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Exodus Decoded and the Search for the Real Mount Sinai: Documentary Full 1080p HD
Exodus Decoded and the Search for the Real Mount Sinai: Documentary Full 1080p HD
Published: 2016/07/26
Channel: QualityIsNumber1
The Exodus Revealed Archaeological Proof of Israel in Egypt The Red Sea Crossing Site and Mount Sina
The Exodus Revealed Archaeological Proof of Israel in Egypt The Red Sea Crossing Site and Mount Sina
Published: 2014/02/11
Channel: TheTruthAlwaysAddsUp
National Geographic Exodus Revealed
National Geographic Exodus Revealed
Published: 2013/04/12
Channel: DannyR21 Studio
Exodus: Gods and Kings | Official Trailer [HD] | 20th Century FOX
Exodus: Gods and Kings | Official Trailer [HD] | 20th Century FOX
Published: 2014/10/01
Channel: 20th Century Fox
The Exodus from Egypt, a Lecture with Dr. James Hoffmeier
The Exodus from Egypt, a Lecture with Dr. James Hoffmeier
Published: 2012/03/07
Channel: Lubbock Christian University
The Exodus - Parting The Red Sea - Mount Sinai - The Ten Commandments - Joshua - Chapter 4
The Exodus - Parting The Red Sea - Mount Sinai - The Ten Commandments - Joshua - Chapter 4
Published: 2016/09/03
Channel: The Endless Love of Jesus Ministries
Who was the Pharaoh at the time of the Exodus?
Who was the Pharaoh at the time of the Exodus?
Published: 2014/09/06
Channel: Ken Murray
The Exodus & Egyptian Chronology - Douglas Petrovich & Tim Mahoney
The Exodus & Egyptian Chronology - Douglas Petrovich & Tim Mahoney
Published: 2017/04/06
Channel: Chris Carlascio
The Book of Exodus Overview - Part 1 of 2
The Book of Exodus Overview - Part 1 of 2
Published: 2014/11/28
Channel: The Bible Project
Whiteboard Bible 3 - The Exodus
Whiteboard Bible 3 - The Exodus
Published: 2015/02/06
Channel: P.X.T P.X.C
THE REAL EXODUS LOCATION FOUND! PROOF The Scriptures Are TRUE!!!
THE REAL EXODUS LOCATION FOUND! PROOF The Scriptures Are TRUE!!!
Published: 2016/04/12
Channel: TruthUnveiled777
THE EXODUS SONG
THE EXODUS SONG
Published: 2016/01/11
Channel: Cindyork HongKong
Archaeological evidence for the Biblical Exodus
Archaeological evidence for the Biblical Exodus
Published: 2015/05/22
Channel: Justice Mars
Story of the Book of Exodus
Story of the Book of Exodus
Published: 2015/03/14
Channel: Overflow
Egyptologist and Archaeologist Dr. James Hoffmeier -- The Exodus from Egypt
Egyptologist and Archaeologist Dr. James Hoffmeier -- The Exodus from Egypt
Published: 2017/01/10
Channel: EvolutionismAnti-Science Lie
MOSES & Exodus part 1
MOSES & Exodus part 1
Published: 2014/06/09
Channel: CAPTAIN BLACK
Andy Williams Sings "The Exodus Song (This Land Is Mine)"
Andy Williams Sings "The Exodus Song (This Land Is Mine)"
Published: 2008/04/06
Channel: radiofstars
The Exodus From Egypt
The Exodus From Egypt
Published: 2008/07/20
Channel: simpletoremember
The Red Sea Crossing of the Exodus
The Red Sea Crossing of the Exodus
Published: 2012/03/21
Channel: CircumciseYourHeart
The Exodus Song (This Land Is Mine) by Pat Boone
The Exodus Song (This Land Is Mine) by Pat Boone
Published: 2009/05/11
Channel: mortant yiu
Atheist Debates - The Exodus
Atheist Debates - The Exodus
Published: 2016/01/31
Channel: Matt Dillahunty
The Exodus
The Exodus
Published: 2012/09/22
Channel: James D Albright
Patterns of Evidence: The Exodus
Patterns of Evidence: The Exodus
Published: 2015/06/13
Channel: Virgil Films and Entertainment
Bible Stories for Kids! Moses and the Exodus (Episode 10)
Bible Stories for Kids! Moses and the Exodus (Episode 10)
Published: 2015/12/16
Channel: Bible Stories for Kids
