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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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The Holocaust
Part of World War II
Selection Birkenau ramp.jpg
Hungarian Jews being selected by Nazis to be sent to the gas chamber at Auschwitz concentration camp, Auschwitz Album May/June 1944[1]
Location Nazi Germany and German-occupied territories
Date 1941–45
Target European Jews—broader usage of the term "Holocaust" includes victims of other Nazi crimes.[a]
Attack type
Genocide, ethnic cleansing, deportation, mass murder
Deaths 6,000,000–11,000,000
Perpetrators Nazi Germany and its allies
No. of participants
200,000

The Holocaust,[b] also referred to as the Shoah,[c] was a genocide in which some six million European Jews were killed by Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany, and the World War II collaborators with the Nazis. The victims included 1.5 million children, and constituted about two-thirds of the nine million Jews who had resided in Continental Europe. A broader definition of the Holocaust includes non-Jewish victims of the Nazi campaign of mass murder. The Romani and the Aktion T4 patients who were mentally and physically disabled are most commonly included among the broader victims, but can also include Soviet prisoners-of war, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, Slavs – including Soviet citizens, Poles, and other Slavic ethnic groups, blacks, political opponents of the Nazis, and other smaller groups.

From 1941 to 1945, Jews were systematically murdered in a genocide, which was part of a larger event including the persecution and murder of other peoples in Europe. Under the coordination of the SS, with directions from the highest leadership of the Nazi Party, every arm of Germany's bureaucracy was involved in both the logistics and the carrying out of the mass murder. Killings took place throughout German-occupied Europe, as well as within Nazi Germany, and across all territories controlled by its allies. Other victims of Nazi crimes included ethnic Poles, Ukrainians, and other Slavs; Soviet citizens and Soviet POWs; communists; homosexuals; Jehovah's Witnesses; and others. Some 42,500 detention facilities were utilized in the concentration of victims for the purpose of committing gross violations of human rights. Over 200,000 people are estimated to have been Holocaust perpetrators.

The persecution was carried out in stages, culminating in the policy of extermination which was termed the "Final Solution to the Jewish Question".[3] Following Hitler's rise to power, the German government passed laws to exclude Jews from civil society, most prominently the Nuremberg Laws of 1935. Starting in 1933 the Nazis began to establish a network of concentration camps. After the outbreak of war in 1939 both German and foreign Jews were herded into wartime ghettos. In 1941, as Germany began to conquer new territory in the East, all anti-Jewish measures radicalized. Specialized paramilitary units called Einsatzgruppen murdered around two million Jews in mass shootings in less than a year. By mid-1942, victims were regularly being transported by freight trains to extermination camps. Most who survived the journey were systematically killed in gas chambers. This continued until the end of World War II in Europe in April–May 1945.

Jewish armed resistance was limited. The most notable exception was the Warsaw Ghetto uprising of 1943, when thousands of poorly-armed Jewish fighters held the Waffen-SS at bay for four weeks. An estimated 20,000–30,000 Jewish partisans actively fought against the Nazis and their collaborators in Eastern Europe. French Jews took part in the French Resistance, which conducted a guerilla campaign against both the Nazis and the Vichy French authorities. Over a hundred armed Jewish uprisings took place.

Contents

Etymology and definition

Etymology and alternate names

The term holocaust comes from the Greek word holókaustos which refers to an animal sacrifice that is offered to a god in which the whole animal is completely burnt.[4] Later it came to denote a massacre or slaughter of large numbers of people.[5] The word shoah (שואה; also transliterated sho'ah and shoa), meaning "calamity" became the standard Hebrew term for the Holocaust as early as the 1940s, especially in Europe and Israel.[6]

"Holocaust" was used in the 1950s by historians as a translation of the Jewish word shoah to refer specifically to the Nazi genocide of the Jews.[7] The television mini-series Holocaust is credited with making the term the usual one for the Jewish genocide in the United States.[8] As the definition of the victims of the Holocaust has expanded to include more than just Jews, shoah continues to retain its meaning as specifically the genocide of the Jews under the Nazis.[9][d]

