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ASDC - Alioramus vs Teratophoneus
ASDC - Alioramus vs Teratophoneus
Published: 2013/04/19
Channel: Allosaurus Rex
ASDC - Gorgosaurus vs Teratophoneus
ASDC - Gorgosaurus vs Teratophoneus
Published: 2012/05/05
Channel: Allosaurus Rex
Prehistoric Smackdown: Episode 101-Teratophoneus vs. Australovenator.
Prehistoric Smackdown: Episode 101-Teratophoneus vs. Australovenator.
Published: 2016/09/28
Channel: EBLazerRex65
Teratophoneus - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Teratophoneus - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Published: 2015/08/05
Channel: Wiz Science™
Palaeoart of Teratophoneus
Palaeoart of Teratophoneus
Published: 2015/07/29
Channel: David Blagic
DFG: Teratophoneus vs. Venatosaurus
DFG: Teratophoneus vs. Venatosaurus
Published: 2011/09/08
Channel: MrTriangleWorld
Pivot Battle Colosseum: Dilophosaurus vs Teratophoneus
Pivot Battle Colosseum: Dilophosaurus vs Teratophoneus
Published: 2016/10/24
Channel: Mapuzaurez
New Teratophoneus stk
New Teratophoneus stk
Published: 2016/07/27
Channel: GigaTitanRex
Mesozoic Massacre! Teratophoneus vs. Becklespinax
Mesozoic Massacre! Teratophoneus vs. Becklespinax
Published: 2014/09/07
Channel: NecroRaptor101
Sound effects teratophoneus
Sound effects teratophoneus
Published: 2016/03/11
Channel: Cj Magruder
OBM - Dinosaur - Teratophoneus
OBM - Dinosaur - Teratophoneus
Published: 2016/12/30
Channel: Our Best Moments
Carnotaurus vs Teratophoneus
Carnotaurus vs Teratophoneus
Published: 2013/01/30
Channel: Samir79225
Teratophoneus V Ceratosaurus
Teratophoneus V Ceratosaurus
Published: 2017/02/04
Channel: GigaTitanRex
EGB: Nanotyrannus vs Alioramus
EGB: Nanotyrannus vs Alioramus
Published: 2014/08/25
Channel: Spinosaurus Productions
Carnotaurus Vs Teratophoneus
Carnotaurus Vs Teratophoneus
Published: 2014/12/16
Channel: CarnoDragon Fire Blast
The Stegosaur Song
The Stegosaur Song
Published: 2013/04/26
Channel: Zack Neher
Teratophoneus vs Utahraptor
Teratophoneus vs Utahraptor
Published: 2013/11/02
Channel: Marc Francois
Cretaceous Fight Arena:Teratophoneus vs Medusaceratops (Requested)
Cretaceous Fight Arena:Teratophoneus vs Medusaceratops (Requested)
Published: 2012/07/17
Channel: kiarash608
ASDC 3 - Dilophosaurus vs. Teratophoneus
ASDC 3 - Dilophosaurus vs. Teratophoneus
Published: 2017/05/29
Channel: Pliosaurus Funkei
Sarcosuchus  / Flesh crocodile
Sarcosuchus / Flesh crocodile
Published: 2015/10/15
Channel: The Sarcastic Raptor
Tyrannosauroid Tribute
Tyrannosauroid Tribute
Published: 2012/04/06
Channel: CKprimeval07
Stk Pack 3  (Animals and dinosaurs)
Stk Pack 3 (Animals and dinosaurs)
Published: 2016/03/25
Channel: SPINO REX
Ceratopsian Deep-Time Migrations
Ceratopsian Deep-Time Migrations
Published: 2013/04/14
Channel: Zack Neher
New Carnivore Dinosaur Guide UpDated (Read description for who the dinos are)
New Carnivore Dinosaur Guide UpDated (Read description for who the dinos are)
Published: 2012/04/28
Channel: Allosaurus Rex
Participantes en Collabsaurus (read description)
Participantes en Collabsaurus (read description)
Published: 2017/04/21
Channel: Miguelisaurus
New Dinosaur Battle Royale Audio Remake
New Dinosaur Battle Royale Audio Remake
Published: 2012/04/17
Channel: Allosaurus Rex
ILUSTRACIONES DE ZUBIN ERIK DUTTA | PaleoArte
ILUSTRACIONES DE ZUBIN ERIK DUTTA | PaleoArte
