Share
VIDEOS 1 TO 50
Tendai Buddhism
Tendai Buddhism
Published: 2011/02/20
Channel: jimbom2195
Tendai Master
Tendai Master
Published: 2011/10/03
Channel: TheDikir
Demo pecah botol kursus tendai
Demo pecah botol kursus tendai
Published: 2013/01/03
Channel: Master Tendai Power
Beast Mode 2.0 - Tendai Mtawarira Feats of Strength
Beast Mode 2.0 - Tendai Mtawarira Feats of Strength
Published: 2016/08/21
Channel: SuperSport
Pernafasan dan sedikit Perkongsian Ttg Elmu TENDAI
Pernafasan dan sedikit Perkongsian Ttg Elmu TENDAI
Published: 2014/11/25
Channel: aura Crystal
Rhythm Roulette: Tendai "Baba" Maraire
Rhythm Roulette: Tendai "Baba" Maraire
Published: 2016/10/20
Channel: Mass Appeal
Tendai Mtawarira - Beast Mode | Tribute
Tendai Mtawarira - Beast Mode | Tribute
Published: 2017/06/16
Channel: BsporTV Rugby
Latihan tendai
Latihan tendai
Published: 2012/06/20
Channel: Master Tendai Power
Tendai
Tendai 'Fire' Ndoro Goals & Assists
Published: 2017/08/19
Channel: P-Nash Tv
Afrikan Roots - Pieces on the Ground (feat. Tendai)
Afrikan Roots - Pieces on the Ground (feat. Tendai)
Published: 2016/10/02
Channel: Chris Da Soul
Pope Francis meets with a delegation of Tendai Buddhists
Pope Francis meets with a delegation of Tendai Buddhists
Published: 2016/09/16
Channel: ROME REPORTS in English
Tendai Biti explains why Zimbabwe is in a cash crisis #263Chat
Tendai Biti explains why Zimbabwe is in a cash crisis #263Chat
Published: 2016/12/16
Channel: 263Chat
Tendai Chidarikire - Ndiringe
Tendai Chidarikire - Ndiringe
Published: 2016/05/06
Channel: Nyamutatanga Makombe
Prince Tendai-Character
Prince Tendai-Character
Published: 2012/04/23
Channel: TeeStylz01
Tendai Manatsa - Totenda Dzanwa
Tendai Manatsa - Totenda Dzanwa
Published: 2017/01/02
Channel: ManatsaMusic
YEUKA Tendai Sadzauchi
YEUKA Tendai Sadzauchi
Published: 2017/03/04
Channel: Tendai Sadzauchi
Welcome to Tendai Vlogs
Welcome to Tendai Vlogs
Published: 2015/11/11
Channel: Tendai Official
TENDAI CHIMOMBE - JEMEDZA REMIX ( OFFICIAL VIDEO ) 2016
TENDAI CHIMOMBE - JEMEDZA REMIX ( OFFICIAL VIDEO ) 2016
Published: 2016/09/26
Channel: brynie
Tendai Greenworld.avi
Tendai Greenworld.avi
Published: 2012/04/23
Channel: Walter Mwambazi
Tendai "Ndoro-Ndoro" HD 2016 Goals ans Assits
Tendai "Ndoro-Ndoro" HD 2016 Goals ans Assits
Published: 2016/09/25
Channel: MagnoliaArts
Titanium cover by Tendai thelmah Zavazava
Titanium cover by Tendai thelmah Zavazava
Published: 2017/09/06
Channel: tendai zavazava
Tendai Shomyo performance
Tendai Shomyo performance
Published: 2012/06/29
Channel: Rev. Jikai Dehn
Tendai Dembo & Barura Express-Muzvarakamwe
Tendai Dembo & Barura Express-Muzvarakamwe
Published: 2015/10/04
Channel: esau madzura
Leg over Acoustic Cover - Tendai Featuring Ian_Tico
Leg over Acoustic Cover - Tendai Featuring Ian_Tico
Published: 2017/05/10
Channel: Anfernee Onamu
Shomyo Chant in the Tendai Sect
Shomyo Chant in the Tendai Sect
Published: 2016/10/13
Channel: The Monks of Enryaku Temple - Topic
Jah Bless - Tendai [King Of Zimdancehall "Album"] April 2017 Zimdancehall
Jah Bless - Tendai [King Of Zimdancehall "Album"] April 2017 Zimdancehall
Published: 2017/03/31
Channel: Ghettocrown King
Tendai fka Jay Madz Feat. Flame B_Kete (OFFICIAL Music Video)
