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Telescope - Cage The Elephant
Telescope - Cage The Elephant
Published: 2013/10/07
Channel: Baha Ata
Testing Out The New Telescope - Astronomy, The Journey Begins
Testing Out The New Telescope - Astronomy, The Journey Begins
Published: 2017/01/21
Channel: rickvanman
How To Choose A Beginner Telescope
How To Choose A Beginner Telescope
Published: 2010/11/12
Channel: Orion Telescopes & Binoculars
Starset - Telescope (audio)
Starset - Telescope (audio)
Published: 2014/07/28
Channel: starsetVEVO
Mars, Saturn & Jupiter through my telescope
Mars, Saturn & Jupiter through my telescope
Published: 2010/11/12
Channel: Mike White
Which telescope to buy?
Which telescope to buy?
Published: 2010/12/17
Channel: Thunderf00t
Hayden Panettiere - Telescope
Hayden Panettiere - Telescope
Published: 2012/11/20
Channel: HaydenPanettiereVEVO
14" Telescope view of Jupiter Venus Conjunction, The Moon, Planetary Nebulae and Galaxies
14" Telescope view of Jupiter Venus Conjunction, The Moon, Planetary Nebulae and Galaxies
Published: 2015/07/09
Channel: Dark Centre
Golden Features - Telescope (feat. K. Flay)
Golden Features - Telescope (feat. K. Flay)
Published: 2017/03/13
Channel: CloudKid
Telescopes: Crash Course Astronomy #6
Telescopes: Crash Course Astronomy #6
Published: 2015/02/19
Channel: CrashCourse
10 Best Telescopes 2017
10 Best Telescopes 2017
Published: 2017/03/17
Channel: Ezvid Wiki
Live Footage of Every Planet In Our Solar System Plus Earth
Live Footage of Every Planet In Our Solar System Plus Earth's Moon In My Telescope
Published: 2016/08/16
Channel: Computers Tech wassup2190 Tips Tricks Tutorial
Latest Video From Earth Telescope Reveals The Moon Is More Than You Think?
Latest Video From Earth Telescope Reveals The Moon Is More Than You Think?
Published: 2016/05/10
Channel: Higher Truth Channel
"Choosing Your First Telescope" with J. Kelly Beatty
"Choosing Your First Telescope" with J. Kelly Beatty
Published: 2013/12/27
Channel: CfAPress
How to Make a Telescope from Scratch
How to Make a Telescope from Scratch
Published: 2017/04/13
Channel: How To Make Everything
Connecting a  Nikon DSLR Camera to a Telescope
Connecting a Nikon DSLR Camera to a Telescope
Published: 2014/07/17
Channel: scannerguy1968
Telescopes of Tomorrow | Space Time
Telescopes of Tomorrow | Space Time
Published: 2017/02/15
Channel: PBS Space Time
FLAT EARTH - EXPERIMENT - TELESCOPE
FLAT EARTH - EXPERIMENT - TELESCOPE
Published: 2016/08/02
Channel: Alex Chertnik
Wiz Khalifa - Telescope ft. 50 Cent
Wiz Khalifa - Telescope ft. 50 Cent
Published: 2012/06/21
Channel: TaylorAlIderdice
UFO ALIEN Sightings By My Telescope (Explanation) Color Night Vision Camera
UFO ALIEN Sightings By My Telescope (Explanation) Color Night Vision Camera
Published: 2017/08/15
Channel: UFOvni2012
FAST: The World
FAST: The World's Largest Telescope | A China Icons Video
Published: 2016/09/25
Channel: China Icons
Unboxing: OneSky 130 – Best Inexpensive Telescope 4K Video
Unboxing: OneSky 130 – Best Inexpensive Telescope 4K Video
Published: 2016/02/01
Channel: VideoFromSpace
Marcus Warner - Telescope
Marcus Warner - Telescope
Published: 2015/01/06
Channel: MusicSupremacy
26 of the Best Images Captured by The Hubble Space Telescope
26 of the Best Images Captured by The Hubble Space Telescope
Published: 2015/03/23
Channel: Beyond Science
ANGRY GRANDPA SMASHES TELESCOPE!!
ANGRY GRANDPA SMASHES TELESCOPE!!
Published: 2015/05/09
Channel: TheAngryGrandpaShow
Telescope Basics 2 (of 6): Learn to calculate magnification for a telescope/understand focal ratios
Telescope Basics 2 (of 6): Learn to calculate magnification for a telescope/understand focal ratios
