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Trip to Texarkana, Texas
Trip to Texarkana, Texas
Published: 2013/02/27
Channel: Marina Amdream
Outside Texarkana, Texas
Outside Texarkana, Texas
Published: 2012/11/17
Channel: BigRigTravels
Road Trip #176 - US-59 North - Texarkana, Texas/Arkansas
Road Trip #176 - US-59 North - Texarkana, Texas/Arkansas
Published: 2017/08/08
Channel: 504RoadTrips
Texarkana, Texas
Texarkana, Texas
Published: 2011/02/10
Channel: TexasCulturalTrust
Texas High vs Arkansas High 2016 (KLFItv HD Full Broadcast)
Texas High vs Arkansas High 2016 (KLFItv HD Full Broadcast)
Published: 2016/09/04
Channel: KLFItvTexarkana
Texarkana,Tx.- Federal Prison 1st Amendment Audit
Texarkana,Tx.- Federal Prison 1st Amendment Audit
Published: 2017/06/02
Channel: News Now Houston
#HeroChallenge | The Joker Mannequin Challenge | Texarkana TX
#HeroChallenge | The Joker Mannequin Challenge | Texarkana TX
Published: 2016/12/17
Channel: Matt Cornelius
Greyhound stop and search texarkana Texas #exerciseyourrights
Greyhound stop and search texarkana Texas #exerciseyourrights
Published: 2017/04/20
Channel: Timothy somethin
Driving from Texarkana Texas to Shreveport Louisiana
Driving from Texarkana Texas to Shreveport Louisiana
Published: 2014/02/14
Channel: Chris King
Texarkana tx hood store fight
Texarkana tx hood store fight
Published: 2015/08/08
Channel: Michael Johnson
Bailes en Texarkana Texas- Grupo Nueva Generacion
Bailes en Texarkana Texas- Grupo Nueva Generacion
Published: 2014/10/29
Channel: Isela's Foto y Video Arkansas
Driving by Texarkana Texas
Driving by Texarkana Texas
Published: 2016/07/13
Channel: William Wright
Texarkana College, Texarkana Texas 2016
Texarkana College, Texarkana Texas 2016
Published: 2016/07/12
Channel: sourdieselallday
Texarkana Texas
Texarkana Texas
Published: 2013/07/12
Channel: Jocelin Longoria
109 Texarkana Texas update
109 Texarkana Texas update
Published: 2017/09/17
Channel: JBG TRAVELS
TORNADO!!! Texarkana, TX 12/27/2015 - Part 1
TORNADO!!! Texarkana, TX 12/27/2015 - Part 1
Published: 2015/12/29
Channel: Beardless
Texarkana,Tx/Ar.=Federal Courthouse 1st Amendment Audit
Texarkana,Tx/Ar.=Federal Courthouse 1st Amendment Audit
Published: 2017/05/23
Channel: News Now Houston
Local chief Niggerologist Texarkana Tx
Local chief Niggerologist Texarkana Tx
Published: 2015/03/30
Channel: KSLE NEWS 33
Summerhill RD, texarkana, texas
Summerhill RD, texarkana, texas
Published: 2011/07/17
Channel: sealorr
Playoff Week 1 - Texarkana Texas Tigers vs Highland Park Scots
Playoff Week 1 - Texarkana Texas Tigers vs Highland Park Scots
Published: 2017/11/19
Channel: GameDayDFW
Class 2020 8th grade  prospect Matthew Arnold  from  Texarkana Texas
Class 2020 8th grade prospect Matthew Arnold from Texarkana Texas
Published: 2016/03/28
Channel: Ballislife Elite
Car Show in Texarkana Texas (9-23-17)
Car Show in Texarkana Texas (9-23-17)
Published: 2017/09/29
Channel: YouCanSayThatAgain
RALPH of Texarkana, Texas
RALPH of Texarkana, Texas
Published: 2016/07/05
Channel: 10GALLEN81
Road Trip #175 - US-59 North - Linden to Texarkana, Texas
Road Trip #175 - US-59 North - Linden to Texarkana, Texas
Published: 2017/08/06
Channel: 504RoadTrips
Buckeyes vs Bears Game in Texarkana Texas
Buckeyes vs Bears Game in Texarkana Texas
Published: 2014/08/15
Channel: Shana7075
Texas Northeastern RR (CORP 3860) military at Texarkana, Tx. 07/13/2010 ©
Texas Northeastern RR (CORP 3860) military at Texarkana, Tx. 07/13/2010 ©
Published: 2010/07/13
Channel: unkonshus
Boda de Maria y Jose en Texarkana Tx....Foto y Video   "GASPARIN"
Boda de Maria y Jose en Texarkana Tx....Foto y Video "GASPARIN"
Published: 2011/04/24
Channel: Sandro Gaspar
TK RIDAZ TEXARKANA TX 2  DALLAS TX
TK RIDAZ TEXARKANA TX 2 DALLAS TX
Published: 2014/01/06
Channel: TK RIDAZ
Summerhill Road Bridge Explosion Texarkana Texas
Summerhill Road Bridge Explosion Texarkana Texas
Published: 2010/07/21
Channel: Joe Regan
THS 1991 Senior Video - Texas High - Texarkana, TX
THS 1991 Senior Video - Texas High - Texarkana, TX
Published: 2013/07/29
Channel: Beth Hames
