Share

WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Tesla Autopilot may reduce accidents due to negligence and fatigue from long term driving.[1]

Tesla Autopilot, later marketed as Enhanced Autopilot after a second hardware version started to be shipped, is an advanced driver-assistance system feature offered by Tesla that has lane centering, adaptive cruise control, self-parking, ability to automatically change lanes without requiring driver steering, and enables the car to be summoned to and from a garage or parking spot. Planned improvements to Enhanced Autopilot include transitioning from one freeway to another and exiting the freeway when your destination is near.

As an upgrade above and beyond Enhanced Autopilot's capabilities, the company's stated intent is to offer full self-driving at a future time, acknowledging that legal, regulatory, and technical hurdles must be overcome to achieve this goal.[2]

As of February 2018, Tesla indicates that a demonstration of a self driving coast to coast drive will be ready in three to six months.[3]

History[edit]

Autopilot was first offered on October 9, 2014, for Tesla Model S, followed by the Model X upon its release.[4] Autopilot was included within a "Tech Package" option. At that time Autopilot features included semi-autonomous drive and parking capabilities.[5][6][7] Initial versions of Autopilot were developed in partnership with the Israeli company Mobileye.[8] Tesla and Mobileye ended their partnership in July 2016.[9][10]

In October 2015, Tesla released Autopilot version 7.0 to its customers.[11] In December 2015, Tesla announced that it will remove some self-driving features to discourage customers from engaging in risky behavior. Autopilot Firmware 7.1 made those changes and includes remote parking technology known as Summon that can park and can bring the car to the driver without the driver in the car.[12][13][14]

On August 31, 2016, Elon Musk announced Autopilot 8.0, that processes radar signals to create a coarse point cloud similar to Lidar to help navigate in low visibility conditions, and even to 'see' in front of the car ahead.[15][16] Autopilot, as of version 8, uses radar as the primary sensor instead of the camera.[17] In November 2016, Autopilot 8.0 was updated to have a more noticeable signal to the driver that it is engaged and it requires drivers to touch the steering wheel more frequently, otherwise Autopilot will turn off.[18][19] By November 2016, Autopilot had operated actively on hardware version 1 vehicles for 300 million miles (500 million km) and 1.3 billion miles (2 billion km) in shadow mode.[20]

As of October 2016, Tesla said all vehicles come with the necessary sensing and computing hardware, known as Hardware version 2 (HW2), for future fully autonomous operation (SAE Level 5), with software being made available as it matures.[21] The company offers various free/extra-cost options for enabling Autopilot-associated features/services. Autopilot on hardware version 1 cars is available for US$2,500 ($3,000 after delivery). For HW2 cars, Autopilot is available as "Enhanced Autopilot" for $5,000 ($6,000 after delivery) and future full self-driving capability is an additional $3,000 ($4,000 after delivery).[22]

The first release of Autopilot for HW2 cars was in February 2017. It included adaptive cruise control, autosteer that was enabled on divided highways, autosteer on 'local roads’ up to a speed of 35 mph or a specified number of mph over the local speed limit.[23] Firmware version 8.1 for HW2 began in June 2017 that has many new features including a new Autopilot driving-assist algorithm, full-speed braking and handling parallel and perpendicular parking.[24]

On April 28, 2017, Elon Musk predicted that in around two years drivers would be able to sleep in their Tesla until it finishes the trip.[25]

In the middle of 2017, Tesla planned to demonstrate full self-driving by the end of 2017.[26][27] In February 2018, Tesla indicates the demonstration of a self driving coast to coast drive will be ready in three to six months.[3]

Hardware[edit]

Hardware 1[edit]

Vehicles manufactured after late September 2014 are equipped with a camera mounted at the top of the windshield, forward looking radar (supplied by Bosch)[28][29] in the lower grille and ultrasonic acoustic location sensors in the front and rear bumpers that provide a 360-degree view around the car. The computer is the Mobileye EyeQ3.[30] This equipment allows Model S to detect road signs, lane markings, obstacles, and other vehicles. Upgrading from Hardware 1 to Hardware 2 is not offered as it would require substantial work and cost.[31]

Hardware 2[edit]

Hardware 2, included in all vehicles manufactured after October 2016, includes an Nvidia Drive PX 2[32] GPU for CUDA based GPGPU computation.[33][34] Tesla claimed that Hardware 2 provided the necessary equipment to allow full self-driving capability at SAE Level 5. The hardware includes 8 surround cameras and 12 ultrasonic sensors, in addition to forward-facing radar with enhanced processing capabilities.[21] The Autopilot computer is replaceable to allow for future upgrades.[35] The radar is claimed to be able to observe beneath and ahead of the vehicle in front of the Tesla; the radar can see vehicles through heavy rain, fog or dust.[36]

Hardware specifications
Hardware 2014 Autopilot
Hardware 1
2016 Enhanced Autopilot/Full Self-Driving Capability[37]
Hardware 2
Radar Unknown range 160 m (525 ft)
Forward Cameras 1 monochrome with unknown range Trifocal camera:
  • Narrow: 250 m (820 ft)
  • Main: 150 m (490 ft)
  • Wide: 60 m (195 ft)
Forward Looking Side Cameras N/A
  • Left: 80 m (260 ft)
  • Right: 80 m (260 ft)
Rearward Looking Side Cameras N/A
  • Left: 100 m (330 ft)
  • Right: 100 m (330 ft)
Rear View Camera For human use, not for automation use 50 m (165 ft)
Sonars 12 surrounding with 5 m (16 ft) range 12 surrounding with 8 m (26 ft) range
Platform MobilEye EyeQ3[38] NVIDIA DRIVE PX 2 AI computing platform[39]
Function specifications (pending incremental updates and regulatory approvals)
Functions 2014 Autopilot

