The Tesla Factory is an automobile manufacturing plant in south Fremont, California, and the principal production facility of Tesla, Inc.. The facility was formerly known as New United Motor Manufacturing, Inc. (NUMMI), a joint venture between General Motors and Toyota. The plant is located in the East Industrial area of Fremont between Interstates 880 and 680, and employed around 6,000 people in June 2016.
Tesla had planned for an assembly factory in Albuquerque, New Mexico, as a central location for shipping. Construction was supposed to begin in April 2007, but was canceled.
A separate greenfield factory to be built in San Jose, California was also announced. However, the cost was prohibitive, and the company looked for alternatives. Tesla initially also dismissed NUMMI for being too big and costly.
Some of the current facility was operated as the GM Fremont Assembly from 1962 to 1982, and between 1984-2009 used as a plant for New United Motor Manufacturing, Inc. (NUMMI), a joint venture between General Motors and Toyota producing 357,809 cars and trucks in 1997. Efforts to continue the site after 2010 included Aurica EVs, state incentives to Toyota, and a stadium, but none of them succeeded. The mayor of Fremont viewed the site as dead.
The plant is located in the South Fremont District between the Warm Springs BART station and the California State Route 262 connecting I880 and I680. Union Pacific Railroad has tracks at the plant delivering finished cars. Rail freight transport is also to be used to receive batteries and Model 3 drivetrains from Gigafactory 1.
On May 20, 2010, Tesla Inc. and Toyota announced a partnership to work on electric vehicle development and collaborate on the "development of electric vehicles, parts, and production system and engineering support". This included Tesla's partial purchase of the former NUMMI site, mainly consisting of the factory building, for $42 million.
Tesla officially took possession of the site on October 19, 2010, and opened it on October 27. The state of California has supported the renewal, expecting tax income from sustained jobs. The first retail delivery of the Tesla Model S took place during a special event held at the Tesla Factory on June 22, 2012.
NUMMI auctioned off the press lines, robots and other equipment to Toyota's other US factories while Tesla purchased over $17 million of manufacturing equipment and spare parts in 2011, at significant discounts compared to new equipment. Tesla bought $50 million worth of Schuler SMG hydraulic stamping press lines used from Detroit for $6 million, including shipping costs.
The factory was about 10 times the size Tesla initially needed, and much of the 370-acre (16,000,000 sq ft; 1,500,000 m2) site was unused in 2013, with most activity concentrated in the 5,500,000-square-foot (510,000 m2) main building that does the final assembly of vehicles.
Various parts of the NUMMI plant were planned to be modified to support Tesla vehicle production. For example, the passenger vehicle paint equipment was to be extensively modified through late 2011; converted from solvents to BASF water-based paint. Two paint lines (one car body, one component) were constructed from 2015.
The floors, walls and ceiling are painted white with skylights and high-efficiency lighting to create an environment similar to a laboratory, and the production environment is cleaner and quieter than at NUMMI.
In July 2013, Tesla acquired an adjacent 35-acre property from Union Pacific Railroad for a test track.
Tesla is building a casting foundry in Lathrop supporting the Fremont production, and leased 1.3 million sq ft of warehouses in nearby Livermore in 2017.
In 2016, there were 4,500 parking spaces, and Tesla purchased a neighboring 25-acre site from housing developer Lennar. Tesla announced in August 2017 it won approval from the Fremont City Council to double the size of the facility with about 4.6 million new square feet of space. Tesla also plans to expand production five-fold to 500,000 vehicles in 2018, or 10,000 units per week. They are working to increase their work force to about 9,000 people, preparing for the Model 3
Tesla started production with 1,000 workers. By 2013, this had risen to 3,000, and to 6,000 people in June 2016.
The plant's first series production vehicle is the Tesla Model S full-sized battery electric sedan.