Published: 2012/05/01
Channel: Eyes on the Sky
How To Make DIY Telescope - Experiment At Home
How To Make DIY Telescope - Experiment At Home
Published: 2016/09/01
Channel: Experiment at Home
C
C'est pas sorcier -VERY LARGE TELESCOPE: l'Univers dans un miroir
Published: 2013/05/21
Channel: C'est pas sorcier
World
World's Largest Amateur Telescope
Published: 2016/04/22
Channel: El Grande
How to Make a Telescope - 8 Inch Newtonian Reflector (Part 1)
How to Make a Telescope - 8 Inch Newtonian Reflector (Part 1)
Published: 2016/03/22
Channel: epicfantasy
Measuring Earth
Measuring Earth's Radius With A Telescope?
Published: 2017/04/23
Channel: Cody'sLab
Telescope Basics 1 (of 6): Top three telescope types explained
Telescope Basics 1 (of 6): Top three telescope types explained
Published: 2012/05/01
Channel: Eyes on the Sky
TOUT SUR LES TELESCOPES
TOUT SUR LES TELESCOPES
Published: 2016/11/25
Channel: Stardust - La Chaîne Espace
James Webb Space Telescope - Sixty Symbols
James Webb Space Telescope - Sixty Symbols
Published: 2017/05/18
Channel: Sixty Symbols
Attaching a DSLR to a Telescope with views of Jupiter and the Moon
Attaching a DSLR to a Telescope with views of Jupiter and the Moon
Published: 2016/10/08
Channel: scannerguy1968
Go Inside a Telescope Mirror Factory | To a Billionth of a Meter
Go Inside a Telescope Mirror Factory | To a Billionth of a Meter
Published: 2014/12/01
Channel: National Geographic
Moon in High Resolution through Telescope
Moon in High Resolution through Telescope
Published: 2015/05/03
Channel: J.W.Astronomy
Big Bigger Biggest - Telescope HD (S2, Ep. 10)
Big Bigger Biggest - Telescope HD (S2, Ep. 10)
Published: 2016/02/13
Channel: Jose Hernandez
TheFatRat - Telescope
TheFatRat - Telescope
Published: 2015/10/09
Channel: TheFatRat
How Do Telescopes Work? - Earth Lab
How Do Telescopes Work? - Earth Lab
Published: 2017/05/18
Channel: BBC Earth Lab
STARS through Telescope: Arcturus,Procyon; Astronomy;HOW STARS REALLY LOOK LIKE ;Zvezde
STARS through Telescope: Arcturus,Procyon; Astronomy;HOW STARS REALLY LOOK LIKE ;Zvezde
Published: 2016/12/02
Channel: Serbian Conspiracy
Sony A6500 TELESCOPE MOUNT!
Sony A6500 TELESCOPE MOUNT!
Published: 2017/02/11
Channel: Christopher Burress
Save The Last Great Telescope
Save The Last Great Telescope
Published: 2012/09/27
Channel: VICE
make a DIY Homemade 11x Telescope!
make a DIY Homemade 11x Telescope!
Published: 2015/08/15
Channel: humza6951
Cage the Elephant performing "Telescope" Live on KCRW
Cage the Elephant performing "Telescope" Live on KCRW
Published: 2014/04/16
Channel: KCRW
How It
How It's Made - Telescopes
Published: 2012/03/18
Channel: Panos Egglezos
Cage The Elephant - Telescope (Unpeeled) (Live Video)
Cage The Elephant - Telescope (Unpeeled) (Live Video)
Published: 2017/07/28
Channel: CageTheElephantVEVO
A New Era in Astronomy: NASA
A New Era in Astronomy: NASA's James Webb Space Telescope
Published: 2017/03/02
Channel: Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics
The Lynx Space Telescope: Our Next Flagship to Probe the X-Ray Universe
The Lynx Space Telescope: Our Next Flagship to Probe the X-Ray Universe
Published: 2017/08/17
Channel: Deep Astronomy
How to Make a Reflector Telescope Part 1 (4 inch Newtonian Reflector)
How to Make a Reflector Telescope Part 1 (4 inch Newtonian Reflector)
Published: 2012/06/01
Channel: epicfantasy
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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The 100 inch (2.54 m) Hooker reflecting telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory near Los Angeles, USA.