Hardware 1

2016 Enhanced Autopilot/Full Self-Driving Capability

Hardware 2

Hands-on feature with limited Hands-Free On-Ramp to Off-Ramp for limited-access roads Yes, except when driver wants to change lane.[40] Yes[41]
TACC-Traffic-Aware Cruise Control (Smart/Adaptive Cruise Control) Yes[42] Yes[41]
Max speed 90 mph (145 km/h)[43] 90 mph (145 km/h)[44]
Autosteer Yes[42] Yes, and in the future: tighter, more complex roads[45]
Auto Lane Change Driver initiates the lane changing signal when the traffic is safe (due to ultrasonic 16 foot limited range capability) then the system does the rest.[46] In future: Automatically done all by itself for a faster lane and without driver's judgement nor input.[47]
Highway Interchanges In future: Yes[48] In future: Yes[47]
Autopark: Parallel and Perpendicular Parking Yes[42] Yes[49]
Summon (remote automatic car retrieval, including automatic garage door opening and closing) Yes[50] Yes[49]
Lane Departure Warning Yes[51] Yes[52]
Full Self-Driving Capability Not designed to be driverless[42] In future: Yes, with an additional fee. The Tesla car will be able to drive itself, automatically recharge at "cable bot"-equipped Superchargers and can use Parking Seek to find a parking space all without a driver.[49]

Hardware 2.5[edit]

An updated Hardware version referred to as 'HW 2.5' (also known as '2.1') was released in July 2017, with cars built from August 2017 containing the updated hardware set. In HW 2.5 there is a secondary node (without a GPU) to provide more computing power and wiring redundancy which is to slightly improve reliability.[53][54]

Driving features[edit]

Tesla requires operators to monitor the vehicle at all times, just as the Federal Aviation Administration requires pilots to monitor aircraft on autopilot. Autopilot includes multiple capabilities, including adaptive cruise control and lane departure warning.

Software updates[edit]

Autopilot-enabled cars receive Autopilot software updates wirelessly, the same as all other Tesla software updates.

Adaptive cruise control[edit]

Autopilot has the ability to follow another car, maintaining a safe distance from it as it speeds up and slows down. It can observe a second vehicle in front of the vehicle that it is following. It also slows on tight curves and when a car crosses the road in front of it. It can be enabled at any speed above 17 mph. By default, it sets the limit at the current speed limit plus/minus any driver-specified offset.

Alerts[edit]

Autopilot alerts the driver under various circumstances, such as a surprising situation on the road or excessive inattention by the driver. If the driver dismisses three audio warnings within an hour, Autopilot is disabled until the car is parked. This is to prevent experienced drivers from excessive reliance on built-in safety features. At speeds under 8 mph on divided highways, Autopilot functions indefinitely without the driver's hands on the wheel. Under 45 mph free hands are allowed for five minutes, unless the car detects lateral acceleration. Above 45 mph free hands are allowed for three minutes if following another vehicle or one minute without following a car.[36]

Autopark/Summon[edit]

Autopark drives the car into a parking spot, while Summon drives it out. Configuration settings control maximum distance, side clearance and bumper clearance. This feature activates Homelink to open and close garage doors and it is available using the fob or the Tesla mobile app.[55] As of March 2017, Summon was available in "beta" for HW2. Controls include bumper, side clearance and summon distance.[56]

Autosteer[edit]

Autosteer steers the car to remain in whatever lane it is in (known as lane-keeping). With HW1, it is also able to safely change lanes as directed by a tap of the turn signal.[57] As of May 2017, HW2 is limited to 90 mph (145 km/h) on highway roads and the former 35 mph (56 km/h) speed limit on non-highway roads was removed, instead limiting to five over the speed limit or 45 mph (72 km/h) if no speed limit is detected.[58]

Safety features[edit]

The Autopilot can detect a potential front or side collision with another vehicle, bicycle or pedestrian within a distance of 525 feet (160 m), if one is found it sounds a warning.[59] Autopilot has automatic emergency braking that detects objects that may hit the car and applies the brakes. Autopilot also can automatically adjust the high/low beam headlights as the nighttime lighting changes.

Speed assist[edit]

Front-facing cameras detect speed limit signs and display the current limit on the dashboard or center display. Limits are compared against GPS data if no signs are present.[59]

Public debate[edit]

Some industry experts have raised questions about the legal status of autonomous driving in the U.S. and whether Tesla owners would violate current state regulations when using the Autopilot function. The few states that have passed laws allowing autonomous cars on the road, limit their use for testing purposes; not for use by the general public. Also, there are questions about the liability for autonomous cars in case there is a mistake.[60] A Tesla spokesman said there is "nothing in our autopilot system that is in conflict with current regulations." "We are not getting rid of the pilot. This is about releasing the driver from tedious tasks so they can focus and provide better input." Google's director of self-driving cars said he does not think there is a regulatory block as long as the self-driving vehicle met crash-test and other safety standards. A spokesman for the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) said that "any autonomous vehicle would need to meet applicable federal motor vehicle safety standards" and the NHTSA "will have the appropriate policies and regulations in place to ensure the safety of this type of vehicles."[60]