The Nazis used the phrase "Final Solution to the Jewish Question" or "Final Solution" to refer to their genocide of the Jews.[11] Historian Peter Longerich writes that the term "final solution" and similar euphemisms, were used by the Germans "as camouflage for mass murder".[12]

Definition

The restrictive definition of the Holocaust is that it was a genocide of Jews by the Nazis.[13][14][e] A broader definition of the Holocaust includes non-Jewish victims of the Nazi campaign of mass murder.[3] The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust limits the definition of the Holocaust to Jews, Romani, and the Aktion T4 patients who were mentally and physically disabled. Its authors write "all three groups, but only these groups, were equal victims of Nazi racism and genocide."[21] They also offer three additional definitions which include the viewpoints of historians who identify several additional victim groups. One is that the Holocaust only applied to Jews, a second is that there were several different Holocausts, each affecting a separate group, and a third would include all German racially-motivated crimes.[22] Timothy Snyder wrote: "The term Holocaust is sometimes used in two other ways: to mean all German killing policies during the war, or to mean all oppression of Jews by the Nazi regime."[23]

Broader definitions of so-called "parallel Holocausts" include the Soviet POWs who died as a result of mistreatment due to Nazi racial policies,[24] the non-Jewish ethnic Poles who died due to the conditions that resulted from the Nazi occupation of Poland, the Soviet citizens who died from similar conditions in occupied parts of the Soviet Union,[25] mentally and physically disabled people who were killed in Nazi Germany's eugenics program,[26] the Gypsies, or the Romani and Sinti,[27] homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses and other religious dissenters.[28]

Distinctive features

Ghettos were established in which Jews were confined before being shipped to extermination camps.

Genocidal state

The entirety of German society were engaged in activities relating to the genocide, turning the Third Reich into what one Holocaust scholar, Michael Berenbaum, has called "a genocidal state".[29] Bureaucrats were involved with finding records to identify who was a Jew, the confiscation of property, and the scheduling of trains that deported Jews. Companies fired Jewish employees, and later employed Jews as slave labour. Universities dismissed Jewish students and faculty. German pharmaceutical companies tested drugs on camp prisoners; other companies built the crematoria.[29] As prisoners entered the death camps, they were made to surrender all personal property, which was catalogued and tagged before being sent to Germany to be reused or recycled.[30] Through a concealed account, the German National Bank helped launder valuables stolen from the victims.[31]

Saul Friedländer writes that: "Not one social group, not one religious community, not one scholarly institution or professional association in Germany and throughout Europe declared its solidarity with the Jews"[32] He writes that some Christian churches "declared that converted Jews should be regarded as part of the flock, but even then only up to a point".[32] Friedländer argues that this makes the Holocaust distinctive because antisemitic policies were able to "unfold to their most extreme levels without the interference of any major countervailing interests".[32]

Ideology and scale

Historian Yehuda Bauer argues that the Holocaust was based on ideology and myths rather than practical considerations.[33] Eberhard Jäckel argues that one distinctive feature of the Holocaust was that it was the first time that a state put the full power behind its declaration that a whole people would be completely wiped out without exception and as quickly as possible.[34]

The killings were systematically conducted in virtually all areas of German-occupied territory in more than 20 occupied countries.[35] Close to 3 million Jews in occupied Poland and between 700,000 and 2.5 million Jews in the Soviet Union were killed. Hundreds of thousands more Jews also died in the rest of German-occupied Europe.[36] Discussions at the Wannsee Conference make it clear that the Nazi "final solution of the Jewish question" included Britain and all the neutral states in Europe, such as Ireland, Switzerland, Turkey, Sweden, Portugal, and Spain.[37] Over 200,000 people are estimated to have been Holocaust perpetrators.[38]