Published: 2017/06/15
Channel: BellsproutArmy
Vertex Dinos
Vertex Dinos
Published: 2014/09/07
Channel: htfamily
ASDC -  Eocarcharia vs Kaprosuchus
ASDC - Eocarcharia vs Kaprosuchus
Published: 2013/04/11
Channel: Allosaurus Rex
Prehistoric Apex Predators: Dinosaurs Part 3
Prehistoric Apex Predators: Dinosaurs Part 3
Published: 2013/12/30
Channel: Dragonstorm62190
ASDC - Pachyrhinosaurus vs Albertosaurus
ASDC - Pachyrhinosaurus vs Albertosaurus
Published: 2012/05/01
Channel: Allosaurus Rex
Paleo Profile - Prionosuchus
Paleo Profile - Prionosuchus
Published: 2015/04/11
Channel: TREY the Explainer
Cretaceous Fight Arena: Irritator vs Protoceratops
Cretaceous Fight Arena: Irritator vs Protoceratops
Published: 2012/07/17
Channel: kiarash608
Prehistoric Apex Predators Dinosaurs Part 1
Prehistoric Apex Predators Dinosaurs Part 1
Published: 2013/11/19
Channel: Dragonstorm62190
[S1E23] Paleo File - Timurlengia
[S1E23] Paleo File - Timurlengia
Published: 2017/04/16
Channel: The Expeditioner's Discovery Guild
The Mothman of Point Pleasant (After Dark)
The Mothman of Point Pleasant (After Dark)
Published: 2017/04/08
Channel: Crypticc
Dinosaurs Unearthed - Ostafrikasaurus - Early Spinosaurid - Documentary
Dinosaurs Unearthed - Ostafrikasaurus - Early Spinosaurid - Documentary
Published: 2016/05/03
Channel: MadWizard38
Carnotaurus Sastrei Timelapse
Carnotaurus Sastrei Timelapse
Published: 2016/03/27
Channel: Mani Raptora
Jurassic Dinosaurs Tribute-Not Without a Fight.
Jurassic Dinosaurs Tribute-Not Without a Fight.
Published: 2016/09/26
Channel: EBLazerRex65
¡T-Rex! Las 5 especies mas espeluznantes de la prehistoria.
¡T-Rex! Las 5 especies mas espeluznantes de la prehistoria.
Published: 2017/04/27
Channel: TopMan
7 poorly known, but interesting fossil creatures
7 poorly known, but interesting fossil creatures
Published: 2016/02/07
Channel: Prehistoricfacts
ASDC - Spinosaurus vs Ekrixinatosaurus
ASDC - Spinosaurus vs Ekrixinatosaurus
Published: 2014/03/17
Channel: Allosaurus Rex
Mesozoic Massacre! Yutyrannus vs. Compsognathus
Mesozoic Massacre! Yutyrannus vs. Compsognathus
Published: 2017/05/24
Channel: NecroRaptor101
PPBA Spinosaurus rampage 300 special
PPBA Spinosaurus rampage 300 special
Published: 2015/04/09
Channel: Parasaurolophus 67
El Chupacabra?
El Chupacabra?
Published: 2015/11/21
Channel: ARscience
ASDC - Triceratops vs Zhuchengtyrannus
ASDC - Triceratops vs Zhuchengtyrannus
Published: 2013/02/25
Channel: Allosaurus Rex
10 Bizarre Extinct Animals
10 Bizarre Extinct Animals
Published: 2015/11/21
Channel: ARscience
DFG- Allosaurus vs. Machairoceratops
DFG- Allosaurus vs. Machairoceratops
Published: 2016/07/28
Channel: MrTriangleWorld
My drawings, Episode II part 3 : Cretaceous #2
My drawings, Episode II part 3 : Cretaceous #2
Published: 2016/12/29
Channel: RaptorGorilla
Prehistoric Apex Predators Dinosaurs Part 4
Prehistoric Apex Predators Dinosaurs Part 4
Published: 2014/01/21
Channel: Dragonstorm62190
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Teratophoneus
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 77–76 Ma
Teratophoneus curriei skeleton.jpg
Restored skeleton
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Clade: Dinosauria
Order: Saurischia
Suborder: Theropoda
Family: Tyrannosauridae
Subfamily: Tyrannosaurinae
Genus: Teratophoneus
Carr et al., 2011
Type species
Teratophoneus curriei
Carr et al., 2011