According to Elon Musk, "We really designed the Model S to be a very sophisticated computer on wheels. Tesla is a software company as much as it is a hardware company. A huge part of what Tesla is, is a Silicon Valley software company. We view this the same as updating your phone or your laptop."[61] Full autonomy is “really a software limitation: The hardware exists to create full autonomy, so it’s really about developing advanced, narrow AI for the car to operate on.“[62][63]

The Autopilot development focus is on "increasingly sophisticated neural nets that can operate in reasonably sized computers in the car”.[62][63] According to Musk, "the car will learn over time", including from other cars.[64] Early data after 47 million miles of driving in Autopilot mode shows the probability of an accident is at least 50% lower when using Autopilot.[65] However, Ars Technica notes that the brake system tends to initiate later than some drivers expect.[66] One driver claimed that Tesla's Autopilot failed to brake, resulting in collisions. Tesla pointed out that the driver deactivated the cruise control of the car prior to the crash.[67] Ars Technica also notes that the lane changes are semi-automatic; the driver must activate the turn signal in order for the car to initiate a lane change.[68]

Tesla's Autopilot with Hardware version 1 (HW1) can be classified as somewhere between levels 2 and 3 under the U.S. Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) five levels of vehicle automation. At this level, the car can act autonomously but requires the driver to be prepared to take control at a moment's notice.[69][70] HW1 is suitable only on limited-access highways, and sometimes will fail to detect lane markings and disengage itself. In urban driving the system will not read traffic signals or obey stop signs. This system also does not detect pedestrians or cyclists,[71] and while AP1 detects motorcycles,[72] there has been two instances of AP rear-ending motorcycles.[73]

There has been significant controversy over the media response to the fatal Tesla accident described in the below section. Whilst a significant amount of blame was apportioned to Tesla for the failure of its Autopilot system, it must be noted that the system at the time of the accident was in a beta phase and not ready for widespread public use, and also required the driver to ensure that their hands remained on the steering wheel at all times, and to be prepared to resume manual driving at any moment.[74][undue weight? ] Hence, when used as an assistive feature (as intended by Tesla), some hold the view that Autopilot can only enhance road safety,[74] assuming it does not lull the driver into complacent inattention.

Autopilot potentially saved the life of a pedestrian in Washington, D.C. on the night of July 17, 2016,[75][76] and played a pivotal role in a medical emergency involving 37-year-old Joshua Neally that same month.[77] Neally was driving his Tesla Model X when he suffered a pulmonary embolism that caused intense panic and rendered him incapable of driving.[78] Neally used Autopilot to drive most of the highway to a local hospital. At the off-ramp, Neally took control of the car and drove to the emergency room.[78]

Legal Challenges[edit]

Tesla's Autopilot is facing a class action suit that claims the second-generation Enhanced Autopilot system is "dangerously defective."[79]

Serious crashes[edit]

Handan, China (January 20, 2016)[edit]

On January 20, 2016, the driver of a Tesla Model S in Handan, China was killed when their car crashed into a stationary truck.[80] The Tesla was following a car in the far left lane of a multi-lane highway; the car in front moved to the right lane to avoid a truck stopped on the left shoulder, and the Tesla, which the driver's father believes was in Autopilot mode, did not slow before colliding with the stopped truck.[81] According to footage captured by a dashboard camera, the stationary street sweeper on the left side of the expressway partially extended into the far left lane, and the driver did not appear to respond to the unexpected obstacle.[82]

In September 2016, the media reported the driver's family had filed a lawsuit in July against the Tesla dealer who sold the car.[83] The family's lawyer stated the suit was intended "to let the public know that self-driving technology has some defects. We are hoping Tesla, when marketing its products, will be more cautious. Don’t just use self-driving as a selling point for young people."[81] Tesla released a statement which said they "have no way of knowing whether or not Autopilot was engaged at the time of the crash" since the car telemetry could not be retrieved remotely due to damage caused by the crash.[81] Telemetry was recorded locally to a SD card and given to Tesla, who decoded it and provided that data to a third party for independent review. Tesla added that "while the third-party appraisal is not yet complete, we have no reason to believe that Autopilot on this vehicle ever functioned other than as designed."[84]

Williston, Florida (May 7, 2016)[edit]

The first known fatal accident involving a Tesla engaged in Autopilot mode took place in Williston, Florida, on May 7, 2016. The driver was killed in a crash with a 18-wheel tractor-trailer.

By late June 2016, the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) opened a formal investigation into the accident, working with the Florida Highway Patrol. According to the NHTSA, preliminary reports indicate the crash occurred when the tractor-trailer made a left turn in front of the Tesla at an intersection on a non-controlled access highway, and the car failed to apply the brakes. The car continued to travel after passing under the truck’s trailer.[85][86][87] The diagnostic log of the Tesla indicated it was traveling at a speed of 74 mi/h (119 km/h) when it collided with and traveled under the trailer, which was not equipped with a side underrun protection system.[88]:12 The underride collision sheared off the Tesla's glasshouse, destroying everything above the beltline, and caused fatal injuries to the driver.[88]:6–7; 13 Approximately nine seconds after colliding with the trailer, the Tesla traveled another 886.5 feet (270.2 m) and came to rest after colliding with two chain-link fences and a utility pole.[88]:7; 12

The NHTSA's preliminary evaluation was opened to examine the design and performance of any automated driving systems in use at the time of the crash, which involves a population of an estimated 25,000 Model S cars.[89] On July 8, 2016, the NHTSA requested Tesla Inc. to hand over to the agency detailed information about the design, operation and testing of its Autopilot technology. The agency also requested details of all design changes and updates to Autopilot since its introduction, and Tesla's planned updates scheduled for the next four months.[90]