A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light). The first known practical telescopes were invented in the Netherlands at the beginning of the 17th century, by using glass lenses. They found use in both terrestrial applications and astronomy.

Within a few decades, the reflecting telescope was invented, which used mirrors to collect and focus the light. In the 20th century, many new types of telescopes were invented, including radio telescopes in the 1930s and infrared telescopes in the 1960s. The word telescope now refers to a wide range of instruments capable of detecting different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, and in some cases other types of detectors.

The word telescope (from the Ancient Greek τῆλε, tele "far" and σκοπεῖν, skopein "to look or see"; τηλεσκόπος, teleskopos "far-seeing") was coined in 1611 by the Greek mathematician Giovanni Demisiani for one of Galileo Galilei's instruments presented at a banquet at the Accademia dei Lincei.[1][2][3] In the Starry Messenger, Galileo had used the term perspicillum.

History[edit]

The "onion" dome at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich housing a 28-inch refracting telescope with a remaining segment of William Herschel's 120-centimetre (47 in) diameter reflecting telescope (called the "40-foot telescope" due to its focal length) in the foreground.

The earliest existing record of a telescope was a 1608 patent submitted to the government in the Netherlands by Middelburg spectacle maker Hans Lippershey for a refracting telescope.[4] The actual inventor is unknown but word of it spread through Europe. Galileo heard about it and, in 1609, built his own version, and made his telescopic observations of celestial objects.[5][6]

The idea that the objective, or light-gathering element, could be a mirror instead of a lens was being investigated soon after the invention of the refracting telescope.[7] The potential advantages of using parabolic mirrors—reduction of spherical aberration and no chromatic aberration—led to many proposed designs and several attempts to build reflecting telescopes.[8] In 1668, Isaac Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope, of a design which now bears his name, the Newtonian reflector.

The invention of the achromatic lens in 1733 partially corrected color aberrations present in the simple lens and enabled the construction of shorter, more functional refracting telescopes. Reflecting telescopes, though not limited by the color problems seen in refractors, were hampered by the use of fast tarnishing speculum metal mirrors employed during the 18th and early 19th century—a problem alleviated by the introduction of silver coated glass mirrors in 1857,[9] and aluminized mirrors in 1932.[10] The maximum physical size limit for refracting telescopes is about 1 meter (40 inches), dictating that the vast majority of large optical researching telescopes built since the turn of the 20th century have been reflectors. The largest reflecting telescopes currently have objectives larger than 10 m (33 feet), and work is underway on several 30-40m designs.

The 20th century also saw the development of telescopes that worked in a wide range of wavelengths from radio to gamma-rays. The first purpose built radio telescope went into operation in 1937. Since then, a tremendous variety of complex astronomical instruments have been developed.