Mamie Street shooting, 03-29-2016
Mamie Street shooting, 03-29-2016
Published: 2016/03/29
Channel: Texarkana Gazette
bailes en Texarkana Texas
bailes en Texarkana Texas
Published: 2011/02/05
Channel: Isela's Foto y Video Arkansas
The City of Texarkana, Texas
The City of Texarkana, Texas
Published: 2015/05/12
Channel: Clayton Godfrey
Treveon Walker RB (Texas High) Texarkana, TX 2014
Treveon Walker RB (Texas High) Texarkana, TX 2014
Published: 2014/02/01
Channel: Under the Lights
ROAR Conference - Texarkana, Texas
ROAR Conference - Texarkana, Texas
Published: 2017/06/16
Channel: Joe Joe Dawson
XV Años de Ma de los Angeles en Texarkana Tx   Foto y Video "GASPARIN"
XV Años de Ma de los Angeles en Texarkana Tx Foto y Video "GASPARIN"
Published: 2013/02/28
Channel: Sandro Gaspar
Drone Aerial Footage | Wright Patman Spillway Texarkana, TX
Drone Aerial Footage | Wright Patman Spillway Texarkana, TX
Published: 2016/09/03
Channel: Joseph Guernsey
DEMONS PART 2 PASTOR MICHAEL CROSSWAY CHURCH TEXARKANA TEXAS
DEMONS PART 2 PASTOR MICHAEL CROSSWAY CHURCH TEXARKANA TEXAS
Published: 2012/05/03
Channel: John Cook
Texarkana Real Estate : #4 Woodbridge Texarkana, TX 75503
Texarkana Real Estate : #4 Woodbridge Texarkana, TX 75503
Published: 2017/07/27
Channel: Keller Williams Realty : Chad Raney Team
Perez roofing ...texarkana..tx.
Perez roofing ...texarkana..tx.
Published: 2010/12/18
Channel: luckygirl9973
Polly chapel Choir/Texarkana TX
Polly chapel Choir/Texarkana TX
Published: 2011/08/28
Channel: kelvin corbin
Texarkana, Texas Firefighters Extricate Man From Wreck
Texarkana, Texas Firefighters Extricate Man From Wreck
Published: 2017/07/26
Channel: TXK Today
470 Ac Texas Irrigated Farm Land For Sale, Bowie Co. TX, Texarkana TX
470 Ac Texas Irrigated Farm Land For Sale, Bowie Co. TX, Texarkana TX
Published: 2016/09/08
Channel: Southwest Ranch And Farm Sales
cinnamon challenge texarkana texas
cinnamon challenge texarkana texas
Published: 2012/03/28
Channel: wegflyiuasgduyags
RUUUMMMBLE at the Texarkana, TX City Council!
RUUUMMMBLE at the Texarkana, TX City Council!
Published: 2014/07/18
Channel: Chad Shipp
City of Texarkana, Texas Demolishes Substandard Structure
City of Texarkana, Texas Demolishes Substandard Structure
Published: 2015/10/23
Channel: City of Texarkana, Texas
Battle on the Border 2017 Texarkana, Texas [Battle of the Bands] (Band: Encore)
Battle on the Border 2017 Texarkana, Texas [Battle of the Bands] (Band: Encore)
Published: 2017/10/11
Channel: Ricky Jared Rankin
Boda de Jessica y Juan en Texarkana.Tx....Foto y Video   "GASPARIN"
Boda de Jessica y Juan en Texarkana.Tx....Foto y Video "GASPARIN"
Published: 2012/01/09
Channel: Sandro Gaspar
Texas Trail Rides in Texarkana Texas 2015
Texas Trail Rides in Texarkana Texas 2015
Published: 2015/10/12
Channel: 10GALLEN81
Texas High School (Texarkana, TX) 2009-2010 Season
Texas High School (Texarkana, TX) 2009-2010 Season
Published: 2014/01/26
Channel: Leroy James
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Texarkana, Texas
City
Texarkana Municipal Building
Texarkana Municipal Building
Nickname(s): The Texas Side, T-Town, TK, TXK, Twin City, Little Chicago
Motto: Twice as Nice
Location of Texarkana, Texas
Location of Texarkana, Texas
Texarkana, Texas is located in the US
Texarkana, Texas
Texarkana, Texas
Location in US
Coordinates: 33°26′14″N 94°04′03″W / 33.43722°N 94.06750°W / 33.43722; -94.06750Coordinates: 33°26′14″N 94°04′03″W / 33.43722°N 94.06750°W / 33.43722; -94.06750
Country United States
State Texas
County Bowie
Government
 • Type Council-Manager
 • City Council Mayor Bob Bruggeman
Jean H. Matlock
Willie Ray
Tina Veal-Gooch
Brian L. Matthews
Christy Paddock
Josh Davis
 • City Manager John Whitson
Area
 • Total 29.5 sq mi (76.3 km2)
 • Land 29.0 sq mi (75.2 km2)
 • Water 0.4 sq mi (1.1 km2)
Elevation 299 ft (91 m)
Population (2016)
 • Total 37,679
 • Density 1,254/sq mi (484.1/km2)
Time zone Central (CST) (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP codes 755XX.
Area code(s) 903, 430
FIPS code 48-72368[1]
GNIS feature ID 1369752[2]
Website ci.texarkana.tx.us