According to Tesla, "neither autopilot nor the driver noticed the white side of the tractor-trailer against a brightly lit sky, so the brake was not applied." The car attempted to drive full speed under the trailer, "with the bottom of the trailer impacting the windshield of the Model S." Tesla also stated that this was Tesla’s first known Autopilot-related death in over 130 million miles (208 million km) driven by its customers while Autopilot was activated. According to Tesla there is a fatality every 94 million miles (150 million km) among all type of vehicles in the U.S.[85][86][91] It is estimated that billions of miles will need to be traveled before Tesla Autopilot can claim to be safer than humans with statistical significance (although fewer than billions of miles will be needed if Tesla Autopilot is more dangerous). Researchers say that Tesla and others need to release more data on the limitations and performance of automated driving systems if self-driving cars are to become safe and understood enough for mass market use.[92][93]

The truck's driver told the Associated Press that he could hear a Harry Potter movie playing in the crashed car, and said the car was driving so quickly that "he went so fast through my trailer I didn't see him." "It was still playing when he died and snapped a telephone pole a quarter mile down the road." According to the Florida Highway Patrol, they found in the wreckage an aftermarket portable DVD player. It is not possible to watch videos on the Model S touchscreen display.[87][94] A laptop computer was recovered during the post-crash examination of the wreck, along with an adjustable vehicle laptop mount attached to the front passenger's seat frame. The NHTSA concluded the laptop was probably mounted and the driver may have been distracted at the time of the crash.[88]:17–19; 21

Dr. Deb Bruce, head of the investigation team, announces results to the Board on September 12, 2017

In July 2016, the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) announced it had opened a formal investigation into the fatal accident while Autopilot was engaged. The NTSB is an investigative body that only has the power to make policy recommendations. An agency spokesman said, "It's worth taking a look and seeing what we can learn from that event, so that as that automation is more widely introduced we can do it in the safest way possible." The NTSB opens annually about 25 to 30 highway investigations.[95] In September 2017, the NTSB released its report, determining that "the probable cause of the Williston, Florida, crash was the truck driver’s failure to yield the right of way to the car, combined with the car driver’s inattention due to overreliance on vehicle automation, which resulted in the car driver’s lack of reaction to the presence of the truck. Contributing to the car driver’s overreliance on the vehicle automation was its operational design, which permitted his prolonged disengagement from the driving task and his use of the automation in ways inconsistent with guidance and warnings from the manufacturer."[96].

In January 2017, the NHTSA Office of Defects Investigations (ODI) released a preliminary evaluation, finding that the driver in the crash had seven seconds to see the truck and identifying no defects in the Autopilot system; the ODI also found that the Tesla car crash rate dropped by 40 percent after Autosteer installation.[97][98] The NHTSA Special Crash Investigation team published its report in January 2018.[88] According to the report, for the drive leading up to the crash, the driver engaged Autopilot for 37 minutes and 26 seconds, and the system provided 13 "hands not detected" alerts, to which the driver responded after an average delay of 16 seconds.[88]:24 The report concluded "Regardless of the operational status of the Tesla’s ADAS technologies, the driver was still responsible for maintaining ultimate control of the vehicle. All evidence and data gathered concluded that the driver neglected to maintain complete control of the Tesla leading up to the crash."[88]:25

Culver City, California (January 22, 2018)[edit]

On January 22, 2018, a Tesla Model S crashed into a fire truck parked on the side of the I-405 freeway in Culver City, California while traveling at a speed exceeding 50 mph (80 km/h) and the driver survived.[99] The driver said he was using Autopilot, according to the Culver City Fire Department, which reported the crash over Twitter at approximately 8:30 A.M. The fire truck and a California Highway Patrol vehicle were parked in the left emergency lane and carpool lane of the southbound 405, blocking off the scene of an earlier accident, with emergency lights flashing.[100]

Autopilot may not detect stationary vehicles at highway speeds and it cannot detect some objects.[101] Other advanced driver-assistance systems have similar limitations. Raj Rajkumar, who studies autonomous driving systems at Carnegie Mellon University, believes the radars used for Autopilot are designed to detect moving objects, but are "not very good in detecting stationary objects".[102] Both NTSB and NHTSA have dispatched teams to investigate the crash.[103] Hod Lipson, director of Columbia University's Creative Machines Lab, faulted the diffusion of responsibility concept: "If you give the same responsibility to two people, they each will feel safe to drop the ball. Nobody has to be 100%, and that's a dangerous thing."[104]

Mountain View, California (March 23, 2018)[edit]

On March 23, 2018, a second US Autopilot fatality occurred in Mountain View, California.[105] The crash occurred just before 9:30 A.M. on southbound US 101 at the carpool lane exit for southbound Highway 85, at a concrete barrier where the left-hand offramp separates from 101. After the Model X crashed into the narrow concrete barrier, it was struck again by two following vehicles, and then it caught on fire.[106]

Both the NHTSA and NTSB are investigating the March 2018 crash.[107] Another driver of a Model S demonstrated that Autopilot appeared to be confused by the road stripes in April 2018. The gore ahead of the barrier is marked by diverging solid white lines (a vee-shape); the Autosteer feature of the Model S appeared to mistakenly use the left-side white line instead of the right-side white line as the lane marking for the far left lane, which would have led the Model S into the same concrete barrier had the driver not taken control.[108] Ars Technica concluded "that as Autopilot gets better, drivers could become increasingly complacent and pay less and less attention to the road."[109]