Bible Unearthed 2  The Exodus
Bible Unearthed 2 The Exodus
Published: 2016/02/01
Channel: Yahsararel Ben Yoseph
Will the Real Pharaoh of the Exodus Please Stand Up
Will the Real Pharaoh of the Exodus Please Stand Up
Published: 2013/11/10
Channel: Northwest Creation Network
The Historical & Archaeological Evidence for the Exodus
The Historical & Archaeological Evidence for the Exodus
Published: 2015/05/02
Channel: Jodell Onstott
The Exodus Quadtage
The Exodus Quadtage
Published: 2016/12/03
Channel: Kaden
Joseph and The Exodus
Joseph and The Exodus
Published: 2016/01/27
Channel: DrDavidNeiman
THE EXODUS - GOD parts the RED SEA through MOSES
THE EXODUS - GOD parts the RED SEA through MOSES
Published: 2014/07/24
Channel: L. t. J.
Did the Exodus really happen?
Did the Exodus really happen?
Published: 2015/01/19
Channel: Fox News
Patterns of Evidence: The Exodus
Patterns of Evidence: The Exodus
Published: 2015/06/13
Channel: Virgil Films and Entertainment
15 - The Exodus - Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Soundtrack (Alexandre Desplat)
15 - The Exodus - Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Soundtrack (Alexandre Desplat)
Published: 2010/10/29
Channel: leViviano
Just Thoughts  Pharaoh
Just Thoughts Pharaoh's Chariots and The Real Red Sea of the Exodus.wmv
Published: 2012/12/13
Channel: JustThoughtsstudies
How to Install the Exodus Add-on for Kodi
How to Install the Exodus Add-on for Kodi
Published: 2016/09/29
Channel: Triple M
How To Get The Exodus In Roblox (FIGHT THE MONSTERS)
How To Get The Exodus In Roblox (FIGHT THE MONSTERS)
Published: 2017/02/26
Channel: xXCrazyGamerXx Roblox & More
✡ Archaeology Discovers the Exodus (Scientific Proof)
✡ Archaeology Discovers the Exodus (Scientific Proof)
Published: 2017/04/05
Channel: Sinai Speak
The Exodus Song (This Land Is Mine) by Andy Williams
The Exodus Song (This Land Is Mine) by Andy Williams
Published: 2009/05/11
Channel: mortant yiu
"The Exodus" Ron Weasley (Horcrux) [HD] (Harry Potter & the Deathly Hallows Part 1)
"The Exodus" Ron Weasley (Horcrux) [HD] (Harry Potter & the Deathly Hallows Part 1)
Published: 2011/03/31
Channel: Leizart
The Exodus Has Begun - Prince/N-P-G (HQ)
The Exodus Has Begun - Prince/N-P-G (HQ)
Published: 2017/09/21
Channel: Dickie Holmes
Hurricane Irma and the Exodus
Hurricane Irma and the Exodus
Published: 2017/09/10
Channel: Her Royal Roots
Moses and the Exodus (Exodus 4-14)
Moses and the Exodus (Exodus 4-14)
Published: 2016/01/19
Channel: Saddleback Kids
The Exodus Parable - God
The Exodus Parable - God's Greatest Message in the Bible (You've Never Heard)
Published: 2017/04/26
Channel: 2028 END
1174 BC - The Exodus Discovered!
1174 BC - The Exodus Discovered!
Published: 2013/08/26
Channel: Rick Medved
The Women of the Exodus
The Women of the Exodus
Published: 2017/02/08
Channel: Treasured Inheritance Ministry
7. Hebrew Bible Yale - The Exodus
7. Hebrew Bible Yale - The Exodus
Published: 2012/11/12
Channel: HowtheBibleWasMade
Crimson Wing- Mystery of the Flamingos : The Exodus
Crimson Wing- Mystery of the Flamingos : The Exodus
Published: 2012/11/30
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The Exodus
The Exodus
Published: 2011/10/13
Channel: CFMUPres
60 Second Bible Stories: Moses and the Exodus
60 Second Bible Stories: Moses and the Exodus
Published: 2014/09/12
Channel: taylormation
William Propp - What Was The Exodus?
William Propp - What Was The Exodus?
Published: 2013/06/17
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Departure of the Israelites, by David Roberts, 1829

