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1
Should we impose congressional term limits?
Should we impose congressional term limits?
::2013/08/16::
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2
DeMint: Term Limits Needed To End Corruption In Washington
DeMint: Term Limits Needed To End Corruption In Washington
::2012/02/02::
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3
Ron Paul on term limits
Ron Paul on term limits
::2012/04/17::
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4
Term Limits for US Congress: Article 5 Explained
Term Limits for US Congress: Article 5 Explained
::2014/03/28::
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5
Term limits for lawmakers: when is enough, enough?
Term limits for lawmakers: when is enough, enough?
::2013/06/10::
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6
Congressional Term Limits - Jon Carter
Congressional Term Limits - Jon Carter
::2010/12/03::
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7
Castro announces two term-limit for Cuba
Castro announces two term-limit for Cuba's leaders
::2011/04/18::
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8
Dave Brat for Congress
Dave Brat for Congress
::2014/03/05::
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9
Pinellas Commission votes to use your tax dollars to fight term limit law you passed
Pinellas Commission votes to use your tax dollars to fight term limit law you passed
::2012/07/15::
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10
Illinois Term Limit Amendment Town Hall: Springfield, IL 2.8.14
Illinois Term Limit Amendment Town Hall: Springfield, IL 2.8.14
::2014/02/17::
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11
Kagame opens debate on Term limit
Kagame opens debate on Term limit
::2011/12/12::
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12
Michael Savage on Bill Eliminating Term Limit for Comrade Obama! - 1/7/13
Michael Savage on Bill Eliminating Term Limit for Comrade Obama! - 1/7/13
::2013/01/08::
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13
Term Limit debate: MPs claim plot to malign Religious leaders
Term Limit debate: MPs claim plot to malign Religious leaders
::2012/05/15::
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14
NE Teachers Union Paid for Term Limit Extension Radio Ads, Wants Government-run Health Care
NE Teachers Union Paid for Term Limit Extension Radio Ads, Wants Government-run Health Care
::2012/11/05::
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15
Obama granted 3rd term? Who
Obama granted 3rd term? Who's he, FDR? Presidential term limit repealed?
::2013/11/29::
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16
Q&A At Term Limit Public Forum, Feb 13 2013
Q&A At Term Limit Public Forum, Feb 13 2013
::2013/02/14::
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17
#1 Term Limit Public Forum, Feb 13 2013
#1 Term Limit Public Forum, Feb 13 2013
::2013/02/14::
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18
Term Limit Protest Premiers response
Term Limit Protest Premiers response
::2013/03/01::
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19
City of Warwick Term Limit Bill - Testimony
City of Warwick Term Limit Bill - Testimony
::2014/06/25::
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20
Why term limits are bad. Why term limits on U.S. Congressman would never work.
Why term limits are bad. Why term limits on U.S. Congressman would never work.
::2014/03/08::
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21
Savage: Obama will try to end 2-term limit, maximizing Americans not working so they
Savage: Obama will try to end 2-term limit, maximizing Americans not working so they'll vote for him
::2012/07/18::
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22
#2 Term Limit Public Forum, Feb 13 2013
#2 Term Limit Public Forum, Feb 13 2013
::2013/02/14::
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23
Conclusion Of Term Limit Public Forum, Feb 13 2013
Conclusion Of Term Limit Public Forum, Feb 13 2013
::2013/02/14::
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24
Term Limit Town Hall
Term Limit Town Hall
::2013/02/13::
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25
Rep. Mulvaney introduces term limits as constitutional amendment
Rep. Mulvaney introduces term limits as constitutional amendment
::2014/02/08::
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26
Azeris vote on presidential term limit
Azeris vote on presidential term limit
::2009/03/19::
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27
Weiner: Bloomberg
Weiner: Bloomberg's Term Limit Repeal Will Mar His Legacy
::2013/04/25::
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28
Rep. Jose Serrano reintroduces bill to repeal presidential term limit
Rep. Jose Serrano reintroduces bill to repeal presidential term limit
::2013/01/07::
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29
Lois Frankel struggles with term limit question at Forum Club
Lois Frankel struggles with term limit question at Forum Club
::2012/09/24::
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30
Term Limit Protest
Term Limit Protest
::2013/03/01::
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31
RAUNER SETS OUT TERM LIMIT PLAN WHILE QUINN CAMPAIGN BLASTS HIS BUDGET
RAUNER SETS OUT TERM LIMIT PLAN WHILE QUINN CAMPAIGN BLASTS HIS BUDGET
::2014/07/22::
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32
Turkish Ruling Party Says To Maintain Three-term Limit
Turkish Ruling Party Says To Maintain Three-term Limit
::2014/05/02::
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33
Turkish party keeps term limit, hinting at Erdogan presidency
Turkish party keeps term limit, hinting at Erdogan presidency
::2014/05/02::
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34
#2 Q&A At Term Limit Public Forum, Feb 13 2013
#2 Q&A At Term Limit Public Forum, Feb 13 2013
::2013/02/14::
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35
Houston City Council Committee votes to dispose of term limit proposal
Houston City Council Committee votes to dispose of term limit proposal
::2012/07/10::
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36
Why take a Term Limit Pledge
Why take a Term Limit Pledge
::2014/04/09::
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37
It is time to term-limit Pundits? The Strange Case of Charles Kruathammer
It is time to term-limit Pundits? The Strange Case of Charles Kruathammer
::2012/09/07::
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38
Issues - Spence-Jones Term Limit Ruling and Stand Your Ground Law
Issues - Spence-Jones Term Limit Ruling and Stand Your Ground Law
::2013/08/09::
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39
PCGG Chaairman Bautista, nagmungkahi ng pitong taon term limit sa Chief Justice
PCGG Chaairman Bautista, nagmungkahi ng pitong taon term limit sa Chief Justice
::2012/07/24::
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40
Mayor Bloomberg
Mayor Bloomberg's Term Limit Extension Plan?
::2009/02/26::
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41
A Term Limit Story
A Term Limit Story
::2010/11/27::
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42
Obama:
Obama: 'There's a term limit thing in this Presidency'
::2012/07/13::
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43
Lawson Signs Bonded Term Limit Pledge
Lawson Signs Bonded Term Limit Pledge
::2010/10/07::
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44
Chattanooga Council Considers Term Limit Proposal
Chattanooga Council Considers Term Limit Proposal
::2012/08/08::
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45
Are there any term limits for the U.S. president and for members of Congress?
Are there any term limits for the U.S. president and for members of Congress?
::2012/08/10::
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46
Term limit for Congress
Term limit for Congress
::2014/07/01::
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47
Kevin Sorbo: It
Kevin Sorbo: It's Time For Term Limits On US Congress
::2014/07/19::
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48
Republican Wants To Make A Term Limit Change - Politics101
Republican Wants To Make A Term Limit Change - Politics101
::2013/12/29::
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49
12 is Enough - Term limits will end career politics in Washington
12 is Enough - Term limits will end career politics in Washington
::2013/08/24::
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50
"Term Limits" by Nate Smoove
"Term Limits" by Nate Smoove
::2014/03/25::
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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This article is about the legal and political issue. For the book by Vince Flynn, see Term Limits (novel).