In a corporate blog post, Tesla noted the impact attenuator separating the offramp from US 101 had been previously crushed and not replaced prior to the Model X crash on March 23.[105][110] The post also stated that Autopilot was engaged at the time of the crash, and the driver's hands had not been detected manipulating the steering wheel for six seconds before the crash. Vehicle data showed the driver had five seconds and 150 metres (490 ft) "unobstructed view of the concrete divider, [...] but the vehicle logs show that no action was taken."[105] The NTSB investigation had been focused on the damaged impact attenuator and the vehicle fire after the collision, but after it was reported the driver had complained about the Autopilot functionality,[111] the NTSB announced it would also investigate "all aspects of this crash including the driver’s previous concerns about the autopilot."[112] A NTSB spokesman stated the organization "is unhappy with the release of investigative information by Tesla".[113] Elon Musk dismissed the criticism, tweeting that NTSB was "an advisory body" and that "Tesla releases critical crash data affecting public safety immediately & always will. To do otherwise would be unsafe."[114]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Epstein, Zach (2016-07-21). "Tesla Autopilot Crash Avoidance Model S Autopilot saves man's life". BGR. Retrieved 2016-08-26. 
  2. ^ Golson, Jordan; Bohn, Dieter (2016-10-19). "All new Tesla cars now have hardware for 'full self-driving capabilities'". The Verge. Retrieved 2016-10-22. 
  3. ^ a b "Tesla promises 'series of new Autopilot features in 2018', still plans coast-to-coast drive". Electrek. 2018-02-07. Retrieved 2018-03-08. 
  4. ^ Lambert, Fred (2016-11-10). "Tesla orders 3rd-party survey to prove owners understand 'Autopilot', 98% say they do". Electrek. Retrieved 2016-11-13. 
  5. ^ "Riding shotgun in Tesla's fastest car ever". Engadget. 2014-10-09. Retrieved 2014-10-10. 
  6. ^ "Tesla D is, as expected, an AWD Model S but new autopilot features surprise". AutoblogGreen. Retrieved 2014-10-10. 
  7. ^ White, Joseph B. (2014-10-10). "Tesla Aims to Leapfrog Rivals". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2015-03-21. 
  8. ^ Howell, Donna (2015-08-17). "Tesla, Mobileye Rev Up on Future of Self-Driving Car". Investors.com. Retrieved 2015-12-16. 
  9. ^ Bhuiyan, Johana (2016-07-26). "In the wake of a fatal crash, Tesla will quit using Mobileye's chips for Autopilot vision". ReCode. Retrieved 2016-07-26. 
  10. ^ Gitlin, Jonathan M. (2016-09-15). "Mobileye spills the beans: Tesla was dropped because of safety concerns". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2016-11-14. 
  11. ^ Nelson, Gabe (2015-10-14). "Tesla beams down 'autopilot' mode to Model S". Automotive News. Retrieved 2015-10-19. 
  12. ^ "Enhancing Safety and Convenience with Summon". Tesla Motors. 2016-02-08. Retrieved 2016-04-18. 
  13. ^ Zhang, Benjamin (2016-01-10). "ELON MUSK: In 2 years your Tesla will be able to drive from New York to LA and find you". Automotive News. Retrieved 2016-01-12. 
  14. ^ "Autopilot - Summon". Tesla Motors – via Vimeo. 
  15. ^ Tesla to publish details of v8.0 with “Major improvements to Autopilot” later today August 31, 2016
  16. ^ "Elon Musk explains Tesla Autopilot's new capacity to see ahead of the car in front of you". Electrek. Retrieved 2016-09-11. 
  17. ^ Analyst: Tesla Autopilot's Switch From Camera To Radar Bad News For Mobileye Benzinga, Retrieved 2016-09-12
  18. ^ Tesla’s Autopilot Vindicated With 40% Drop in Crashes Bloomberg, January 19, 2017
  19. ^ "Automated Flight Controls" (PDF). Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved 2014-02-20. While the autopilot relieves you from manually manipulating the flight controls, you must maintain vigilance over the system to ensure that it performs the intended functions and the aircraft remains within acceptable parameters of altitudes, airspeeds, and airspace limits. 
  20. ^ Lambert, Fred (2016-11-13). "Tesla has now 1.3 billion miles of Autopilot data going into its new self-driving program". Electrek. Retrieved 2016-11-13. 
  21. ^ a b "Autopilot: Full Self-Driving Hardware on All Cars". Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2016-10-21. 
  22. ^ Thomas, Andrew. "New Tesla AutoPilot hardware". Medium. Retrieved 2017-09-23. 
  23. ^ Lambert, Fred (2017-02-15). "Tesla enables Autosteer on 'local roads' for new Enhanced Autopilot vehicles". Electrek. Retrieved 2017-02-23. 
  24. ^ "First look at Tesla's latest Autopilot 2.0 'smooth as silk' update [Video]". Retrieved 2017-06-14. 
  25. ^ "Elon Musk on Boring Company, Semi-Truck, Mars – TED Talk [transcript]". Electrek. 2017-05-01. Retrieved 2017-05-02. Chris: The time when someone will be able to buy one of your cars and literally just take the hands of the wheel and go to sleep and wake up and find that they’ve arrived. How far away is that? To do that safely? Elon: That’s about two years. 