Teratophoneus is a genus of carnivorous tyrannosaurid theropod dinosaur which lived during the late Cretaceous period (late Campanian age, about 77 to 76 million years ago) in what is now Utah, United States. It is known from an incomplete skull and postcranial skeleton recovered from the Kaiparowits Formation. The Teratophoneus or "monstrous murderer" (Greek: teras, "monster" and phoneus, "murderer") was specifically named T. curriei in honor of Philip J. Currie.

Description[edit]

Restored skull and fossils

The holotype of Teratophoneus consists of a fragmentary skull and parts of the postcranial skeleton. The fossils were originally assigned to four different individuals, but are probably only of a single subadult animal. The specimen of Teratophoneus was not fully grown: according to an estimate by Carr et al. was about 6 metres (20 ft) in length and 667 kg in weight.[1]

Compared to the skull of an Albertosaurus, Teratophoneus is roughly twenty-three percent shorter in proportion between the lacrimal bone of the orbital fenestra and the tip of the snout. The skull of Teratophoneus is also comparably deeper. It is unclear if there was a specific reason for these differences, but the extra depth may have allowed for stronger jaw muscles, increasing the bite force of Teratophoneus.[2]

Discovery and naming[edit]

Postcranial elements.

Fossils of Teratophoneus were first found in the Kaiparowits Formation of southern Utah. Later, fossils from the same formation were discovered and identified as the genus. Argon-argon radiometric dating indicates that the Kaiparowits Formation was deposited between 76.1 and 74.0 million years ago, during the Campanian stage of the Late Cretaceous period. This date means that Teratophoneus lived in the middle of the Campanian stage of the Late Cretaceous. Three different fossils of Teratophoneus have been found. Originally, Teratophoneus was described based on the holotype UMNH VP 16690. More recently, the specimens UMNP VP 16691 and BYU 8120 have been assigned to it.[3]

Teratophoneus was named by Thomas D. Carr, Thomas E. Williamson, Brooks B. Britt and Ken Stadtman in 2011. The type and only species was named T. curriei. The generic name is derived from the Greek teras, "monster", and phoneus, "murderer".[4] The specific name honors Philip J. Currie.[1]

Classification[edit]

Loewen et al. (2013) conducted a phylogenetic analysis and confirmed the assignment of Teratophoneus to the theropod sub-family tyrannosaurinae. Teratophoneus was closely related but more primitive than the large theropods Tarbosaurus and Tyrannosaurus, but more derived than Daspletosaurus.[3]

Skeletal restoration
Restoration

Below is the cladogram based on the phylogenetic analysis conducted by Loewen et al. in 2013.[3]

Tyrannosauridae


Gorgosaurus libratus



Albertosaurus sarcophagus



Tyrannosaurinae

Dinosaur Park tyrannosaurid




Daspletosaurus torosus




Daspletosaurus horneri




Teratophoneus curriei




Bistahieversor sealeyi




Lythronax argestes




Tyrannosaurus rex




Tarbosaurus bataar



Zhuchengtyrannus magnus











Paleoecology[edit]

Habitat[edit]