Tendai fka Jay Madz Feat. Flame B_Kete (OFFICIAL Music Video)
Published: 2015/07/31
Channel: KasiMusicMagazine
Ngoni & Tendai Wedding
Ngoni & Tendai Wedding
Published: 2016/03/15
Channel: KingCreator
Tendai Dembo & Barura Express-Cheuka kwawakabva
Tendai Dembo & Barura Express-Cheuka kwawakabva
Published: 2015/10/04
Channel: esau madzura
Tendai Mukau
Tendai Mukau's #StudyAbroad Story
Published: 2016/08/31
Channel: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs
Bo2 Modded Zombies Trolling + Free Co-Host/Zombieland! Xbox (Live)
Bo2 Modded Zombies Trolling + Free Co-Host/Zombieland! Xbox (Live)
Published: 2017/08/28
Channel: Tendai
Faraja: Leadership and Politics: Tendai Mtana
Faraja: Leadership and Politics: Tendai Mtana's Journey
Published: 2015/01/11
Channel: K24TV
Tendai Shereni
Tendai Shereni
Published: 2008/09/23
Channel: carolpipi1
Team Baracus response to Sibongile Tendai diss of Zim men
Team Baracus response to Sibongile Tendai diss of Zim men
Published: 2015/12/02
Channel: NehandaTV
Mud, Sweat & Cheers With...Willem Alberts & Tendai "Beast" Mtawarira
Mud, Sweat & Cheers With...Willem Alberts & Tendai "Beast" Mtawarira
Published: 2011/10/04
Channel: PUMA
Dzoka Mudiwa-Tendai ft Mc Villa
Dzoka Mudiwa-Tendai ft Mc Villa
Published: 2008/09/04
Channel: dzipfuma
Tendai Buddhism
Tendai Buddhism
Published: 2008/03/02
Channel: jeffreyahn
Tendai Maraire - Unbelievable - Neumo
Tendai Maraire - Unbelievable - Neumo's
Published: 2010/12/22
Channel: kelly alexander
TENDAI CHIMOMBE - LIVE ON STAGE  ( MUNAKA NDAFA )
TENDAI CHIMOMBE - LIVE ON STAGE ( MUNAKA NDAFA )
Published: 2016/09/26
Channel: brynie
[PLAYER PROFILE] Tendai Mtawarira
[PLAYER PROFILE] Tendai Mtawarira 'The Beast'
Published: 2014/02/20
Channel: World Rugby
Good Morning Zimbabwe interview with Tendai Madondo (Zbc Acting Head Radio Services)
Good Morning Zimbabwe interview with Tendai Madondo (Zbc Acting Head Radio Services)
Published: 2017/05/23
Channel: Power FM Zimbabwe
Tendai Sithole on Africa modes of writing, privileging African writers and thinkers
Tendai Sithole on Africa modes of writing, privileging African writers and thinkers
Published: 2016/01/22
Channel: tmali lnstitute
Tendai Muparutsa
Tendai Muparutsa
Published: 2012/07/26
Channel: mike dorrell
Tendai & Rachel Wedding
Tendai & Rachel Wedding
Published: 2016/03/24
Channel: CNC PRODUCTIONS
Tendai Mzungu Mark of the Year Nomination Round 23
Tendai Mzungu Mark of the Year Nomination Round 23
Published: 2011/09/12
Channel: Docker TV
Joyce & Tendai Trailer Zimbabwe Weddings by Leonard Chibamu
Joyce & Tendai Trailer Zimbabwe Weddings by Leonard Chibamu
Published: 2016/07/28
Channel: Leonard Chibamu
Vanodanwa- Tendai Manatsa ft Aaron Manatsa
Vanodanwa- Tendai Manatsa ft Aaron Manatsa
Published: 2016/11/30
Channel: ManatsaMusic
Christopher Tendai Showreel 2015
Christopher Tendai Showreel 2015
Published: 2015/12/11
Channel: Christopher Tendai
Whisper Whip Hydration by Healthy Hair Solutions and Tendai Morris
Whisper Whip Hydration by Healthy Hair Solutions and Tendai Morris
Published: 2016/10/12
Channel: The Hair Whisperer Tendai
ZimPraise -Tendai Covenant
ZimPraise -Tendai Covenant
Published: 2014/08/22
Channel: sakhie mandy
NEXT
GO TO RESULTS [51 .. 100]

WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Tendai (天台宗, Tendai-shū) is a Japanese school of Mahayana Buddhism, a descendant of the Chinese Tiantai or Lotus Sutra school.

David W. Chappell frames the relevance of Tendai for a universal Buddhism:[1]

Although Tendai (Chin., T'ien-t'ai) has the reputation of being a major denomination in Japanese history, and the most comprehensive and diversified school of Chinese Buddhism, it is almost unknown in the West. This meagre presence is in marked contrast to the vision of the founder of the movement in China, T'ien-t'ai Chih-i (538-597), who provided a religious framework which seemed suited to adapt to other cultures, to evolve new practices, and to universalize Buddhism.

History[edit]

Painting of Saichō

The Tiantai was founded by Zhiyi and its teaching was first brought to Japan by the Chinese monk Ganjin (鑑眞) in the middle of the 8th century, in what became the short-lived Ritsu school, but it was not widely accepted. In 805, the Japanese monk Saichō (最澄; also called Dengyō Daishi 伝教大師) returned from China with new Tiantai texts and made the temple that he had built on Mount Hiei (比叡山), Enryaku-ji (延暦寺), a center for the study and practice of what became Japanese Tendai.

Philosophically, the Tendai school did not deviate substantially from the beliefs that had been created by the Tiantai school in China. However, what Saichō transmitted from China was not exclusively Tiantai, but also included Zen (禪), the esoteric Mikkyō (密教), and Vinaya School (戒律) elements. The tendency to include a range of teachings became more marked in the doctrines of Saichō's successors, such as Ennin (圓仁) and Enchin (圓珍). However, in later years, this range of teachings began to form sub-schools within Tendai Buddhism. By the time of Ryōgen, there were two distinct groups on Mt. Hiei, the Jimon and Sanmon: the Sammon "Mountain Group" (山門派) followed Ennin and the Jimon "Temple Group" (寺門派) followed Enchin.

A priest from the Japanese Tendai school of Buddhism

The Tendai sect flourished under the patronage of the Imperial House of Japan and the noble classes, particularly the Fujiwara clan. In 794, the Imperial capital was moved to Kyoto and Tendai became the dominant form of mainstream Buddhism in Japan for many years, giving rise to most of the developments in later Japanese Buddhism. Nichiren, Hōnen, Shinran and Dōgen—all famous thinkers in non-Tendai schools of Japanese Buddhism—were all initially trained as Tendai monks. Japanese Buddhism was dominated by the Tendai school to a much greater degree than Chinese Buddhism was by its forebearer, the Tiantai.

Due to its patronage and growing popularity among the upper classes, the Tendai sect became not only respected, but also politically and even militarily powerful. During the Kamakura period, the Tendai school used its patronage to try to oppose the growth of rival factions—particularly Nichiren Buddhism, which began to grow in power among the merchant middle class, and Pure Land Buddhism, which eventually came to claim the loyalty of many of the poorer classes. Enryaku-ji, the temple complex on Mount Hiei, became a sprawling center of power, attended not only by ascetic monks, but also by brigades of sōhei or warrior-monks who fought in the temple's interest. As a result, in 1571 Enryaku-ji was razed by Oda Nobunaga as part of his campaign to unify Japan. Nobunaga regarded the Mount Hiei monks as a potential threat or rival, as they could employ religious claims to attempt to rally the populace to their side. The temple complex was later rebuilt, and continues to serve as the head Tendai temple today.