  26. ^ Lambert, Fred (2016-10-20). "Tesla's software timeline for 'Enhanced Autopilot' transition means 'Full Self-Driving Capability' as early as next year". Electrek. Retrieved 2016-10-20. At “2 to 3 months from now”, Tesla expects .. the new software validation for the Autopilot features 
  27. ^ "Elon Musk on Boring Company, Semi-Truck, Mars – TED Talk [transcript]". Electrek. 2017-05-01. Retrieved 2017-05-02. Chris: The time when someone will be able to buy one of your cars and literally just take the hands of the wheel and go to sleep and wake up and find that they’ve arrived. How far away is that? To do that safely? Elon: That’s about two years. 
  28. ^ Isidore, Chris (2016-07-18). "Elon Musk says Autopilot upgrade could be coming". US: CNN. Retrieved 2016-07-19. 
  29. ^ Musk, Elon (2016-07-17). "Twitter". Retrieved 2016-07-19. 
  30. ^ Lambert, Fred (2017-01-02). "Lucid Motors' autonomous tech in its all-electric sedan will be powered by Tesla's former partner Mobileye". Electrek. Retrieved 2017-01-02. 
  31. ^ Lambert, Fred (2017-01-23). "'Tesla will not stop innovating' and introduce 'major updates every 12 to 18 months', says Elon Musk". Electrek. Retrieved 2017-01-23. require “stripping down the entire car and replacing 300+ parts” 
  32. ^ Shapiro, Danny (2016-10-20). "Tesla Self-Driving Car Built on NVIDIA DRIVE PX 2 - NVIDIA Blog". The Official NVIDIA Blog. Retrieved 2016-10-21. 
  33. ^ "Tesla is about to increase its lead in semi-autonomous driving w/ 'Tesla Vision': computer vision based on NVIDIA's parallel computing". Electrek. 2016-10-10. Retrieved 2016-10-10. 
  34. ^ Guess, Megan (2016-10-20). "Teslas will now be sold with enhanced hardware suite for full autonomy". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2016-10-20. 
  35. ^ Lambert, Fred (2016-10-20). "Tesla is about to increase its lead in semi-autonomous driving w/ 'Tesla Vision': computer vision based on NVIDIA's parallel computing". Electrek. Retrieved 2016-10-20. Musk did say that the new vehicles will eventually be able to upgrade the new onboard Autopilot computer since the access has been made relatively easy 
  36. ^ a b GITLIN, JONATHAN M. (2016-09-11). "Tesla is all about autopilot and radar in firmware 8". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2016-11-21. 
  37. ^ "Autopilot". Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2016-11-07. 
  38. ^ "The Future of Tesla Autopilot - What Happens After Mobileye?". Wccftech. 2016-07-29. Retrieved 2016-12-31. 
  39. ^ "Tesla Self-Driving Car Built on NVIDIA DRIVE PX 2 | NVIDIA Blog". The Official NVIDIA Blog. 2016-10-20. Retrieved 2016-12-31. 
  40. ^ Sparks, Daniel (2015-03-18). "Elon Musk: Tesla Motors, Inc. Will Be the Leader in Autonomous Cars". The Motley Fool. Retrieved 2017-08-23. 
  41. ^ a b "Full Self-Driving Hardware on All Cars". Tesla. 2017-08-23. Retrieved 2017-08-23. 
  42. ^ a b c d "Dual Motor Model S and Autopilot". Tesla. 2014-10-10. Retrieved 2017-08-23. 
  43. ^ Loveday, Steven (2017-05-07). "Tesla Autopilot Update Bumps Autosteer Speed Up To 90 MPH". Inside Evs. 
  44. ^ Lambert, Fred (2017-05-06). "Tesla releases important new Autopilot update removing Autosteer restrictions in new cars". Electrek. Retrieved 2017-08-23. 
  45. ^ "Full Self-Driving Hardware on All Cars". 2017-08-23. Retrieved 2017-08-23. 
  46. ^ Lavrinc, Damon (2014-10-09). "Tesla Model S Auto Pilot Does Lane Changes For You". Jalopnik. Retrieved 2017-08-23. 
  47. ^ a b "Full Self-Driving Hardware on All Cars". 2017-08-23. Retrieved 2017-08-23. 
  48. ^ Lambert, Fred (2016-08-29). "Tesla Autopilot with new v8.0 software update is able to handle highway interchanges". Electrek. Retrieved 2017-08-23. 
  49. ^ a b c "Full Self-Driving Hardware on All Cars". Tesla. 2017-08-23. Retrieved 2017-08-23. 
  50. ^ "Dual Motor Model S and Autopilot". 2014-10-10. Retrieved 2017-08-23. 
  51. ^ Anthony, Mike (2014-10-03). "UPDATE: Tesla Model S Now With Driver Assist Features". Inside EVs. 
  52. ^ "Model X Owner's Manual 8.0, page 94" (PDF). Tesla. 2017-08-23. Retrieved 2017-08-23. 
  53. ^ Lambert, Frederic (August 9, 2017). "Tesla has a new Autopilot '2.5' hardware suite with more computing power for autonomous driving". electrek.co. Retrieved 15 February 2018. 
  54. ^ Hawkins, Andrew. "Tesla has been working on a backup plan in case its self-driving promises fail". The Verge. Retrieved 15 February 2018. 
  55. ^ Lambert, Fred (2016-02-18). "Tesla pushes a new update with improved 'Autopark' and 'Summon' feature [v7.1 2.12.22 release notes]". Electrek. Retrieved 2017-02-23. 
  56. ^ Lambert, Fred (2017-03-29). "Tesla releases 8.1 software update and improves Autopilot 2.0 features: Autosteer 80 mph and Summon". Electrek. Retrieved 2017-04-01. 
  57. ^ Hall, Gina (2015-12-16). "Tesla to limit self-driving functions". Silicon Valley Business Journal. Retrieved 2015-12-16. 