The Exodus[a] is the founding myth of Israel, telling how the Israelites were delivered from slavery by their god Yahweh and therefore belong to him through the Mosaic covenant.[1][b] Spread over the books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, it tells of the events that befell the Israelites following the death of Joseph, their departure from Egypt, and their wanderings in the wilderness, including the revelations at Sinai, up to their arrival at the borders of Canaan.[2]

No archeological evidence has been found to support the historical accuracy of the biblical story[3] and hence it has been speculated that the account was not intended as history in the modern sense, but rather to demonstrate God's acts in history through Israel's bondage, salvation and covenant.[4] The opinion of the overwhelming majority of modern scholars is that it was shaped in the post-Exilic period,[5] but the traditions behind it are older and can be traced in the writings of the 8th century BCE prophets.[6] It is unclear how far beyond that the tradition might stretch, and its substance, accuracy and date are obscured by centuries of transmission.[4]

The Exodus is central to Judaism, and even today it is recounted daily in Jewish prayers and celebrated in the festival of Passover.[7] In addition, the Exodus has served as an inspiration and model for many non-Jewish groups, from early Protestant settlers fleeing persecution in Europe to African-Americans striving for freedom and civil rights.[7]

Narrative summary[edit]

The story of the Exodus is told in the books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, the last four of the five books of the Torah (also called the Pentateuch). It tells of the events that befell the Israelites following the death of Joseph, their departure from Egypt, and their wanderings in the wilderness, including the revelations at Sinai, up to their arrival at the borders of Canaan.[2] The story begins with the Israelites in slavery in Egypt.[8] Moses leads them out of Egypt and through the wilderness to Mount Sinai, where Yahweh reveals himself and offers them a Covenant: they are to keep his torah (i.e. law, instruction), and in return he will be their god and give them the land of Canaan.[8] The Book of Leviticus records the laws of God.[8] The Book of Numbers tells how the Israelites, led now by their god Yahweh, journey on from Sinai towards Canaan, but when their spies report that the land is filled with giants they refuse to go on and Yahweh condemns them to remain in the desert until the generation that left Egypt passes away.[8] After thirty-eight years at the oasis of Kadesh Barnea the next generation travel on to the borders of Canaan, where Moses addresses them for the final time and gives them further laws.[8] The Exodus ends with the death of Moses on Mount Nebo and his burial by God, while the Israelites prepare for the conquest of the land.[8]

Cultural significance[edit]

The Exodus is remembered daily in Jewish prayers and celebrated each year at the feast of Passover.[9] The Hebrew name for this festival, Pesach, refers to God's instruction to the Israelites to prepare unleavened bread as they would be leaving Egypt in haste, and to mark their doors with the blood of slaughtered sheep so that the "Angel of Death" or "the destroyer" tasked with killing the first-born of Egypt would "pass over" them. Despite the Exodus story, a majority of scholars do not believe that the Passover festival originated as described in the biblical story.[10]

Composition[edit]

Statuette of a Semitic prisoner. Ancient Egypt, 12th dynasty (18–19th Century BCE).[11] Hecht Museum

The Torah[edit]

Scholars broadly agree that the Torah is a product of the mid-Persian period, approximately 450-400 BCE, although some place its final form somewhat later, in the Hellenistic era.[12][13] Many theories have been advanced to explain its composition, but two have been especially influential.[14] The first of these, Persian Imperial authorisation, advanced by Peter Frei in 1985, holds that the Persian authorities required the Jews of Jerusalem to present a single body of law as the price of local autonomy.[15] Frei's theory was deconstructed at an interdisciplinary symposium held in 2000, but the relationship between the Persian authorities and Jerusalem remains a crucial question.[16] The second theory, sometimes called the "Citizen-Temple Community", proposes that the Exodus story was composed to serve the needs of a post-exilic Jewish community organised around the Temple, which acted in effect as a bank for those who belonged to it.[17] The Torah (the Exodus story) served as an "identity card" defining who belonged to this community (i.e., to Israel), thus reinforcing Israel's unity through its new institutions.[18] Both explanations see the Exodus story as a "charter myth" for Israel, telling how Israel was delivered from slavery by Yahweh and therefore belongs to him through the covenant.[1]