Types[edit]

The primary mirror assembly of James Webb Space Telescope under construction. This is a segmented mirror and its coated with Gold to reflect (orange-red) visible light, through near-infrared to the mid-infrared

The name "telescope" covers a wide range of instruments. Most detect electromagnetic radiation, but there are major differences in how astronomers must go about collecting light (electromagnetic radiation) in different frequency bands.

Telescopes may be classified by the wavelengths of light they detect:

As wavelengths become longer, it becomes easier to use antenna technology to interact with electromagnetic radiation (although it is possible to make very tiny antenna). The near-infrared can be collected much like visible light, however in the far-infrared and submillimetre range, telescopes can operate more like a radio telescope. For example, the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope observes from wavelengths from 3 μm (0.003 mm) to 2000 μm (2 mm), but uses a parabolic aluminum antenna.[11] On the other hand, the Spitzer Space Telescope, observing from about 3 μm (0.003 mm) to 180 μm (0.18 mm) uses a mirror (reflecting optics). Also using reflecting optics, the Hubble Space Telescope with Wide Field Camera 3 can observe in the frequency range from about 0.2 μm (0.0002 mm) to 1.7 μm (0.0017 mm) (from ultra-violet to infrared light).[12]

At the photon energy of shorter wavelengths (higher frequency), glancing-incident optics, rather than fully reflecting optics are used. Telescopes such as TRACE and SOHO use special mirrors to reflect Extreme ultraviolet, producing higher resolution and brighter images than are otherwise possible. A larger aperture does not just mean that more light is collected, it also enables a finer angular resolution.

Telescopes may also be classified by location: ground telescope, space telescope, or flying telescope. They may also be classified by whether they are operated by professional astronomers or amateur astronomers. A vehicle or permanent campus containing one or more telescopes or other instruments is called an observatory.

Modern telescopes typically use CCDs instead of film for recording images. This is the sensor array in the Kepler spacecraft.
Light Comparison
Name Wavelength Frequency (Hz) Photon Energy (eV)
Gamma ray less than 0.01 nm more than 10 EHZ 100 keV – 300+ GeV X
X-Ray 0.01 to 10 nm 30 EHz – 30 PHZ 120 eV to 120 keV X
Ultraviolet 10 nm – 400 nm 30 PHZ – 790 THz 3 eV to 124 eV
Visible 390 nm – 750 nm 790 THz – 405 THz 1.7 eV – 3.3 eV X
Infrared 750 nm – 1 mm 405 THz – 300 GHz 1.24 meV – 1.7 eV X
Microwave 1 mm – 1 meter 300 GHz – 300 MHz 1.24 meV – 1.24 µeV
Radio 1 mm – km 300 GHz3 Hz 1.24 meV – 12.4 feV X

Optical telescopes[edit]

50 cm refracting telescope at Nice Observatory.

An optical telescope gathers and focuses light mainly from the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum (although some work in the infrared and ultraviolet).[13] Optical telescopes increase the apparent angular size of distant objects as well as their apparent brightness. In order for the image to be observed, photographed, studied, and sent to a computer, telescopes work by employing one or more curved optical elements, usually made from glass lenses and/or mirrors, to gather light and other electromagnetic radiation to bring that light or radiation to a focal point. Optical telescopes are used for astronomy and in many non-astronomical instruments, including: theodolites (including transits), spotting scopes, monoculars, binoculars, camera lenses, and spyglasses. There are three main optical types:

Beyond these basic optical types there are many sub-types of varying optical design classified by the task they perform such as astrographs, comet seekers, solar telescope, etc.

Radio telescopes[edit]

The Very Large Array at Socorro, New Mexico, United States.