A term limit is a legal restriction that limits the number of terms an officeholder may serve in a particular elected office. When term limits are found in presidential and semi-presidential systems they act as a method to curb the potential for monopoly, where a leader effectively becomes "president for life". Sometimes, there is an absolute limit on the number of terms an officeholder can serve, while, in other cases, the restrictions are merely on the number of consecutive terms.

Use of term limits[edit]

Ancient history[edit]

Term limits have a long history. Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome, two early civilizations which had elected offices, both imposed limits on some positions.

In ancient Athenian democracy, only offices selected by sortition were subjects to terms limits (one term of one year for each office, except members of the council of 500 (boule), where it was possible to serve two one-year terms, non-consecutively). Elected offices were all subject to possible re-election, although they were minoritarian, these positions were more prestigious and those requiring the most experience, such as military generals and the superintendent of springs.

In the Roman Republic, a law was passed imposing a limit of a single term on the office of censor. The annual magistrates - tribune of the plebs, aedile, quaestor, praetor, and consul—were forbidden reelection until a number of years had passed.[1] (see cursus honorum, Constitution of the Roman Republic). Also there was a term limit of 6 month for a dictator.

Modern history[edit]

Many modern presidential republics employ term limits for their highest offices. The United States placed a limit of two terms on its presidency by means of the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution in 1951. There are no term limits for Vice Presidency, Representatives and Senators, although there have been calls for term limits for those offices. Under various state laws, some state governors and state legislators have term limits. Formal limits in America date back to the 1682 Pennsylvania Charter of Liberties, and the colonial frame of government of the same year, authored by William Penn and providing for triennial rotation of the provincial council, the upper house of the colonial legislature.[2] (See also term limits in the United States).

The Russian Federation has a rule for the head of state that allows the President of Russia to serve more than two terms if not consecutive (as in the case of Vladimir Putin). For governors of federal subjects, the same two-term limit existed until 2004, but now there are no term limits for governors.