Industrialized murder

The use of extermination camps, or death camps, equipped with gas chambers for the systematic mass extermination of people was an unprecedented feature of the Holocaust. They were built for the systematic purpose of killing millions of people, primarily by gassing.[39] Stationary facilities built for the purpose of mass extermination resulted from earlier Nazi experimentation with poison gas during the secret Action T4 euthanasia programme against mental patients.[40]

Origins

Antisemitism and racism

Throughout the Middle Ages in Europe, Jews were subjected to antisemitism based on Christian theology, which blamed them for rejecting and killing Jesus. Even after the Reformation, Catholicism and Lutheranism continued to persecute Jews, accusing them of blood libel and subjecting them to pogroms and expulsions.[41][42] The second half of the 19th century saw the emergence in Germany and Austria-Hungary of the Völkisch movement which was developed by such thinkers as Houston Stewart Chamberlain and Paul de Lagarde. The movement presented a pseudo-scientific, biologically based form of racism that viewed Jews as a race whose members were locked in mortal combat with the Aryan race for world domination.[43]

Antisemitism in Germany: on 1 April 1933 SA troopers urge a national boycott of Jewish businesses. Here they are outside Israel's Department Store in Berlin. The signs read: "Germans! Defend yourselves! Don't buy from Jews." ("Deutsche! Wehrt Euch! Kauft nicht bei Juden!")[44] The store was later ransacked during Kristallnacht in 1938, then handed over to a non-Jewish family.

In the German Empire, völkisch notions and pseudo-scientific racism had become commonplace and they were accepted throughout Germany,[45] with the professional classes of the country adopting an ideology that did not see humans as equally racially and hereditarily valuable.[46] Though the völkisch parties were defeated in the 1912 Reichstag elections, being all but wiped out, antisemitism was incorporated into the platforms of the mainstream political parties.[45]

Germany after World War I

The political situation in Germany and elsewhere in Europe after World War I (1914–1918) also contributed to virulent antisemitism. Many Germans did not accept the fact that their country had been defeated in battle, giving rise to the Stab-in-the-back myth. The myth insinuated that it was disloyal politicians, chiefly Jews and Communists, who orchestrated Germany's surrender. Inflaming the anti-Jewish sentiment espoused by the myth was the apparent overrepresentation of ethnic Jews in the leadership of Communist revolutionary governments in Europe, such as Ernst Toller, who was the head of a short-lived revolutionary government in Bavaria. This perceived overrepresentation contributed to the canard of Jewish Bolshevism.[47]

The economic strains of the Great Depression led some in the German medical establishment to advocate the euthanization of the "incurable" mentally and physically disabled as a cost-saving measure in order to free up money to care for the curable.[48] By the time the Nazis came to power in 1933, a tendency already existed in the German social policy to save the racially "valuable" while seeking to rid society of the racially "undesirable".[49]

The National Socialist German Workers' Party, or Nazi Party, was founded in 1920 as an offshoot of the völkisch movement and it adopted that movement's form of antisemitism.[50] Early antisemites in the Nazi Party included Alfred Rosenberg, who in the 1920s wrote antisemitic articles in the Völkischer Beobachter, and Dietrich Eckart, publisher of the Völkischer Beobachter. Rosenberg's vision of a secretive Jewish conspiracy ruling the world would influence Hitler's views of Jews by making them the driving force behind communism.[51]

Hitler's world view

The origin and first expression of Hitler's antisemitism remain a matter of debate.[52] Central to Hitler's philosophy was the idea of expansion and lebensraum (living space) for Germany.[53] Hitler was open about his hatred of Jews and subscribed to most of the common antisemitic stereotypes.[54] From the early 1920s Hitler linked the Jews with germs and claimed that they should be dealt with in exactly the same way.[55] Hitler viewed Marxism as a Jewish doctrine and proclaimed he was fighting against "Jewish Marxism". He believed that Jews had created communism as part of a conspiracy to destroy Germany.[56] The journalist Joseph Hell in the 1920s claimed that in response to being asked what he would do to the Jews when he gained power, Hitler said that his "first and foremost task will be the annihilation of the Jews".[57]