The history of the Exodus story stretches back some two hundred years before the achievement of its current form, to a point in the late 7th century BCE when various oral and written traditions were drawn together into written works which were the fore-runners of the Torah we know today.[19] Traces of these traditions first appear in the prophets Amos (possibly) and Hosea (certainly), both active in 8th century BCE Israel, but their southern contemporaries Isaiah and Micah show no knowledge of an Exodus, suggesting that the story was of no importance in 8th century Judah.[6] The exodus story may therefore have originated a few centuries earlier, perhaps the 9th or 10th, and there are signs that it took different forms in Israel, in the Transjordan region, and in the southern Kingdom of Judah before being unified in the Persian era.[20]

Possible sources and parallels[edit]

The consensus of modern archaeologists is that the Israelites were indigenous to Canaan and were never in Egypt, and if there is any historical basis to the exodus it can apply only to a small segment of the Israelites.[21] Yet there are indications that some historical basis underlies the story: the name of Moses is Egyptian, for example, and many scholars have found it improbable that a humiliating tradition of slavery would simply be invented.[22] Some have tried to maintain a measure of historicity through the concept of "collective memory":[22] the memory of Egyptian oppression, for example, may be based on the harsh treatment of Canaanites inside Canaan during those centuries in the 2nd millennium when the region was ruled by Egypt: these memories could later have been transferred to Egypt itself, and a new exodus story created.[23] A historical Moses associated with a small group may have been later generalised into the savior of Israel, while others have found echoes of the descent into Egypt and the Exodus in the history of the Hyksos, who were Canaanite rulers of the Egyptian Delta in the 16th century BCE.[24] Yahweh himself, the national god of Israel, is not a Canaanite deity but comes from Midian to the south, and it is possible that he was brought north by escaping slaves.[21]

A proposal by Egyptologist Jan Assmann suggests that the Exodus narrative has no single origin, but rather combines numerous historical experiences into "a coherent story that is fictional as to its composition but historical as to some of its components." These traumatic events include the expulsion of the Hyksos; the religious revolution of Akhenaten; a possible episode of captivity for the Habiru, who were gangs of antisocial people operating between Egypt's vassal states; and the large-scale migrations of the 'Sea Peoples'.[25]

Historicity[edit]

Summary[edit]

The consensus of modern scholars is that the Bible does not give an accurate account of the origins of Israel.[26] There is no indication that the Israelites ever lived in Ancient Egypt, the Sinai Peninsula shows almost no sign of any occupation for the entire 2nd millennium BCE, and even Kadesh-Barnea, where the Israelites are said to have spent 38 years, was uninhabited prior to the establishment of the Israelite monarchy.[27] Such elements as could be fitted into the 2nd millennium could equally belong to the 1st, and are consistent with a 1st millennium BCE writer trying to set an old story in Egypt.[28] So while a few scholars, notably Kenneth Kitchen and James K. Hoffmeier, continue to discuss the historicity, or at least plausibility, of the story, arguing that the Egyptian records have been lost or suppressed or that the fleeing Israelites left no archaeological trace or that the large numbers are mistranslated, the majority have abandoned the investigation as "a fruitless pursuit".[29][30]

Numbers and logistics[edit]

According to Exodus 12:37–38, the Israelites numbered "about six hundred thousand men on foot, besides women and children", plus many non-Israelites and livestock. Numbers 1:46 gives a more precise total of 603,550 men aged 20 and up. It is difficult to reconcile the idea of 600,000 Israelite fighting men with the information that the Israelites were afraid of the Philistines and Egyptians.[31] The 600,000, plus wives, children, the elderly, and the "mixed multitude" of non-Israelites would have numbered some 2 million people.[32] Marching ten abreast, and without accounting for livestock, they would have formed a line 150 miles long.[33] The entire Egyptian population in 1250 BCE is estimated to have been around 3 to 3.5 million,[34][32] and no evidence has been found that Egypt ever suffered the demographic and economic catastrophe such a loss of population would represent, nor that the Sinai desert ever hosted (or could have hosted) these millions of people and their herds.[35] Some have rationalised the numbers into smaller figures, for example reading the Hebrew as "600 families" rather than 600,000 men, but all such solutions have their own set of problems.[36]