Radio telescopes are directional radio antennas used for radio astronomy. The dishes are sometimes constructed of a conductive wire mesh whose openings are smaller than the wavelength being observed. Multi-element Radio telescopes are constructed from pairs or larger groups of these dishes to synthesize large 'virtual' apertures that are similar in size to the separation between the telescopes; this process is known as aperture synthesis. As of 2005, the current record array size is many times the width of the Earth—utilizing space-based Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) telescopes such as the Japanese HALCA (Highly Advanced Laboratory for Communications and Astronomy) VSOP (VLBI Space Observatory Program) satellite. Aperture synthesis is now also being applied to optical telescopes using optical interferometers (arrays of optical telescopes) and aperture masking interferometry at single reflecting telescopes. Radio telescopes are also used to collect microwave radiation, which is used to collect radiation when any visible light is obstructed or faint, such as from quasars. Some radio telescopes are used by programs such as SETI and the Arecibo Observatory to search for extraterrestrial life.

X-ray telescopes[edit]

Einstein Observatory was a space-based focusing optical X-ray telescope from 1978.[14]

X-ray telescopes can use X-ray optics, such as a Wolter telescopes composed of ring-shaped 'glancing' mirrors made of heavy metals that are able to reflect the rays just a few degrees. The mirrors are usually a section of a rotated parabola and a hyperbola, or ellipse. In 1952, Hans Wolter outlined 3 ways a telescope could be built using only this kind of mirror.[15][16] Examples of an observatory using this type of telescope are the Einstein Observatory, ROSAT, and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. By 2010, Wolter focusing X-ray telescopes are possible up to 79 keV.[14]

Gamma-ray telescopes[edit]

Higher energy X-ray and Gamma-ray telescopes refrain from focusing completely and use coded aperture masks: the patterns of the shadow the mask creates can be reconstructed to form an image.

X-ray and Gamma-ray telescopes are usually on Earth-orbiting satellites or high-flying balloons since the Earth's atmosphere is opaque to this part of the electromagnetic spectrum. However, high energy X-rays and gamma-rays do not form an image in the same way as telescopes at visible wavelengths. An example of this type of telescope is the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.

The detection of very high energy gamma rays, with shorter wavelength and higher frequency than regular gamma rays, requires further specialization. An example of this type of observatory is VERITAS. Very high energy gamma-rays are still photons, like visible light, whereas cosmic rays includes particles like electrons, protons, and heavier nuclei.

A discovery in 2012 may allow focusing gamma-ray telescopes.[17] At photon energies greater than 700 keV, the index of refraction starts to increase again.[17]

High-energy particle telescopes[edit]

High-energy astronomy requires specialized telescopes to make observations since most of these particles go through most metals and glasses.

In other types of high energy particle telescopes there is no image-forming optical system. Cosmic-ray telescopes usually consist of an array of different detector types spread out over a large area. A Neutrino telescope consists of a large mass of water or ice, surrounded by an array of sensitive light detectors known as photomultiplier tubes. Originating direction of the neutrinos is determined by reconstructing the path of secondary particles scattered by neutrino impacts, from their interaction with multiple detectors. Energetic neutral atom observatories like Interstellar Boundary Explorer detect particles traveling at certain energies.

Other types of telescopes[edit]

Equatorial-mounted Keplerian telescope

Astronomy is not limited to using electromagnetic radiation. Additional information can be obtained using other media. The detectors used to observe the Universe are analogous to telescopes. These are:

Types of mount[edit]

A telescope mount is a mechanical structure which supports a telescope. Telescope mounts are designed to support the mass of the telescope and allow for accurate pointing of the instrument. Many sorts of mounts have been developed over the years, with the majority of effort being put into systems that can track the motion of the stars as the Earth rotates. The two main types of tracking mount are:

Atmospheric electromagnetic opacity[edit]

Since the atmosphere is opaque for most of the electromagnetic spectrum, only a few bands can be observed from the Earth's surface. These bands are visible – near-infrared and a portion of the radio-wave part of the spectrum. For this reason there are no X-ray or far-infrared ground-based telescopes as these have to be observed from orbit. Even if a wavelength is observable from the ground, it might still be advantageous to place a telescope on a satellite due to astronomical seeing.