In 2011, Tesla transitioned from 20 hand-assembled "alpha builds" to 50 "beta builds", production-validation vehicles built entirely at the Tesla Factory. These cars would also be used for system integration, engineering testing, and federal crash-testing and certification. Tesla expected to produce about 5,000 Model S sedans in 2012, with production ramping up to 20,000 in 2013 if necessary. The first retail delivery of the Model S took place during a special event held at the Tesla Factory on June 22, 2012.
Production grew from 15–20 cars completed/week in August 2012 to over 200 by November 5 and 400 by late December. In late December Tesla revised their 2012 delivery projections down to 2,500 cars.
Deliveries reached 6,892 units in the last three months of 2013. In December 2013, California announced it would give Tesla a US$34.7 million tax break to expand production by an estimated 35,000 vehicles annually from its Fremont, California plant.
Tesla announced that production was expected to climb from 600 cars per week in early 2014 to about 1,000 units per week by year-end. Tesla produced 7,535 units during the first quarter of 2014, and expected to produce 8,500 to 9,000 cars in the second quarter of 2014. As of early May 2014, the production rate was 700 cars per week.
As of 2015 mostly to pre-orders. Musk says they average around 20 changes to the S per week.
, about 1,000 cars are made per week,
Production of the Model X joined the Model S during 2015, following a short reconfiguration of the production line in July 2014. The first Model X that didn't need corrections was made in April 2016. Tesla moved some of the equipment to their Tilburg final assembly plant in the Netherlands in 2015.
On July 2, 2015, Tesla announced that it had delivered a total of 21,537 vehicles in the first half of 2015. All vehicles were manufactured at the Fremont plant.
In May 2016 Tesla raised $1.46 billion in stock, of which $1.26 billion is to prepare production of the Model 3 scheduled for late 2017. Changing from serially producing the Model S and X to the mass production of Model 3 is viewed by experts as a significant step. Tesla stated in May 2016 that it does not have that capability and needs to acquire it, which it partly did with the acquisition of Grohmann Automation in 2016. Whereas the Roadster was delayed by 9 months, the Model S more than six months, and the Model X more than 18 months, analysts estimated in December 2016 that the Model 3 production preparation was on schedule for the second half of 2017.
On August 3, 2016, Tesla announced that it was consistently producing 2,000 vehicles per week at the end of Q2 2016. About 2,500 workers operate the day shift and 2,000 attend the night shift.
Tesla makes many parts itself, which is unusual in the auto business. Tesla also works with 300 suppliers around the world, of which 50 are in Northern California, and 10 in the San Francisco Bay Area. Tesla's dashboard supplier SAS rents a 142,188-square-foot building near the factory, beginning in January 2017 with 200 employees. Other suppliers to have opened facilities in the area to be close to Tesla include Eclipse Automation and Futuris Automotive Group.
Tesla Model S manufacturing process
The manufacturing process uses more than 160 specialist robots, including 10 of the largest robots in the world, which are named after X-Men characters. Many of the Model S's unique components, including the battery pack, battery module, and drive units are manufactured in-house. The plant has a high level of integration compared with other modern car assembly plants, with most processes taking place within the Tesla Factory. This includes most of the stamping and machining, painting, and some coding. The hydraulic press lines used to stamp 5,000 body panels per day with a force of 10,000 tonnes, are the largest in North America and the 6th largest in the world. Around 60% of the car parts are sourced from North America, while Japan is the second-biggest source of components as of March 2015 . Design engineers also work at the factory itself, rather than a separate facility.
Each vehicle is made to order with a two to three-month wait time for delivery, although individual vehicles only take between three and five days to complete the assembly process. The assembly line moves at a speed of 5 cm/s. Tesla prefers delivery by train rather than by truck, as costs and damages are less.
Drive unit construction
The alternating current electric motor is constructed in-house. The main components of the motor are the stator and rotor.
The motor construction begins when a robot unspools and winds over 1⁄2 mile (0.80 km) of copper wire per motor. It then pulls the copper wire into a stack. The motor has three phases and so requires three coils of copper. A worker then lengthens and straightens each bundle of wire and inserts the hydraulic lift to transfer the motor to the next station.