Texarkana is a city in Bowie County, Texas, United States, located in the Ark-La-Tex region. It is a twin city with neighboring Texarkana, Arkansas. The population of the Texas city was 37,280 at the 2015 census estimate.[3] The city and its Arkansas counterpart form the core of the Texarkana Metropolitan Statistical Area, encompassing all of Bowie County, Texas, and Miller County, Arkansas. The two cities had a combined population of 66,330 at the 2010 census, and the metropolitan area had a total population of 136,027.[4]

History[edit]

Railroads were quick to see the possibilities of this vast area, and in the late 1850s, the builders of the Cairo and Fulton Railroad were pushing their line steadily across Arkansas. By 1874, they had crossed the Red River and had reached the Texas state line. Between February 16 and March 19, 1874, trains ran between the Texas border and the Red River, whence passengers and freight were ferried to Fulton to continue by rail. The Red River Bridge opened on March 20, 1874, and since then, trains have run directly from Texarkana to St. Louis.

Keen rivalry existed between the 1870s railroad builders. The Texas and Pacific Railroad reached across Texas to the Arkansas state line. The border was the logical place for the different railways to connect. On December 8, 1873, the Texas and Pacific sold the first town lots for the future city. First to buy was J.W. Davis, who purchased the land where today's Hotel McCartney now stands, opposite Union Station.

Who gave Texarkana its name is not known. A popular story credits Colonel Gus Knobel, who surveyed the Iron Mountain Railroad right-of-way from Little Rock to this section to the state line. He allegedly painted "TEX-ARK-ANA" on a plank and nailed it to a tree, saying, "This is the name of a town which is to be built here."