Archaeology[edit]

A century of research by archaeologists and Egyptologists has found no evidence which can be directly related to the Exodus captivity and the escape and travels through the wilderness,[37] and archaeologists generally agree that the Israelites had Canaanite origins.[38] The culture of the earliest Israelite settlements is Canaanite, their cult objects are those of the Canaanite god El, the pottery remains are in the Canaanite tradition, and the alphabet used is early Canaanite.[39] Almost the sole marker distinguishing the "Israelite" villages from Canaanite sites is an absence of pig bones, although whether even this is an ethnic marker or is due to other factors remains a matter of dispute.[39]

Anachronisms[edit]

Despite the Bible's internal dating of the Exodus to the 2nd millennium BCE, details point to a 1st millennium date for the composition of the Book of Exodus: Ezion-Geber (one of the Stations of the Exodus), for example, dates to a period between the 8th and 6th centuries BCE with possible further occupation into the 4th century BCE,[40] and those place-names on the Exodus route which have been identified – Goshen, Pithom, Succoth, Ramesses and Kadesh Barnea – point to the geography of the 1st millennium rather than the 2nd.[41]

Similarly, the Pharaoh's fear that the Israelites might ally themselves with foreign invaders seems unlikely in the context of the late 2nd millennium, when Canaan was part of an Egyptian empire and Egypt faced no enemies in that direction, but does make sense in a 1st millennium context, when Egypt was considerably weaker and faced invasion first from the Achaemenid Empire and later from the Seleucid Empire.[42]

The mention of the dromedary in Exodus 9:3 also suggests a later date of composition – the widespread domestication of the camel as a herd animal is thought not to have taken place before the late 2nd millennium, after the Israelites had already emerged in Canaan,[43] and they did not become widespread in Egypt until c. 200–100 BCE.[44]

Chronology[edit]

The chronology of the Exodus story likewise underlines its essentially religious rather than historical nature. The number seven was sacred to Yahweh in Judaism, and so the Israelites arrive at the Sinai Peninsula, where they will meet Yahweh, at the beginning of the seventh week after their departure from Egypt,[45] while the erection of the Tabernacle, Yahweh's dwelling-place among his people, occurs in the year 2666 after Yahweh creates the world, two-thirds of the way through a four thousand year era which culminates in or around the re-dedication of the Second Temple in 164 BCE.[46][47]

Date[edit]

Attempts to date the Exodus to a specific century have been inconclusive.[48] 1 Kings 6:1 places the event 480 years before the construction of Solomon's Temple, implying an Exodus at c. 1450 BCE, but the number is rhetorical rather than historical, representing a symbolic twelve generations of forty years each.[49][50] There are major archaeological obstacles to an earlier date. Canaan, also known as Djahy, was part of the Egyptian empire, so that the Israelites would in effect be escaping from Egypt to Egypt,[51] and its cities were unwalled and do not show destruction layers consistent with the Bible's account of the occupation of the land (Jericho was "small and poor, almost insignificant, and unfortified (and) [t]here was also no sign of a destruction" (Finkelstein and Silberman, 2002).[52] William F. Albright, the leading biblical archaeologist of the mid-20th century, proposed a date of around 1250–1200 BCE, but his so-called "Israelite" evidence (house-type, the collar-rimmed jars, etc.) are continuations of Canaanite culture.[53] The lack of evidence has led scholars to conclude that the Exodus story does not represent a specific historical moment.[54]

Route[edit]