A worker insulates each bundle of copper wire in a plastic sleeve to prevent the bundles from touching one another. The ends of the bundles are then snipped to the correct length. Lugs are added and crimped to form attachment points for the motor's three phases. A specialized automatic sewing machine then binds the coils together to keep them in place, the increased tightness of the binding provided by a robotic sewing machine increases the efficiency of the motor. The stator is then encased in a two part epoxy resin to help in evenly distributing the motor's heat. The stator is now complete and is inserted into a heated metal case, locking the stator inside as the case cools.
A worker uses a hoisting system to insert the rotor inside the stator completing the construction of the motor.
Additional drive unit components
A worker then installs the differential and other sections of the gearbox, attaching it together using bolts. An air leak test is then conducted. The three phase tripole power inverter is then installed onto the top of the motor to convert direct current from the battery into alternating current for the motor to use. The motor then undergoes a series of automated tests taking 4 minutes to ensure correct function, and then is moved to the general assembly area to be installed into the car.
Battery pack construction
The Model S 85s battery pack contains 7,104 '18650' lithium-ion battery cells in 16 modules wired in series (14 in the flat section and two stacked on the front). Each module contains six groups of 74 cells wired in parallel; the six groups are then wired in series within the module. As of June 2012 the battery pack uses modified Panasonic NCR18650A 3100mAh cells with nickel-cobalt-aluminum cathodes.
The use of commodity cells, similar to those found in laptops and mobile phones, is in contrast to every other electric vehicle manufacturer who use specialized large format Li-Ion cells. The liquid-cooled battery pack uses an intumescent gel to aid in fireproofing and even heat distribution.
Aluminium coil blanking
98% of the Tesla Model S body is constructed from aluminium and is produced from between 50 and 60 separate coils of aluminium each for various components. The coils are unwound, flattened and cut in a blanking machine; additional cutting is also done using laser cutter. The total weight of the aluminium used in the Model S is around 410 pounds (190 kg).
Tandem press lines
Stacked side panels that have been formed on the tandem press line.
A robot then transfers the aluminium blanks into the tandem press lines where the sheets are stamped into the various panels of the cars. The Schuler SMG hydraulic stamping press line is the largest in North America and the 6th largest in the world. The presses use up to 11,000 ton-force to form the body panels; the upper section applies 1400 tonnes of downward force and the lower section 130 tonnes. The blank aluminium sheet is stretched over the lower draw die and openings are cut with robots transferring the panels between processes. The workers then inspect each panel to ensure correct pressing. The parts are then stacked in frames and stored. The machines press one part every 6 seconds and create 5,000 parts per day.
Drive unit installation
The car is raised and the drive unit is installed into the rear axle assembly. The drive unit provides power directly to the wheels without a drive shaft.
Battery pack installation
The battery pack weighs almost 1,200 pounds (540 kg) and is delivered to the installation area and is raised into the car using a lift. Placing the battery pack under the cabin floor adds strength and rigidity to the car and lowers the vehicle's center of gravity to 18 inches (46 cm). A titanium plate is installed over the battery pack which protects it in the event of a high-speed collision and to protect from road debris.
In November 2013 there was an accident when the low-pressure aluminum casting press failed, spilling molten metal on three workers and causing their clothing to catch fire. Tesla was fined US$89,000 by the California Division of Occupational Safety and Health for seven safety violations, six considered serious.
- ^ a b c Campbell, Angela (2016-06-09). "Tesla Motors Inc Workers Being Contacted by UAW For Union Formation". The Country Caller. US. Retrieved 2016-07-25.
- ^ a b Sibley, Lisa (2010-10-27). "Tesla officially replaces NUMMI in Fremont".