  58. ^ "Tesla wants to make self-driving cars a reality by collecting more video data from drivers". The Verge. 2015-12-16. Retrieved 2017-05-08. 
  59. ^ a b Model X Owner's Manual
  60. ^ a b Aaron M. Kessler (2015-03-19). "Elon Musk Says Self-Driving Tesla Cars Will Be in the U.S. by Summer". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-03-20. 
  61. ^ Hirsch, Jerry (2015-03-19). "Elon Musk: Model S not a car but a 'sophisticated computer on wheels'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2015-04-18. 
  62. ^ a b "When Will Elon Musk Announce Autopilot 2.0 and the Model 3 HUD?". 
  63. ^ a b McMahon, Jeff. "Software Is The Last Obstacle To Fully Autonomous Vehicles, Elon Musk Says". 
  64. ^ Musk, Elon (2015-07-31). "The car will learn over time, but there is a min caliber of starting quality". Twitter. Archived from the original on 2015-11-10. Retrieved 2015-08-06. 
  65. ^ Loveday, Steven (2016-04-29). "Elon Musk "The Probability Of Having An Accident Is 50% Lower If You Have Autopilot On"". Inside EVs. Retrieved 2016-04-29. 
  66. ^ Hutchinson, Lee (2016-05-21). "Cruising with Tesla's Autopilot in Houston traffic". Retrieved 2016-05-21. 
  67. ^ Gitlin, Jonathan (2016-05-14). "Another driver says Tesla's autopilot failed to brake; Tesla says otherwise". Ars Technica. US. Retrieved 2016-05-22. 
  68. ^ Hutchinson, Lee (2016-06-03). "Four hundred miles with Tesla's autopilot forced me to trust the machine". Ars Technica. US. Retrieved 2016-05-22. 
  69. ^ Golson, Jordan (2016-04-27). "Volvo autonomous car engineer calls Tesla's Autopilot a 'wannabe'". The Verge. Retrieved 2016-07-01. 
  70. ^ Korosec, Kirsten (2015-12-15). "Elon Musk Says Tesla Vehicles Will Drive Themselves in Two Years". Fortune. Retrieved 2016-07-01. 
  71. ^ Abuelsamid, Sam (2016-07-01). "Tesla Autopilot Fatality Shows Why Lidar And V2V Will Be Necessary For Autonomous Cars". Forbes. Retrieved 2016-07-01. 
  72. ^ Lambert, Fred (2016-11-15). "Tesla Autopilot significantly improved pedestrian detection in v8 update tests show, now renders humans". Electrek. Retrieved 2016-12-21. 
  73. ^ "Motorcycle rear-ending raises questions on Tesla vehicle type approval in Europe". New Atlas. Retrieved 2016-12-21. 
  74. ^ a b "Thoughts on the fatal Tesla Autopilot accident". www.deeptread.com. Deep Tread. Retrieved 2016-09-19. 
  75. ^ Lambert, Fred (2016-07-21). "Tesla Autopilot reportedly prevented serious injury or saved the life of a pedestrian in DC". Electrek. 
  76. ^ @elonmusk (2016-07-21). "Autopilot prevents serious injury or death of a pedestrian in NY [sic] (owner anecdote confirmed by vehicle logs)" (Tweet) – via Twitter. 
  77. ^ Etherington, Darrell. "Autopilot in Tesla Model X helps driver get safely to a hospital". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2016-08-12. 
  78. ^ a b "Did Tesla's Model X's Autopilot Just Save This Missouri Man's Life? - Sokolove Law". Retrieved 2016-08-12. 
  79. ^ "Lawsuit labels Tesla Autopilot as 'dangerously defective'". 
  80. ^ "Dashcam shows fatal Tesla Model S crash in China". CNet. 15 September 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2016. 
  81. ^ a b c Boudette, Neal E. (14 September 2016). "Autopilot Cited in Death of Chinese Tesla Driver". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 April 2018. 
  82. ^ Lambert, Fred (14 September 2016). "Another fatal Tesla crash reportedly on Autopilot emerges, Model S hits a streetsweeper truck – caught on dashcam". Electrek. 
  83. ^ "Tesla sued in China over fatal crash". Financial Times.  (subscription required)
  84. ^ Felton, Ryan (27 February 2018). "Two Years On, A Father Is Still Fighting Tesla Over Autopilot And His Son's Fatal Crash". Jalopnik. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  85. ^ a b Yadron, Danny; Tynan, Dan (2016-07-01). "Tesla driver dies in first fatal crash while using autopilot mode". The Guardian. San Francisco. Retrieved 2016-07-01. 
  86. ^ a b Vlasic, Bill; Boudette, Neal E. (2016-06-30). "Self-Driving Tesla Involved in Fatal Crash". The New York Times. Retrieved 2016-07-01. 
  87. ^ a b Morris, David Paul (2016-07-01). "Highway patrol found DVD player in wreckage of fatal Tesla accident". Associated Press. CNBC. Retrieved 2016-07-01. 
  88. ^ a b c d e f g Crash Research & Analysis, Inc. (January 2018). Special Crash Investigations: On-Site Automated Driver Assistance System Crash Investigation of the 2015 Tesla Model S 70D (Report No. DOT HS 812 481) (Report). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Retrieved 1 April 2018. 
  89. ^ Office of Defects Investigations, NHTSA (2016-06-28). "ODI Resume - Investigation: PE 16-007" (PDF). U.S.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Retrieved 2016-07-02. 
  90. ^ Shepardson, David (2016-07-12). "NHTSA seeks answers on fatal Tesla Autopilot crash". Automotive News. Retrieved 2016-07-13. 