The Torah lists the places where the Israelites rested. A few of the names at the start of the itinerary, including Ra'amses, Pithom and Succoth, are reasonably well identified with archaeological sites on the eastern edge of the Nile Delta,[41] as is Kadesh-Barnea, where the Israelites spend 38 years after turning back from Canaan; other than these, very little is certain. The crossing of the Red Sea has been variously placed at the Pelusic branch of the Nile, anywhere along the network of Bitter Lakes and smaller canals that formed a barrier toward eastward escape, the Gulf of Suez (south-southeast of Succoth), and the Gulf of Aqaba (south of Ezion-Geber), or even on a lagoon on the Mediterranean coast. The Biblical Mount Sinai is identified in Christian tradition with Jebel Musa in the south of the Sinai Peninsula, but this association dates only from the 3rd century CE and no evidence of the Exodus has been found there.[55]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The name "Exodus" is from Greek ἔξοδος exodos, "going out"; Hebrew: יְצִיאַת מִצְרָיִםyetzi'at mitzrayim.
  2. ^ "Charter (i.e., foundation) myths tell the story of a society's origins, and, in doing so, provide the ideological foundations for the culture and its institutions."[1]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Sparkes 2010, p. 73.
  2. ^ a b Redmount 2001, p. 59.
  3. ^ Meyers 2005, pp. 5–6.
  4. ^ a b Redmount 2001, p. 63.
  5. ^ Enns 2012, p. 26.
  6. ^ a b Lemche 1985, p. 327.
  7. ^ a b Tigay 2004, p. 107.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Redmount 2001, p. 59-60.
  9. ^ Tigay 2004, pp. 106–07.
  10. ^ Prosic 2004, p. 31.
  11. ^ Liphschitz 1998, p. 258.
  12. ^ Romer 2008, p. 2.
  13. ^ Eskenazi 2009, p. 85.
  14. ^ Ska 2006, pp. 217.
  15. ^ Ska 2006, pp. 218.
  16. ^ Eskenazi 2009, p. 86.
  17. ^ Ska 2006, pp. 226-227.
  18. ^ Ska 2006, p. 225.
  19. ^ McEntire 2008, p. 8.
  20. ^ Russell 2009, p. 1.
  21. ^ a b Collins 2004, p. 182.
  22. ^ a b Collins 2014, p. 113.
  23. ^ Anderson & Gooder 2017, p. unpaginated.
  24. ^ Collins 2005, p. 45-46.
  25. ^ Assmann 2014, p. 26.
  26. ^ Davies 2015, p. 51.
  27. ^ Redmount 2001, p. 77.
  28. ^ Moore & Kelle 2011, p. 90.
  29. ^ Moore & Kelle 2011, pp. 88–89.
  30. ^ Dever 2001, p. 99.
  31. ^ Miller 2009, p. 256.
  32. ^ a b Kantor 2005, p. 70.
  33. ^ Cline 2007, p. 74.
  34. ^ Butzer 1999, p. 297.
  35. ^ Dever 2003, p. 19.
  36. ^ Grisanti 2011, pp. 240–46.
  37. ^ Meyers 2005, p. 5.
  38. ^ Shaw 2002, p. 313.
  39. ^ a b Killebrew 2005, p. 176.
  40. ^ Pratico & DiVito 1993, pp. 1-32.
  41. ^ a b Van Seters 1997, pp. 255ff.
  42. ^ Soggin 1998, pp. 128–29.
  43. ^ Finkelstein & Silberman 2002, p. 334.
  44. ^ Faye 2013, p. 3.
  45. ^ Meyers 2005, p. 143.
  46. ^ Hayes & Miller 1986, p. 59.
  47. ^ Davies 1998, p. 180.
  48. ^ Killebrew 2005, p. 151.
  49. ^ Moore & Kelle 2011, p. 81.
  50. ^ Thompson 1999, p. 74.
  51. ^ Barmash, 2015 & p.16 fn.10.
  52. ^ Finkelstein & Silberman 2002, pp. 77–79, 82.
  53. ^ Killebrew 2005, pp. 175–77.
  54. ^ Killebrew 2005, p. 152.
  55. ^ Hoffmeier 2005, pp. 115ff.

