.). Centreville, MD: Cornell Maritime Press. ISBN 0870333798. 
  • Wiltshire, Andrew (2008). Looking Back at Classic Tankers. Bristol, England: Bernard McCall. ISBN 9781902953366. 

External links[edit]

  • ship-photos.de: Private homepage of categorized ship photos including tankers of all kinds

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