Nazi Germany

Dictatorship and repression (1933–1939)

With the establishment of the Third Reich, Nazi leaders proclaimed the existence of a Volksgemeinschaft ("people's community"). Nazi policies divided the population into two categories, the Volksgenossen ("national comrades"), who belonged to the Volksgemeinschaft, and the Gemeinschaftsfremde ("community aliens"), who did not. Nazi policies divided people into three types of enemies, the "racial" enemies such as the Jews and the Romani who were viewed as enemies because of their "blood"; political opponents such as Marxists, liberals, Christians and the "reactionaries" who were viewed as wayward "national comrades"; and moral opponents such as homosexuals, the "work-shy" and habitual criminals, also seen as wayward "national comrades".[58] The last two groups were to be sent to concentration camps for "re-education", with the aim of eventual absorption into the Volksgemeinschaft.[58] "Racial" enemies such as the Jews could never belong to the Volksgemeinschaft; they were to be totally removed from society.[58]

Jewish refugees being marched away by British police at Croydon airport in March 1939. They were put on a flight to Warsaw.

Leading up to the March 1933 Reichstag elections and after it, the Nazis intensified their campaign of violence against their opponents.[59] They set up concentration camps for extrajudicial imprisonment of their opponents.[60] One of the first, at Dachau, opened on 9 March 1933.[61] Initially the camp primarily contained Communists and Social Democrats.[62] Other early prisons were consolidated by mid-1934 into purpose-built camps outside the cities, run exclusively by the SS.[63] The initial purpose of the camps was to serve as a deterrent by terrorizing those Germans who did not conform to social norms.[64]

Throughout the 1930s, the legal, economic, and social rights of Jews were steadily restricted.[65] On 1 April 1933, a boycott of Jewish businesses occurred.[66] On 7 April 1933, the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service was passed which excluded all Jews and other "non-Aryans" from the civil service.[67] Jewish lawyers were disbarred.[68] Jewish students were restricted by quotas from attending schools and universities,[67] from belonging to the Journalists' Association, and from being owners or editors of newspapers.[65] Jewish businesses were also targeted for either closing or "Aryanisation", the forcible sale to Germans. Of the approximately 50,000 Jewish-owned businesses in Germany in 1933, only about 7,000 were still Jewish-owned in April 1939. Accompanying the removal of Jews from the economic life, they were also gradually restricted from most social activities and public areas.[69] Works by Jewish composers,[70] Jewish authors,[71] and Jewish artists were excluded from publication, performances, or exhibitions.[72]

Nuremberg Laws

In September 1935, Hitler introduced the three Nuremberg Laws,[73] which prohibited Germans or those of "kindred blood",[74] from having sexual relations or marrying Jews.[75] The laws also stripped German Jews of their citizenship and deprived them of all civil rights.[76] At the same time the Nazis used propaganda to justify the need for a restrictive law,[77] grouping these "crimes" under the concept of Rassenschande (racial shame).[78]

Emigration

Nazi racial policy was aimed at forcing the German Jews to emigrate.[79] Fifty thousand German Jews left Germany by the end of 1934,[80] and by the end of 1938 approximately half of the German Jews had left the country.[79] Among the prominent Jews who left was the conductor Bruno Walter, who fled after being told that the hall of the Berlin Philharmonic would be burned down if he conducted a concert there.[81] Albert Einstein, who was abroad when Hitler came to power, never returned to Germany. He was expelled from the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and the Prussian Academy of Sciences, and his citizenship was revoked.[82] Other Jewish scientists, including Gustav Hertz and Erwin Schrödinger, lost their teaching positions and left the country.[83]