- ^ "Tesla Motors press release - announcement of Albuquerque plant". Teslamotors.com. Archived from the original on 2010-04-06. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- ^ Severns, Dave. "Tesla Motors blog post regarding Albuquerque decision". Teslamotors.com. Archived from the original on 2007-03-17. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- ^ "The Albuquerque Tribune Editorial: Don't hold your breath on Tesla Motors plant". Abqtrib.com. Archived from the original on February 14, 2012. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- ^ "Tesla to build electric car factory in Bay Area - San Jose Mercury News". Mercurynews.com. Archived from the original on 2012-09-20. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- ^ a b O'Dell, John (2010-03-11). "Would-Be EV Maker's 'Plan' to Save NUMMI Auto Plant a Long Shot at Best". Green Car Advisor. Archived from the original on 2010-03-15. Retrieved 2010-04-02.
Tesla had been wooed as a NUMMI tenant by politicians and economic development people .. But Tesla - which has all of about 550 employees and plans to ramp up to around 2,000 when it starts building its next vehicle in 2012, the Model S electric sedan - took a look at the costs involved and rejected the idea out of hand. The plant, said Straubel, is about 10 times the size of a facility Tesla would need to build even 20,000 cars a year.
- ^ a b Martin, Murilee (2017-03-08). "We visit the Tesla Factory, formerly Fremont Assembly and NUMMI". Autoweek. Archived from the original on 2017-03-29. Retrieved 2017-04-08.
I spent a fair amount of time at NUMMI, and it seemed like a rackety, chaotic place on the production line .. Fast-forward 28 years, and the same facility is a brightly-lit, no-earplugs-needed, high-tech operation
- ^ a b "How Tesla Builds Electric Cars , Tesla Motors Part 2 (WIRED)". Wired.com. WIRED. Retrieved 2015-04-02.
- ^ "GM Nummi Plant". Archived from the original on 2016-03-14. Retrieved 2016-10-09.
- ^ a b c d PUI-WING TAM (2010-10-21). "Idle Fremont Plant Gears Up for Tesla". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 2015-03-16. Retrieved 2011-04-03.
Parts of the Fremont facility will be mothballed since Tesla is only using a fraction of the space. "When Nummi said it would close, the land was dead," says Fremont Mayor Bob Wasserman. When Tesla announced its Nummi deal in May, he says, "the land became alive" again
- ^ Donato-Weinstein, Nathan (2016-06-15). "Toll Brothers buys land near Fremont Warm Springs BART station". Silicon Valley Business Journal. US. Retrieved 2016-07-25.
- ^ "Mission/Warren Area Improvements". Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority. Retrieved 2016-07-25.
- ^ Donato-Weinstein, Nathan (2013-07-19). "Tesla Motors buys test track in 35-acre deal". Silicon Valley Business Journal. US. Retrieved 2016-07-25.
- ^ a b c "Tesla Motors (TSLA) Earnings Report: Q1 2015 Conference Call Transcript". TheStreet. May 7, 2015. p. 8. Archived from the original on May 11, 2015. Retrieved May 11, 2015.
- ^ BUREAU, SEAN WHALEY LAS VEGAS REVIEW-JOURNAL CAPITAL (2016-03-18). "Tesla officials show off progress at Gigafactory in Northern Nevada". Archived from the original on 2016-08-03.
- ^ Lindsay Riddell (2010-04-20). "Tesla to buy NUMMI plant, build cars with Toyota". San Francisco Business Times. Retrieved 2010-05-21.
- ^ "Tesla Wants NUMMI Operational By 2012". KVTU.com. May 21, 2010. Archived from the original on May 23, 2010. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
- ^ Baker, David R. (2010-04-28). "Tesla paid only $42 million for Nummi plant". San Francisco Gate.
- ^ Tierney, Christine (2010-05-20). "Toyota invests in Tesla to help reopen Calif. plant". The Detroit News. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
- ^ "Tesla Motors Opens Tesla Factory - Home of the Model S" (Press release). Tesla Motors. 2010-10-27. Retrieved 2012-07-18.
- ^ Jerry Hirsch (2015-05-30). "Three companies, $4.9 billion in government support". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 2015-10-25. Retrieved 2015-10-29.
- ^ "Musk defends receiving $4.9 billion in government support for Tesla, SolarCity and SpaceX". RT English. Retrieved 2015-10-29.