A diagram of the electromagnetic spectrum with the Earth's atmospheric transmittance (or opacity) and the types of telescopes used to image parts of the spectrum.

Telescopic image from different telescope types[edit]

Different types of telescope, operating in different wavelength bands, provide different information about the same object. Together they provide a more comprehensive understanding.

A 6′ wide view of the Crab nebula supernova remnant, viewed at different wavelengths of light by various telescopes

By spectrum[edit]

Telescopes that operate in the electromagnetic spectrum:

Name Telescope Astronomy Wavelength
Radio Radio telescope Radio astronomy
(Radar astronomy)
more than 1 mm
Submillimetre Submillimetre telescopes* Submillimetre astronomy 0.1 mm – 1 mm
Far Infrared Far-infrared astronomy 30 µm – 450 µm
Infrared Infrared telescope Infrared astronomy 700 nm – 1 mm
Visible Visible spectrum telescopes Visible-light astronomy 400 nm – 700 nm
Ultraviolet Ultraviolet telescopes* Ultraviolet astronomy 10 nm – 400 nm
X-ray X-ray telescope X-ray astronomy 0.01 nm – 10 nm
Gamma-ray Gamma-ray astronomy less than 0.01 nm

*Links to categories.

Lists of telescopes[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ archive.org "Galileo His Life And Work" BY James La Rosa "Galileo usually called the telescope occhicde or cannocchiale ; and now he calls the microscope occhialino. The name telescope was first suggested by Demisiani in 1612"
  2. ^ Sobel (2000, p.43), Drake (1978, p.196)
  3. ^ Rosen, Edward, The Naming of the Telescope (1947)
  4. ^ galileo.rice.edu The Galileo Project > Science > The Telescope by Al Van Helden: The Hague discussed the patent applications first of Hans Lipperhey of Middelburg, and then of Jacob Metius of Alkmaar... another citizen of Middelburg, Zacharias Janssen is sometimes associated with the invention
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ Aleck Loker, Profiles in Colonial History, page 15
  7. ^ Stargazer – By Fred Watson, Inc. NetLibrary, Page 109
  8. ^ Attempts by Niccolò Zucchi and James Gregory and theoretical designs by Bonaventura Cavalieri, Marin Mersenne, and Gregory among others
  9. ^ madehow.com – Inventor Biographies – Jean-Bernard-Léon Foucault Biography (1819–1868)
  10. ^ Bakich sample pages chapter 2, page 3: "John Donavan Strong, a young physicist at the California Institute of Technology, was one of the first to coat a mirror with aluminum. He did it by thermal vacuum evaporation. The first mirror he aluminized, in 1932, is the earliest known example of a telescope mirror coated by this technique."
  11. ^ ASTROLab du parc national du Mont-Mégantic. "The James-Clerk-Maxwell Observatory". Canada under the stars. Retrieved 2017-04-16. 
  12. ^ "Hubble's Instruments: WFC3 - Wide Field Camera 3". www.spacetelescope.org. Retrieved 2017-04-16. 
  13. ^ Jones, Barrie W. (2 September 2008). The Search for Life Continued: Planets Around Other Stars. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9780387765594. 
  14. ^ a b NuStar: Instrumentation: Optics
  15. ^ Wolter, H. (1952), "Glancing Incidence Mirror Systems as Imaging Optics for X-rays", Annalen der Physik, 10: 94, Bibcode:1952AnP...445...94W, doi:10.1002/andp.19524450108. 
  16. ^ Wolter, H. (1952), "A Generalized Schwarschild Mirror Systems For Use at Glancing Incidence for X-ray Imaging", Annalen der Physik, 10 (4–5): 286, Bibcode:1952AnP...445..286W, doi:10.1002/andp.19524450410. 
  17. ^ a b Tim Wogan – Silicon 'prism' bends gamma rays (May 2012) – PhysicsWorld.com

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]

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