Term limits are also common in Latin America, where most countries are also presidential republics. Early in the last century, the Mexican revolutionary Francisco Madero popularized the slogan Sufragio Efectivo, no Reelección (effective suffrage, no reelection). In keeping with that principle, members of the Congress of Mexico (the Chamber of Deputies and Senate) cannot be reelected for the next immediate term under article 50 and 59 of the Constitution of Mexico, adopted in 1917. Likewise, the President of Mexico is limited to a single six-year term. This makes every presidential election in Mexico a non-incumbent election.

Countries that operate a parliamentary system of government are less likely to employ term limits on their leaders. This is because such leaders rarely have a set "term" at all: rather, they serve as long as they have the confidence of the parliament, a period which could potentially last for life. Many parliaments can be dissolved for snap elections which means some parliaments can last for mere months while others can continue until their expiration dates. Nevertheless, such countries may impose term limits on the holders of other offices—in republics, for example, a ceremonial presidency may have a term limit, especially if the office holds reserve powers.

Categories[edit]

Term limits may be divided into two broad categories: consecutive and lifetime. With consecutive term limits, a legislator is limited to serving a particular number of years in that particular office. Upon hitting the limit in one office or chamber, a legislator may run for election to the other chamber or leave the legislature. After a set period of time (usually two years), the clock resets on the limit, and the legislator may run for election to his/her original seat and serve up to the limit again.

With lifetime limits, once a legislator has served up to the limit, she/he may never again run for election to that office. Lifetime limits are much more restrictive than consecutive limits.

Offices of local government, such as a mayoralty, may also have term limits. Examples include Philadelphia, New York City, Los Angeles and New Orleans.

Notable people affected by relaxed term limits[edit]

Names indexed by surnames Countries and localities Official positions Earlier term limits Later term limits
Bloomberg, Michael United States; New York City Mayor (2002–2013) 2 terms of 4 years 3 terms of 4 years from 2008 to 2010; 2 terms of 4 years since 2010
Cardoso, Fernando Henrique Brazil President of Brazil (1995–2003) 1 term of 4 years 2 terms of 4 years since 1997
Castro, Raúl Cuba President of Cuba (2008–present) No term limit 2 terms of 5 years since 2013
Chávez, Hugo Venezuela President of Venezuela (1999–2013) 2 terms of 6 years Unlimited terms of 6 years since the 2009 amendment of the 1999 Venezuelan constitution
Chiang Kai-shek China, Republic of (Mainland and Taiwan Eras) President (1948–1949, 1950–1975) 2 terms of 6 years Unlimited terms of 6 years since 1960[3]
dos Santos, José Eduardo Angola President of Angola (1979–present) No term limit 2 terms of 5 years since 2010
Mitterrand, François France President of France (1981–1995) No term limit 2 terms of 5 years since 2008
Mugabe, Robert Zimbabwe President of Zimbabwe (1987–present) No term limit 2 terms of 5 years since 2013
Museveni, Yoweri Uganda President of Uganda (1986–present) 2 terms of 5 years Served 2 terms of 5 years before 1995 constitution imposed 2-term limit. Served 2 additional terms of 5 years; constitution was revised in 2005, removing term limits.
Patton, Paul E. United States; Kentucky Governor (1995-2003) 1 term of 4 years 2 terms of 4 years
Putin, Vladimir Russia President of Russia (1999-2008, 2012–present) 2 terms of 4 years 2 terms of 6 years since 2008
Roosevelt, Franklin Delano United States President of the United States (1933-1945) No term limit 2 terms of 4 years since 1951
Sall, Macky Senegal President of Senegal (2012–present) 1 term of seven years, no term limits 2 terms of 5 years since 2008
Sharif, Nawaz Pakistan Prime Minister of Pakistan (1990–93, 1997–99, 2013–present) 2 terms of 5 years Unlimited terms of 5 years since 2011
Uribe, Álvaro Colombia President (2002–2010) 1 term of 4 years 2 terms of 4 years since 2004
Yuan Shikai China, Republic of (Beiyang Government) President (1912–1915, 1916) 2 terms of 5 years[4] Unlimited terms of 10 years since 1914[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Robert Struble, Jr., Treatise on Twelve Lights, chapter six, part II, "Rotation in History."
  2. ^ Francis N. Thorpe, ed., The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and other Organic Laws..., 7 vols. (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1909) 5:3048, 3055-56, 3065.
  3. ^ Based on the amended Temporary Provisions Effective During the Period of Communist Rebellion until it was abolished in 1991.
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ [2]

External links[edit]

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