- ^ http://www.business.ca.gov/Portals/0/CA%20Competes/Docs/Agreements/FY1415P3Large/Tesla%20Motors,%20Inc.%20-%20CCTC%20Agreement.pdf
- ^ a b John Boudreau (2012-06-22). "In a Silicon Valley milestone, Tesla Motors begins delivering Model S electric cars". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved 2012-06-22.
- ^ "New United Motor Manufacturing Appraisals". Maynards. Archived from the original on 2016-06-13. Retrieved 2017-06-05.
- ^ Ohnsman, Alan (2011-09-18). "Toyota gave old robots new tools to trim U.S. Camry price 2%". Automotive News. Retrieved 2017-06-05.
Along with the production robots transferred to Toyota's Georgetown, Ky., plant that makes most of the Camrys sold in North America, Nummi equipment was also acquired by Toyota's San Antonio plant and electric-car maker Tesla Motors Inc.
- ^ Hull, Dana (2010-09-16). "2010: Tesla gets ready to take over the former NUMMI auto plant in Fremont". The Mercury News. Archived from the original on 2017-05-02. Retrieved 2017-06-05.
The entire NUMMI facility covers about 370 acres. Tesla is buying 210 acres, a parcel that contains several buildings that have approximately 4.7 million square feet of floor space. NUMMI’s existing press line will be taken apart and sent to Toyota’s plant in Blue Springs, Miss.
- ^ "Tesla Motors Reports Fourth Quarter And Full Year 2010 Results". TheStreet. 2011-02-15. Retrieved 2014-09-18.
- ^ a b c d "Can Tesla become a bigger company with Model S electric car? That's Elon Musk's gamble". Autoweek.com. Autoweek. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-04-26.
- ^ "Tesla Motors building the world's most advanced paint shop – with Eisenmann technology" (Press release). Eisenmann. 2015-03-31. Archived from the original on 2016-04-05. Retrieved 2016-10-13.
- ^ "Tesla Motors Model 3 Equipment "Already Online" at Fremont Factory". The Country Caller. 2016-08-04. Retrieved 2016-10-13.
- ^ "Paint Shop Detection and Suppression Systems - 3S Incorporated". Retrieved 2016-10-13.
- ^ "Tesla Factory". Teslamotors.com. Retrieved 2015-03-08.
- ^ "Brand New Tesla Factory". National Geographic. 2012. Retrieved 2017-06-15.
- ^ Avalos, George (19 July 2013). "Tesla buys land for test track in Fremont". The Mercury News. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
- ^ Cole, Jay. "Picture (s) Of The Day: Tesla's Test Track In Fremont In Action". insideevs.com. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
- ^ Elon Musk is ecstatic about Powerwall demand - Tesla Q1 2015 Earnings call (2015) AUDIO. at 1h02m
- ^ "Tesla Motors (TSLA) Earnings Report: Q1 2015 Conference Call Transcript". TheStreet. May 7, 2015. p. 12. Archived from the original on May 11, 2015. Retrieved May 11, 2015.
- ^ "Tesla Motors (TSLA) Elon Reeve Musk on Q1 2015 Results - Earnings Call Transcript". Seeking Alpha. 2015-05-07. Retrieved 2015-05-15.
- ^ Lucas, Scott (2017-03-24). "Tesla seals the deal on East Bay's largest industrial lease ever". Archived from the original on 2017-06-13. Retrieved 2017-06-15.
It leased 1.3 million square feet spread across three buildings
- ^ a b c Master plan Tesla, Warm Springs. Summer 2016 Archive
- ^ a b "Tesla's new long-range plan could double size of Fremont factory". San Francisco Chronicle. 2016-10-07. Retrieved 2016-10-08.
- ^ "Lennar plans huge R&D, housing complex at Warm Springs 'innovation district' near Tesla plant in Fremont". San Francisco Business Times. 2016-04-29. Archived from the original on 2016-10-13. Retrieved 2016-10-13.