Tendai doctrine[edit]

The first characteristic of the Japanese Tendai school is its advocacy of a comprehensive Buddhism, [...] the idea that all the teachings of the Buddha are ultimately without contradiction and can be unified in one comprehensive and perfect system. Chih-i, founder of T'ien-t'ai philosophy and practice attempted this synthesis on the basis of the ekayāna doctrine of the Lotus Sutra.[2]

Tendai Buddhism has several philosophical insights which allow for the reconciliation of Buddhist doctrine with aspects of Japanese culture such as Shinto and traditional aesthetics. It is rooted in the idea, fundamental to Mahayana Buddhism, that Buddha-hood, the capability to attain enlightenment, is intrinsic in all things. Also central to Mahayana is the notion that the phenomenal world, the world of our experiences, fundamentally is an expression of the Buddhist law (Dharma). This notion poses the problem of how we come to have many differentiated experiences. Tendai Buddhism claims that each and every sense phenomenon just as it is is the expression of Dharma. For Tendai, the ultimate expression of Dharma is the Lotus Sutra. Therefore, the fleeting nature of all sense experiences consists in the Buddha's preaching of the doctrine of Lotus Sutra. The existence and experience of all unenlightened beings is fundamentally equivalent and undistinguishable from the teachings of the Lotus Sutra.

The Doctrine of Original Enlightenment[edit]

Stone holds that:

In the early decades of the twentieth century, Buddhologist Shimaji Daito (1875-1927) introduced to the Japanese academic world a new interpretive category, which he called "original enlightenment thought" (Jpn. hongaku shiso). By this term he meant, in general, those strands of Buddhist thought, most prominent in East Asia and especially in Japan, that regard enlightenment or the ideal state as inherent from the outset and as accessible in the present, rather than as the fruit of a long process of cultivation. More specifically, Shimaji used "original enlightenment thought" to designate the intellectual mainstream of medieval Japanese Tendai Buddhism. In this medieval Tendai context, "original enlightenment thought" denotes an array of doctrines and concepts associated with the proposition that all beings are enlightened inherently. Not only human beings, but ants and crickets, mountains and rivers, grasses and trees are all innately Buddhas. The Buddhas who appear in sutras, radiating light and endowed with excellent marks, are merely provisional signs. The "real" Buddha is the ordinary worldling. Indeed, the whole phenomenal world is the primordially enlightened Tathagata.[3]

Tendai and Esoteric Buddhism[edit]

A statue of Ennin.

One of the adaptations by the Tendai school was the introduction of esoteric ritual into Tendai Buddhism, which was later named Taimitsu by Ennin. Eventually, according to Tendai Taimitsu doctrine, the esoteric rituals came to be considered of equal importance with the exoteric teachings of the Lotus Sutra. Therefore, by chanting mantras, maintaining mudras, or performing certain meditations, one is able to see that the sense experiences are the teachings of Buddha, have faith that one is inherently an enlightened being, and one can attain enlightenment within this very body.

The origins of Taimitsu are found in Chinese Tangmi, similar to the lineage that Kūkai encountered in his visit to China during the Tang Dynasty, and Saichō's disciples were encouraged to study under Kūkai.[4] As a result, Tendai esoteric ritual bears much in common with the explicitly Vajrayana tradition of Shingon Buddhism, though the underlying doctrines may differ somewhat.

Tendai and Shinto[edit]

Tendai doctrine allowed Japanese Buddhists to reconcile Buddhist teachings with the native religion of Japan, Shinto, and with traditional Japanese aesthetics. In the case of Shinto, the difficulty is the reconciliation of the pantheon of Japanese gods, as well as with the myriad spirits associated with places, shrines or objects, with the Buddhist doctrine that one should not concern oneself with any religious practice save the pursuit of enlightenment. However, priests of the Tendai sect argued that Kami are simply representations of the truth of universal buddhahood that descend into the world to help mankind. Thus, they were seen as equivalent with Buddhas. This doctrine, however, regards Kami as more sacred. While Buddhas represent the possibility of attaining enlightentment through many lifetimes of work and devotion to Dharma, Kami are seen to be manifest representations of universal buddhahood. They exemplify the doctrine that all things are inherently enlightened and that it is possible for a person of sufficient religious faculties to attain enlightenment instantly within this very body.[citation needed]. Those Kami that Shinto regards as violent or antagonistic to mankind are considered as simply supernatural beings that are violent and evil.

Tendai and Japanese Aesthetics[edit]

The Buddha taught a Middle Way between the extremes of sensual indulgence and self-mortification. In the context of the Four Noble Truths this meant ceasing the craving (Sanskrit tṛṣṇā) of worldly desire and attachment, thus putting an end to suffering (dukkha). In early Buddhism, the emphasis, especially for monastics, was on avoiding activities that might arouse worldly desires. Buddhist art and poetry focused on overtly Buddhist themes. This tendency toward renunciation created a potential conflict with mainstream culture in China and Japan when Buddhism was introduced. Shedding worldly pleasures and attachments might seem to require that such flowers of culture as poetry, literature, and visual arts be given up.