Water tower in Texarkana

Miller County, on the Arkansas side of the metropolitan area, is probably the only county in the United States that was abolished, only to be re-established later. Miller County was formed in 1820 to honor James Miller, who was Arkansas' first governor. Miller County was formed with a large degree of uncertainty as to the location of the line dividing the county and the Mexican boundary. Consequently, settlers felt that Arkansas levied and collected taxes on land that eventually might be held by Mexico. Moreover, many who resented the oppression of Texans by the Mexicans were openly declaring allegiance to the Texans. This led to general unrest, and after the Texas Republic was created, it grew worse. So, in 1838, Governor James Conway proposed that the "easiest and most effective remedy is the abolition of Miller County to an area which is more patriotic." From that year until 1874, it was a part of Lafayette County, Arkansas. Its re-establishment sprung only from the sale of town lots in Texarkana in 1873. Efforts of the young town to be incorporated were not realized until October 17, 1880, nearly seven years after Texarkana, Texas (June 12, 1874), was formed. December 8, 1873, is generally recognized by both cities as the date of organization.[5]

Geography[edit]

Texarkana is located at the junction of Interstate 30 and US highways 59, 67, 71, and 82 in extreme northeast Texas on the Texas-Arkansas border,[6] at 33°26′14″N 94°4′3″W / 33.43722°N 94.06750°W / 33.43722; -94.06750 (33.437170, -94.067394).[7] It is bordered by the city of Texarkana, Arkansas, to the east, and by the smaller cities of Nash and Wake Village, Texas, to the west. It is in the Central Time Zone.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the Texas city has a total area of 29.5 square miles (76.3 km2), of which 29.0 square miles (75.2 km2) is land and 0.42 square miles (1.1 km2), or 1.39%, is covered by water.[8] The city is roughly 180 miles northeast of Dallas.

Climate[edit]

  • The warmest month is July.
  • The highest recorded temperature was 117°F (47°C) in 1936.
  • On average, the coolest month is January.
  • The lowest recorded temperature was -6°F (-21°C) in 1989.
  • The most precipitation on average occurs in November.
Climate data for Texarkana, Texas
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 85
(29)
89
(32)
94
(34)
95
(35)
100
(38)
108
(42)
110
(43)
117
(47)
108
(42)
104
(40)
88
(31)
84
(29)
117
(47)
Average high °F (°C) 52.5
(11.4)
58.3
(14.6)
66.5
(19.2)
74.6
(23.7)
81.6
(27.6)
88.9
(31.6)
93.1
(33.9)
93.1
(33.9)
86.3
(30.2)
76.5
(24.7)
63.9
(17.7)
55.1
(12.8)
74.20
(23.44)
Average low °F (°C) 30.7
(−0.7)
34.3
(1.3)
41.8
(5.4)
50
(10)
60.4
(15.8)
68.3
(20.2)
72
(22)
70.5
(21.4)
63.6
(17.6)
51.7
(10.9)
41.1
(5.1)
33.5
(0.8)
51.49
(10.83)
Record low °F (°C) −7
(−22)
−3
(−19)
11
(−12)
24
(−4)
35
(2)
50
(10)
52
(11)
51
(11)
37
(3)
22
(−6)
15
(−9)
−1
(−18)
−7
(−22)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.91
(99.3)
3.8
(97)
4.46
(113.3)
4.23
(107.4)
4.97
(126.2)
4.82
(122.4)
3.62
(91.9)
2.41
(61.2)
3.77
(95.8)
4.61
(117.1)
5.69
(144.5)
4.95
(125.7)
51.24
(1,301.5)
Source: [9]