- ^ a b "Tesla factory launches expansion that could double its size". East Bay Times. 2017-08-11. Retrieved 2017-08-21.
- ^ Stumpf, Rob. "Tesla Continues Growth to Double its Fremont Plant in Size". The Drive. Retrieved 2017-08-21.
- ^ Geha, Joseph (2016-12-08). "Fremont: City Council approves major Tesla facility expansion plan". Silicon Valley. Retrieved 2016-12-09.
- ^ "Video: Planning Commission Meeting, December 6, 2016. Time 1:40:20 and 2:16". 2016-12-06. Retrieved 2017-01-17.
- ^ "A Gigafactory, California Style? Tesla Seeks To Double Size of US Auto Plant". Forbes. 2016-10-07. Retrieved 2016-10-08.
- ^ "Fremont Planning Commission Agenda". Fremont Planning Commission. 2016-10-13. Retrieved 2017-01-17.
File size=64 MB
- ^ "Video: Planning Commission Meeting, October 27, 2016. Time 10:40 to 58:40". 2016-10-27. Retrieved 2017-01-17.
- ^ Baker, David R. (2012-06-22). "Tesla starts delivery out of former Nummi plant". The San Francisco Chronicle.
- ^ "Peek Inside Tesla's Robotic Factory". Wired. 2013-07-16. Retrieved 2014-12-31.
- ^ "PHOTOS: Inside Tesla's Model S Alpha Workshop". gigaom.com. 2011-03-17. Archived from the original on 2015-12-04. Retrieved 2017-06-15.
- ^ Squatriglia, Chuck (2011-01-06). "Tesla Wants Some Engineering Cred". Wired.com.
- ^ Ohnsman, Alan (March 7, 2010). "Tesla Model S Assembly to Begin With Highest-Priced Version". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on March 11, 2011. Retrieved April 3, 2011.
- ^ "Tesla Model S assembly to begin with highest-priced version". Automotive News. 2011-03-07. Archived from the original on 2017-01-09. Retrieved 2017-01-09.
- ^ Blankenship, George (2012-08-21). "Inside Tesla". Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2012-08-24.
- ^ Tesla Motors (2012-11-05). "Tesla Motors, Inc. – Third Quarter 2012 Shareholder Letter". Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2012-12-01.
- ^ Domenick Yoney (2013-02-20). "Tesla delivered 2,650 Model S EVs last year, Musk confident of profit in Q1 and beyond". Autoblog. Retrieved 2013-03-10. Around 2,650 Model S cars were delivered in the U.S. during 2012.
- ^ Michael Graham Richard (2013-01-30). "Tesla Reaches 20,000 Unit Production Rate Annually for Model S". treehugger.com. Retrieved 2013-02-05.
- ^ "Make Way for Kilowatts: A Growing-Up Year for Plug-Ins". New York Times. 2012-12-21. Retrieved 2012-12-24.
- ^ Ashlee Vance (2014-02-19). "Tesla's Stock Remains Electric on Higher Sales Forecast". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 2014-02-19.
- ^ Antony Ingram (2013-12-18). "Tesla To Add Production Capacity For 35,000 More Electric Cars". greencarreports.com. Retrieved 2013-12-18.
- ^ Jerry Hirsch (2014-02-19). "Tesla Motors ends year with higher sales but still a big loss". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2014-02-19. A total of 22,477 Model S sedans were sold in 2013.
- ^ Tesla Motors (2014-05-07). "First Quarter 2014 Shareholder Letter" (PDF). Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2014-06-01.
- ^ Gordon-Bloomfield, Nikki (2015-05-06). "Tesla Motors Posts Q1 2015 Losses, Due to Strong Dollar, High Capital Expenditures. Hits 1,000 Car/Week Model S Production". Transport Evolved. Retrieved 2015-05-08.
- ^ Murph, Darren (2010-05-20). "Tesla lands sudden deal with Toyota, will build Model S sedan in Fremont NUMMI plant". Engadget. Retrieved 2011-09-24.