However, later Mahayana views developed a different emphasis. By claiming that the phenomenal world is not distinct from Dharma, Tendai doctrine allows for the reconciliation of beauty and aesthetics with Buddhist teachings. Things are to be seen just as they are, as expressions of Dharma. Poetry, instead of being a potential distraction, now in fact can lead to enlightenment. Contemplation of poetry, provided that it is done in the context of Tendai doctrine, is simply contemplation of Dharma. This same thing can be said of other forms of art. Therefore, it is possible to construct an aesthetic that is not in conflict with Buddhism.

Notable Tendai scholars[edit]

Ryōgen is known generally by the names of Gansan Daishi (left) or Tsuno Daishi ("Horned Great Master", right). Tsuno Daishi is said to be a portrait of him subjugating yūrei.

In the history of Tendai school, a number of notable monks have contributed to Tendai thought and administration of Mt. Hiei:

  • Saichō - Founder.
  • Gishin - Second zasu (座主, "Head priest") of the Tendai School, who travelled with Saicho to China and ordained alongside him.
  • Ennin - Saicho's successor, the first to try to merge esoteric practices with exoteric Tendai School theories (this merger is now known as "Taimitsu"), as well as promote nianfo.
  • Enchin - Gishin successor, junior to Ennin. The first to successfully assimilate esoteric buddhism to Tendai, and a notable administrator as well.
  • Annen - Henjō (Ennin's disciple)'s successor, junior to Enchin. An influential thinker who's known having finalized the assimilation of esoteric and exoteric buddhism within Tendai.
  • Ryōgen - Annen's successor, and skilled politician who helped ally the Tendai School with the Fujiwara clan.
  • Toba Sōjō (1053 – 1140) - the 48th zasu and a satirical artist. Sometimes he is credited as the author of Chōjū-jinbutsu-giga, one of the earliest manga, but this attribution is highly disputed.
  • Sengaku (1203–c. 1273) - a Tendai scholar and literary critic, who authored an influential commentary on the Man'yōshū, the oldest extant Japanese poetry.
  • Gien (1394 – 1441) - the 153rd zasu, who later returned to secular life and reigned Japan as Ashikaga Yoshinori, the sixth shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate.
  • Tenkai (1536 – 1643) - a Tendai dai-sōjō (大僧正, "archbishop"), who served as an entrusted advisor of Tokugawa Ieyasu, the founder of the Tokugawa shogunate.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Chappell, David W. (1987). 'Is Tendai Buddhism Relevant to the Modern World?' in Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 1987 14/2-3. Source: Nanzan Univ.; accessed: Saturday August 16, 2008. p.247
  2. ^ Hazama, Jiko (1987). The Characteristics of Japanese Tendai, Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 14 (2-3), p. 102 PDF
  3. ^ Stone, Jacqueline Ilyse (2003). Original enlightenment and the transformation of medieval Japanese Buddhism. Issue 12 of Studies in East Asian Buddhism. A Kuroda Institute book: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-2771-6, ISBN 978-0-8248-2771-7. Source: [1] (accessed: Thursday April 22, 2010), p.3
  4. ^ Abe, Ryuichi (1999). The Weaving of Mantra: Kukai and the Construction of Esoteric Buddhist Discourse. Columbia University Press. p. 45. ISBN 0-231-11286-6. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Disclaimer

None of the audio/visual content is hosted on this site. All media is embedded from other sites such as GoogleVideo, Wikipedia, YouTube etc. Therefore, this site has no control over the copyright issues of the streaming media.

All issues concerning copyright violations should be aimed at the sites hosting the material. This site does not host any of the streaming media and the owner has not uploaded any of the material to the video hosting servers. Anyone can find the same content on Google Video or YouTube by themselves.

The owner of this site cannot know which documentaries are in public domain, which has been uploaded to e.g. YouTube by the owner and which has been uploaded without permission. The copyright owner must contact the source if he wants his material off the Internet completely.

Powered by YouTube
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL and (CC) license