On the evening of May 22, 2008 a microburst producing winds up to 100 mph occurred over Stateline Avenue and surrounding communities. An analysis of radar data leading up to the damage showed that two severe thunderstorms came together on the south side of the city. One severe storm was moving northeastward from southern Bowie County, while the other was moving northwestward through Miller County. Both storms collided in an area just south of downtown Texarkana.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1880 1,833
1890 2,852 55.6%
1900 5,256 84.3%
1910 9,790 86.3%
1920 11,480 17.3%
1930 16,602 44.6%
1940 17,019 2.5%
1950 24,753 45.4%
1960 30,218 22.1%
1970 30,497 0.9%
1980 31,271 2.5%
1990 31,656 1.2%
2000 34,782 9.9%
2010 36,411 4.7%
Est. 2016 37,679 [10] 3.5%
U.S. Decennial Census[11]

As of the census[1] of 2010, 37,679 people, 13,569 households, and 8,941 families resided in the city. The population density was 1,357.3 people per square mile (524.0/km²). The 16,280 housing units averaged 589.4 per square mile (227.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 59.18% White, 37.05% African American, 0.34% Native American, 0.73% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 1.43% from other races, and 1.22% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 2.91% of the population.

Of the 16,280 households, 31.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.5% were married couples living together, 19.3% have a female householder with no husband present. and 34.1% were not families; 29.9% of all households were made up of individuals, and 12.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 3.01.

In the city, the age distribution of the population was 26.0% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 27.6% from 25 to 44, 20.7% from 45 to 64, and 15.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.4 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $29,727, and for a family was $39,119. Males had a median income of $34,155 versus $21,143 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,815. About 19.4% of families and 24.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.8% of those under age 18 and 13.2% of those age 65 or over. The most affluent area of Texarkana is Pleasant Grove, where the median income is $49,562 for each household and the median for a family is $57,219 in 2013.

Economy[edit]

According to the city's 2009 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[12] the top employers in the city are:

# Employer # of Employees
1 Red River Army Depot and tenants 7,200
2 Christus St. Michael Health Care 1,883
3 Cooper Tire & Rubber Company 1,700
4 Domtar 1,300
5 Wal-Mart 1,100
6 International Paper 925
7 Wadley Regional Medical Center 850
8 Texarkana Independent School District 795
9 Texarkana Arkansas School District 785
10 Southern Refrigerated Transport 750

Government[edit]

Local government[edit]

According to the city's most recent Comprehensive Annual Financial Report Fund Financial Statements, the city's various funds had $36.0 million in revenues, $37.0 million in expenditures, $18.9 million in total assets, $3.5 million in total liabilities, and $7.2 million in investments.[13]

The structure of the management and coordination of city services is:[12]

Department Director
City Manager John A. Whitson
Assistant City Manager Shirley Jaster
City Secretary Jennifer Evans
Assistant City Secretary Vicky Coopwood
Municipal Court Judge Sherry Jackson
Police Chief Daniel Shiner
Director of Human Resources Jim Powell
Director of Community Planning and Development David Orr
Finance Director Charles L. Bassett, Jr.
Chief Building Official Lynn Henry
Public Information Officer Lisa Thompson
Director of Public Works Kyle Dooley
Director of Parks Robby Robertson

Education[edit]

Public school districts[edit]

Schools in Texarkana, Texas, are under the jurisdiction of the Texarkana Independent School District, the Liberty-Eylau Independent, Pleasant Grove Independent School District, and Red Lick Independent School District.[14]

Colleges and universities[edit]

Texarkana is home to Texas A&M University–Texarkana, a four-year branch of the Texas A&M University System, and to Texarkana College, a community college.

Religion[edit]

Texarkana is the headquarters of the theologically conservative American Baptist Association, whose Missionary Baptist churches are most numerous in Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Mississippi.

State government[edit]

Though the city was historically Democratic, Texarkana is currently represented by Republicans in both houses of the Texas State Legislature. The state senator is Bryan Hughes from District 1. State Representative Gary VanDeaver represents Texas House District 1.

The Texas Department of Criminal Justice operates the Texarkana District Parole Office in Texarkana.[15]

The Texas Sixth Court of Appeals is located downtown in the Bi-State Justice Building.[16]

Federal government[edit]

At the federal level, the two U.S. senators from Texas are Republicans John Cornyn and Ted Cruz; Texarkana is part of Texas's 4th congressional district, which is currently represented by Republican John Ratcliffe.