- ^ Reynolds, Kim (2014-11-03). "2015 Tesla Model S P85D First Test". Motor Trend. Retrieved 2015-05-15.
- ^ "Tesla Motors (TSLA) Earnings Report: Q1 2015 Conference Call Transcript". TheStreet. May 7, 2015. p. 15. Archived from the original on May 11, 2015. Retrieved May 11, 2015.
- ^ "Tesla idles Fremont production line for Model X upgrade". San Jose Mercury. 2014-07-22. Retrieved 2014-12-31.
- ^ Blanco, Sebastion (2016-05-05). "With Model 3, Tesla will approach manufacturing in a new way". Autoblog. Retrieved 2016-07-25.
- ^ Field, Kyle (2015-12-19). "Tantalizing Tour of Tesla in Tilburg". CleanTechnica. Retrieved 2017-01-08.
- ^ "Tesla Delivers 11,507 Vehicles in Q2 of 2015". Tesla Motors. 2015-07-02. Retrieved 2015-07-08.
- ^ Lampert, Fred (2016-05-06). "Tesla's new Model 3 production plan will optimize access to the federal tax credit". Electrek. Retrieved 2016-07-25.
- ^ Lampert, Fred (2016-05-16). "Tesla applied for a $106 million tax break on $1.26 billion expansion of Fremont Factory for the Model 3". Electrek. Retrieved 2016-07-25.
- ^ Hogg, Rachael (2016-07-26). "Tesla's supply chain set for a surge". Automotive Logistics. Archived from the original on 2016-12-20. Retrieved 2016-12-20.
Getting from something like 50,000 to 500,000 units is a big, big step
- ^ Hogg, Rachael (2016-05-11). "Tesla warns supply chain issues could scupper its growth plans". Automotive Logistics. Archived from the original on 2016-12-20. Retrieved 2016-12-20.
it has no experience in manufacturing vehicles at the volumes anticipated for the Model 3.. ..will need to develop “efficient, automated, low-cost manufacturing capabilities, processes and supply chains necessary to support such volumes”
- ^ Tredway, Gareth (2016-11-08). "Tesla buys automated manufacturing specialist Grohmann". Automotive Logistics. Archived from the original on 2016-12-20. Retrieved 2016-12-20.
- ^ Hogg, Rachael (2016-05-06). "Tesla: ramping up and stepping down". Automotive Logistics. Archived from the original on 2016-05-17. Retrieved 2016-12-20.
- ^ Lambert, Fred (2016-12-20). "Tesla Model 3 on track for H2 2017, Model X production 'inconsistent', says TSLA analyst after meeting with management". Electrek. Retrieved 2016-12-20.
- ^ "Tesla Second Quarter 2016 Update" (PDF). shareholder.com. 2016-08-03. Retrieved 2016-08-03.
- ^ Wang, Robert Ferris, Christine (2016-08-03). "Tesla misses Wall Street targets, but logs gains in vehicle production". CNBC. Retrieved 2016-08-03.
- ^ Hoge, Patrick (2016-08-04). "The Tesla Effect: How the cutting edge company became the most powerful engine in Bay Area manufacturing". BizJournal. Retrieved 2016-08-05.
- ^ Truong, Kevin (2016-11-11). "German automotive supplier signs massive lease near Tesla". San Francisco Business Times. Archived from the original on 2016-11-11. Retrieved 2016-11-11.
- ^ McCall, Mark. "Driving Economic Growth: ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURING" January 2016
- ^ a b c d "How the Tesla Model S is Made , Tesla Motors Part 1". Wired.com. WIRED. Retrieved 2015-04-01.
- ^ Richard, Michael Graham (2014-11-21). "Tesla's factory upgrade: X-Men characters, climbing plants, giant robots, murals, etc". TreeHugger. Retrieved 2015-05-12.
- ^ Shahan, Zachary (2014-11-18). "Tesla Robots Get X-Men Names". Clean Technica. Retrieved 2015-05-15.
- ^ "At Tesla, Workers Team Up With Robot Superheroes". The Wall Street Journal. 2015-04-15. Retrieved 2015-05-15.