References[edit]

Anderson, Bradford A.; Gooder, Paula (2017). An Introduction to the Study of the Pentateuch. Bloomsbury. ISBN 9780567656407. 
Assmann, Jan (2009). Moses the Egyptian: The Memory of Egypt. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674020306. 
Assmann, Jan (2014). From Akhenaten to Moses: Ancient Egypt and Religious Change. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-977-416-631-0. 
Barmash, Pamela (2015). "Out of the Mists of History: The Exaltaion of the Exodus in the Bible". In Barmash, Pamela; Nelson, W. David. Exodus in the Jewish Experience: Echoes and Reverberations. Lexington. ISBN 9781498502931. 
Beitzel, Barry (Spring 1980). "Exodus 3:14 and the Divine Name: A Case of Biblical Paronomasia" (PDF). Trinity Journal (Trinity Divinity School). 1: 5–20. 
Berman, Joshua (March 2, 2015). "Was There an Exodus?". Mosaic. 
Booth, Charlotte (2005). The Hyksos Period in Egypt. Shire Egyptology. ISBN 0-7478-0638-1. 
Breasted, James H. (2003) [1909]. History of Egypt from the Earliest Time to the Persian Conquest. Kessinger. ISBN 0-7661-7720-3. 
Butzer, Karl W. (1999). "Demographics". In Bard, Kathryn A.; Shubert, Steven. Encyclopedia of the archaeology of ancient Egypt. Routledge. ISBN 0-907459-04-8. 
Callender, Gae (2003). "The Middle Kingdom Renaissance". In Ian Shaw. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280458-7. 
Carr, David M.; Conway, Colleen M. (2010). "Introduction to the Pentateuch". An Introduction to the Bible: Sacred Texts and Imperial Contexts. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781405167383. 
Cline, Eric H. (2007). From Eden to Exile. National Geographic Society. ISBN 9781426200847. 
Collins, John J. (2014). Introduction to the Hebrew Bible. Augsburg Fortress Publishers. ISBN 9781451469233. 
Collins, John J. (2005). The Bible After Babel: Historical Criticism in a Postmodern Age. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802828927. 
Collins, John J. (2004). "Israel". In Johnston, Sarah Iles. Religions of the Ancient World: A Guide. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01517-3. 
David, Rosalie (1998). Handbook to Life in Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195132151. Retrieved 18 September 2017. 
Davies, Eryl (1995). "A Mathematical Conundrum: The Problem of Large Numbers in Numbers I and XXVI". Vetus Testamentum. 45 (4): 449–69. JSTOR 1535243. 
Davies, Graham (2001). "Introduction to the Pentateuch". In Barton, John. Oxford Bible Commentary. Oxford University Press. p. 37. ISBN 9780198755005. 
Davies, Graham (2004). "Was There an Exodus?". In Day, John. In search of pre-exilic Israel: proceedings of the Oxford Old Testament Seminar. Continuum. ISBN 9780567082060. 
Davies, Philip R. (2015). In Search of 'Ancient Israel': A Study in Biblical Origins. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9780567662996. 
Davies, Philip R. (1998). Scribes and Schools: The Canonization of the Hebrew Scriptures. Westminster John Knox. ISBN 9780664227289. 
Dever, William (2001). What Did the Biblical Writers Know, and When Did They Know It?. Eerdmans. ISBN 3927120375. 
Dever, William (2003). Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come From?. Eerdmans. ISBN 3927120375. 
Droge, Arthur J. (1996). "Josephus Between Greeks and Barbarians". In Feldman, L.H.; Levison, J.R. Josephus' Contra Apion. Brill. ISBN 9004103252. 
Enmarch, Roland (2011). "The Reception of a Middle Egyptian Poem: The Dialogue of Ipuwer and the Lord of All". In Collier, M.; Snape, S. Ramesside Studies in Honour of K. A. Kitchen (PDF). Rutherford. 
Enns, Peter (2012). The Evolution of Adam. Baker Books. ISBN 9781587433153. 
Eskenazi, Tamara Cohn (2009). "From Exile and Restoration to Exile and Reconstruction". In Grabbe, Lester L.; Knoppers, Gary N. Exile and Restoration Revisited: Essays on the Babylonian and Persian Periods. Bloomsbury. ISBN 9780567465672. 
Faust, Avraham (2015). "The Emergence of Iron Age Israel: On Origins and Habitus". In Thomas E. Levy; Thomas Schneider; William H.C. Propp. Israel's Exodus in Transdisciplinary Perspective: Text, Archaeology, Culture, and Geoscience (PDF). Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-04768-3. 
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{{cite book

| last1 = Frerichs | first1 = Ernest E. | last2 = Lesko]] | first2 = [[Leonard H. | title = Exodus: The Egyptian Evidence | year = 1997 | publisher = Eisenbrauns | ref = harv }}

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