The Federal Courthouse (which also holds the downtown post office[17]) is located directly on the Arkansas-Texas state line and is the only federal office building to straddle a state line. During his campaign for the presidency in 1960, John F. Kennedy spoke on the steps of the courthouse.

The Federal Correctional Institution, Texarkana, is a Federal Bureau of Prisons facility in unincorporated Bowie County just outside the southwest border of the city.[18][19]

Transportation[edit]

Amtrak station in Texarkana

Texarkana Regional Airport is located in Texarkana, Arkansas, and serves general aviation and American Eagle service to Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport.

Texarkana Union Station is located in downtown Texarkana along the state line, with daily Amtrak service west to Los Angeles via Dallas, San Antonio, and El Paso, and east to Chicago via Little Rock and St. Louis.

The Texarkana Urban Transit District provides bus transportation to major areas of town along nine different routes. Service runs from 5:30 am to 6:20 pm Monday - Saturday.

Interstate 30 passes through Texarkana on the north. Loop 151 on the west of the city forms part of the Texarkana Loop, a three-quarter loop around the west, south, and east of the twin cities with I-30 completing the loop on the north. Interstate 369 shares the western portion of Loop 151. Interstate 49 is a newly constructed interstate corridor on the Arkansas side of the city which connects Texarkana to Shreveport, Louisiana.

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  2. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  3. ^ "Geographic Identifiers: 2015 Demographic Profile Data (G001): Texarkana city, Texas". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved April 16, 2014. 
  4. ^ "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (G001): Texarkana, TX-Texarkana, AR Metro Area". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved April 16, 2014. 
  5. ^ "Texarkana Chamber of Commerce". Texarkana.org. Archived from the original on 2015-04-05. Retrieved 2015-04-07. 
  6. ^ "Our City". Ci.texarkana.tx.us. Archived from the original on 2010-10-23. Retrieved 2010-12-29. 
  7. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  8. ^ "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (G001): Texarkana city, Texas". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved April 16, 2014. 
  9. ^ "Normals Annual/Seasonal Location Details: Texarkana, TX US, CITY:US480062 | Climate Data Online (CDO) | National Climatic Data Center (NCDC)". Ncdc.noaa.gov. 2010-01-01. Retrieved 2016-09-15. 
  10. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017. 
  11. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015. 
  12. ^ a b City of Texarkana 2009 CAFR Archived 2011-07-18 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 2010-11-15
  13. ^ [1] Archived November 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  14. ^ "Texas School District Locator". Tea-texas.maps.arcgls.com. Retrieved 2015-04-07. 
  15. ^ Parole Division Region I Archived 2011-09-28 at the Wayback Machine.. Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved May 15, 2010.
  16. ^ "Contact Information Archived 2010-01-25 at the Wayback Machine.." Texas Sixth Court of Appeals. Retrieved March 10, 2010.
  17. ^ "Post Office in Texarkana, TX - USPS Hours and Location". Uspspostoffices.com. Retrieved 2015-04-07. 
  18. ^ FCI Texarkana Contact Information. Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved June 2, 2010
  19. ^ Ward Map Archived 2011-01-27 at the Wayback Machine.. City of Texarkana, Texas. Retrieved July 2, 2010
  20. ^ "Benjamin Marcus Bogard (1868–1951)". Encyclopediaofarkansas.net. Retrieved August 2, 2013. 
  21. ^ "2011 Miss Black U.S.A., Presented by Calgon, Crowns Winner in Washington, D.C". Business Wire. 12 August 2011. Retrieved 12 August 2015. 
  22. ^ Eagle, Bob; LeBlanc, Eric S. (2013). Blues - A Regional Experience. Santa Barbara: Praeger Publishers. p. 300. ISBN 978-0313344237. 
  23. ^ "Verna Elisha Howard (1911-2000)". Therestorationmovement.com. Archived from the original on December 25, 2013. Retrieved July 12, 2013. 
  24. ^ William H. Trent (1989). Treasured poems of America. Sparrowgrass Poetry Forum. p. 298. 

External links[edit]

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