  91. ^ "A Tragic Loss" (Press release). Tesla Motors. 2016-06-30. Retrieved 2016-07-01. This is the first known fatality in just over 130 million miles where Autopilot was activated. Among all vehicles in the US, there is a fatality every 94 million miles. Worldwide, there is a fatality approximately every 60 million miles. 
  92. ^ Simonite, Tom (2016-07-06). "Tesla's Dubious Claims About Autopilot's Safety Record". MIT Technology Review. US. Retrieved 2016-07-07. 
  93. ^ Abuelsamid, Sam (2016-07-05). "Adding Some Statistical Perspective To Tesla Autopilot Safety Claims". Forbes. Retrieved 2016-11-14. 
  94. ^ Liston, Barbara; Woodall, Bernie (2016-07-02). "DVD player found in Tesla car in fatal May crash". Retrieved 2016-07-03 – via Reuters. 
  95. ^ Levin, Alan; Plungis, Jeff (2016-07-08). "NTSB to scrutinize driver automation with probe of Tesla crash". Automotive News. Retrieved 2016-07-11. 
  96. ^ "Collision Between a Car Operating With Automated Vehicle Control Systems and a Tractor-Semitrailer Truck Near Williston, Florida May 7, 2016". National Transportation Safety Board. 12 September 2017. Retrieved 1 April 2018. 
  97. ^ "Fatal Tesla Autopilot accident investigation ends with no recall ordered". The Verge. 2017-01-19. Retrieved 2017-01-19. 
  98. ^ "PE 16-007. MY2014-2016 Tesla Model S and Model X" (PDF). NHTSA. 2017-01-19. Retrieved 2017-06-07. 
  99. ^ "Tesla in Autopilot mode crashes into fire truck". CNN. 24 January 2018. Retrieved 31 January 2018. 
  100. ^ Baron, Ethan (22 January 2018). "Tesla 'on Autopilot' slams into parked fire truck on California freeway". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved 1 April 2018. 
  101. ^ "Tesla Model S firetruck crash in California: What we know so far". TESLARATI. 25 January 2018. Retrieved 31 January 2018. 
  102. ^ Stewart, Jack (25 January 2018). "Why Tesla's Autopilot can't see a stopped firetruck". Wired. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  103. ^ Krisher, Tom; Durbin, Dee-Ann (27 January 2018). "2 federal agencies send teams to probe Tesla freeway crash". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. Retrieved 1 April 2018. 
  104. ^ Mitchell, Russ (25 January 2018). "Tesla crash highlights a problem: When cars are partly self-driving, humans don't feel responsible". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 1 April 2018. 
  105. ^ a b c "An Update on Last Week's Accident". Tesla. 30 March 2018. Archived from the original on 31 March 2018. Retrieved 30 March 2018. 
  106. ^ "Deadly crash involving Tesla on Hwy 101 in Mountain View". KRON4. 23 March 2018. Retrieved 1 April 2018. 
  107. ^ Shepardson, David (30 March 2018). "Tesla says crashed vehicle had been on autopilot prior to accident". Reuters. Reuters. Retrieved 1 April 2018. 
  108. ^ Lambert, Fred (3 April 2018). "Tesla Autopilot confuses markings toward barrier in recreation of fatal Model X crash at exact same location". electrek. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  109. ^ Lee, Timothy B. (5 April 2018). "There's growing evidence Tesla's Autopilot handles lane dividers poorly". Ars Technica. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  110. ^ Lee, Timothy B. (31 March 2018). "Tesla says Autopilot was active during fatal crash in Mountain View". Ars Technica. Conde Nast. Retrieved 1 April 2018. 
  111. ^ Noyes, Dan (2018-03-29). "I-TEAM EXCLUSIVE: Victim who died in Tesla crash had complained about auto-pilot". ABC7 San Francisco. Retrieved 2018-03-31. 
  112. ^ Siddiqui, Faiz (1 April 2018). "NTSB 'unhappy' with Tesla release of investigative information in fatal crash". The Washington Post. Retrieved 3 April 2018. 
  113. ^ "Tesla rebuked by death crash investigators". BBC News. 2 April 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2018. 
  114. ^ Lambert, Fred (2 April 2018). "Elon Musk hits back at NTSB's critique of Tesla releasing data of fatal Autopilot accident". electrek. Retrieved 3 April 2018. 

External links[edit]

Disclaimer

None of the audio/visual content is hosted on this site. All media is embedded from other sites such as GoogleVideo, Wikipedia, YouTube etc. Therefore, this site has no control over the copyright issues of the streaming media.

All issues concerning copyright violations should be aimed at the sites hosting the material. This site does not host any of the streaming media and the owner has not uploaded any of the material to the video hosting servers. Anyone can find the same content on Google Video or YouTube by themselves.

The owner of this site cannot know which documentaries are in public domain, which has been uploaded to e.g. YouTube by the owner and which has been uploaded without permission. The copyright owner must contact the source if he wants his material off the Internet completely.

Powered by YouTube
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL and (CC) license