- ^ Rundle, Michael (2016-01-12). "Building Tesla: inside Elon Musk's car factory of the future". Wired (website). Retrieved 2016-12-08.
- ^ "Tesla Motors (TSLA) Earnings Report: Q1 2015 Conference Call Transcript". TheStreet. May 7, 2015. p. 14. Archived from the original on May 11, 2015. Retrieved May 11, 2015.
- ^ Edelstein, Stephen (2015-03-30). "Tesla pushes investors for a gigafactory in Japan". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2015-05-21.
- ^ "During summer factory upgrade, Tesla installed 10 of the largest robots in the world". electrek.co. Electrek. Retrieved 2015-04-26.
- ^ "Electric Car Quality Tests , Tesla Motors Part 3 (WIRED)". wired.com. WIRED. Retrieved 2015-04-02.
- ^ Muoio, Danielle (2016-10-27). "Elon Musk: Tesla's factory will be an 'alien dreadnought' by 2018". Business Insider. Retrieved 2016-11-14.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i "How Its Made Dream Cars Season 02 Episode 10 Tesla Model S". How Its Made. Retrieved 2015-04-02.
- ^ Musk, Elon (2013-10-04). "Model S Fire". Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2014-02-20.
- ^ Cunningham, Wayne (2010-10-06). "Tesla Model S: The battery pack". C|Net. Retrieved 2014-02-20.
- ^ stopcrazypp. "NHTSA Opened Up the Model S Battery Pack - Pics". Tesla Motors Club Forum. Retrieved 2014-02-20.
We know from the diagnosis screen that the 85 kWh pack has 16 modules with 6 groups in series (so 96 groups in series):
- ^ a b US patent 8286743, Rawlison, Peter Dore, "Vehicle Battery Pack Ballistic Shield", issued 2012-10-16
- ^ US patent 2007009787, "Method and Apparatus for Mounting, Cooling, Connecting, and Protecting Batteries", issued 2007-1-11
- ^ Beltran, Balbino A.; Dunlap, Michael L.; Richardson, Frank D. (2013-08-07). "REPORT NUMBER: NCAP305I-KAR-13-054 NEW CAR ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (NCAP) FMVSS NO. 305 INDICANT TEST TESLA MOTORS, INC. 2013 TESLA MODEL S 5-DOOR HATCHBACK NHTSA NUMBER: MD5001" (NCAP305I-KAR-13-054). U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Safety Adminitstration: A-13. Retrieved 2014-02-20.
- ^ Josie Garthaite (2012-06-23). "Leaving Baggage On the Dock, a Flagship Departs From California". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-06-24.
- ^ "Charge your Model S - Adapter Guide, High Power Charging, and Supercharge". Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2012-06-23.
- ^ Chris Woodyard (2012-06-23). "First Drive: Tesla's Model S electric is spectacular". USA Today. Retrieved 2012-06-24.
- ^ Fisher, Thomas. "What Goes Into A Tesla Model S Battery--And What It May Cost". www.greencarreports.com. Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2015-03-25.
- ^ Roper, L. David. "Tesla Model S Data". Retrieved 2015-04-05.
- ^ Biello, David (2013-09-23). "How Tesla Motors Builds One of the World's Safest Cars [Video]". Scientific American. Retrieved 2016-07-25.
- ^ George, Patrick (2014-03-28). "The Tesla Model S: Now With Road Debris-Crushing Titanium!". Jalopnik. Gawker Media. Retrieved 2014-03-31.
- ^ Blanco, Sebastian (2014-03-28). "Tesla adds free titanium underbody shields to Model S to prevent fires". Autoblog Green. AOL Inc. Retrieved 2014-03-31.
- ^ "Tesla Motors faces $89,000 in fines for incident that injured workers at Fremont facility". San Jose Mercury News. 2014-05-01. Retrieved 2014-12-31.
Coordinates: 37°29′41.12″N 121°56′41.16″W / 37.4947556°N 121.9447667°W