Teratophoneus attacking a P. cyrtocristatus

The only known specimens of Teratophoneus were recovered at the Kaiparowits Formation, in southern Utah. Argon-argon radiometric dating indicates that the fossils were buried during the Campanian stage of the Late Cretaceous period.[5][6] During the Late Cretaceous period, the site within the Kaiparowits Formation was located on Laramidia near its eastern shore on the Western Interior Seaway, a large inland sea that split North America into two landmasses, the other being Appalachia to the east. The plateau where dinosaurs lived was an ancient floodplain dominated by large channels and an abundance of wetland peat swamps, ponds and lakes, and was bordered by highlands. The climate was wet and humid, and supported an array of different and diverse groups of organisms.[7] This formation contains one of the best and most continuous records of Late Cretaceous terrestrial life in the world.[8]

Paleofauna[edit]

Teratophoneus shared its paleoenvironment with theropods such as dromaeosaurids, the troodontid Talos sampsoni, ornithomimids like Ornithomimus velox, the tyrannosaurid Albertosaurus, armored ankylosaurids, the duckbilled hadrosaurs Parasaurolophus cyrtocristatus and Gryposaurus monumentensis, the ceratopsians Utahceratops gettyi, Nasutoceratops titusi and Kosmoceratops richardsoni and the oviraptorosaurian Hagryphus giganteus.[9] Paleofauna present in the Kaiparowits Formation included chondrichthyans (sharks and rays), frogs, salamanders, turtles, lizards and crocodilians. A variety of early mammals were present including multituberculates, marsupials, and insectivorans.[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Thomas D. Carr, Thomas E. Williamson, Brooks B. Britt and Ken Stadtman (2011). "Evidence for high taxonomic and morphologic tyrannosauroid diversity in the Late Cretaceous (Late Campanian) of the American Southwest and a new short-skulled tyrannosaurid from the Kaiparowits formation of Utah". Naturwissenschaften. 98 (3): 241–246. PMID 21253683. doi:10.1007/s00114-011-0762-7. 
  2. ^ "Teratophoneus". Prehistoric-wildlife. Retrieved 9 November 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c Loewen, M.A.; Irmis, R.B.; Sertich, J.J.W.; Currie, P. J.; Sampson, S. D. (2013). Evans, David C, ed. "Tyrant Dinosaur Evolution Tracks the Rise and Fall of Late Cretaceous Oceans". PLoS ONE. 8 (11): e79420. PMC 3819173Freely accessible. PMID 24223179. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079420. 
  4. ^ Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert (1980). A Greek-English Lexicon (Abridged Edition). United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-910207-4. 
  5. ^ Roberts EM, Deino AL, Chan MA (2005) 40Ar/39Ar age of the Kaiparowits Formation, southern Utah, and correlation of contemporaneous Campanian strata and vertebrate faunas along the margin of the Western Interior Basin. Cretaceous Res 26: 307–318.
  6. ^ Eaton, J.G., 2002. Multituberculate mammals from the Wahweap(Campanian, Aquilan) and Kaiparowits (Campanian, Judithian)formations, within and near Grand Staircase-Escalante NationalMonument, southern Utah. Miscellaneous Publication 02-4, UtahGeological Survey, 66 pp.
  7. ^ Titus, Alan L. and Mark A. Loewen (editors). At the Top of the Grand Staircase: The Late Cretaceous of Southern Utah. 2013. Indiana University Press. Hardbound: 634 pp.
  8. ^ Clinton, William. "Preisdential Proclamation: Establishment of the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument". September 18, 1996. Retrieved 9 November 2013. 
  9. ^ Zanno, Lindsay E.; Sampson, Scott D. (2005). "A new oviraptorosaur (Theropoda; Maniraptora) from the Late Cretaceous (Campanian) of Utah". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 25 (4): 897–904. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2005)025[0897:ANOTMF]2.0.CO;2. 
  10. ^ Eaton, Jeffrey G.; Cifelli, Richard L.; Hutchinson, J. Howard; Kirkland, James I.; Parrish, J. Michael (1999). "Cretaceous vertebrate faunas from the Kaiparowits Plateau, south-central Utah". In Gillete, David D. (ed.). Vertebrate Paleontology in Utah. Miscellaneous Publication 99-1. Salt Lake City: Utah Geological Survey. pp. 345–353. ISBN 1-55791-634-9. 

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