In March 1938, Germany annexed Austria, which exposed the Jews of Austria to Nazi antisemitism. Austrian Nazis broke into Jewish shops, stole from Jewish homes and businesses, and forced Jews to perform humiliating acts such as scrubbing the streets or cleaning toilets.[84] Jewish businesses were "Aryanised" and all the legal restrictions on Jews in Germany were imposed on Austrian Jews.[85] In August, Adolf Eichmann was put in charge of the Central Agency for Jewish Emigration, which centralised the process of emigration and led to about 100,000 Austrian Jews leaving the country by May 1939.[86]

Kristallnacht and afterwards

The synagogue of Siegen burning on 10 November 1938.

On 7 November 1938, Herschel Grynszpan, a Polish Jew, assassinated the German diplomat Ernst vom Rath in Paris in retaliation for the expulsion of his parents from Germany.[87][f] When vom Rath died on 9 November, the Nazis used his death as a pretext to instigate a pogrom against the Jews in the Third Reich. Although the Nazis claimed the pogrom was spontaneous, it was actually planned and ordered by Hitler and Goebbels.[89] This event became known as Kristallnacht ("Crystal Night" or "Night of Broken Glass")[90] and it was carried out by the SS and SA.[91] Over 7,500 Jewish shops and more than 1,000 synagogues were either damaged or destroyed. The damage was estimated at 39 million Reichmarks.[92]

The death toll was officially given as 91, but it may have been higher.[93] 30,000 men were sent to the concentration camps of Dachau, Buchenwald and Sachsenhausen,[94] but many were released within weeks. Only 2,000 remained in the camps by early 1939.[95] German Jewry was made collectively responsible for restitution of the damage resulting from the pogrom, and they furthermore had to pay an "atonement tax" of more than a billion Reichsmarks. Insurance payments for damages to their property were confiscated by the government. A decree on 12 November barred Jews from most of the remaining occupations that they had not yet been banned from.[96] After Kristallnacht, Jews caught in the Third Reich stepped up their efforts to leave the country. It also marked the end of any sort of public Jewish activity and culture.[97]

Territorial solution and resettlement

The 930 Jewish refugees aboard the MS St. Louis were refused entry to Cuba, the United States and Canada, and the ship was forced to return to Europe.

Before World War II, the Nazis considered mass deportation of German, and later European, Jewry from Europe.[98] Among the areas considered for possible resettlement were British Palestine,[99] and French Madagascar.[100] After the war began, Nazi leaders considered the idea of deporting Europe's Jews to Siberia.[101]

German J stamped passport used to escape Europe in 1940.The holder was interned on the Island of Mauritius from late 1940 up to 1945.

Palestine was the only location to which any Nazi relocation plan produced any results, via the Haavara Agreement between the Zionist Federation of Germany and the Nazi government.[102] This agreement resulted in the transfer of about 60,000 German Jews and $100 million from Germany to Palestine, but it ended with the outbreak of World War II.[103]

In May 1940 Madagascar became the focus of German deportation efforts.[100] In its favour, the island's unfavorable conditions would hasten deaths.[104] Various Nazis began discussing the idea in 1938 and Adolf Eichmann's office was ordered to carry out resettlement planning, but no evidence of actual planning until after the fall of France in June 1940 exists.[105] But the inability to defeat Great Britain prevented the movement of Jews across the seas,[106] and the end of the Madagascar Plan was announced on 10 February 1942.[107]

World War II

German-occupied Poland

Nazi Germany before Operation Barbarossa in 1941, with areas annexed from Poland and the General Government territory

When Germany invaded Poland, it gained control of about 2 million Jews in the territory it occupied. The rest of Poland was occupied by the Soviet Union, who thus gained control of the rest of Poland's pre-war population of 3.3 to 3.5 million Jews.[108] German plans for Poland included expelling the Poles from large areas, the confining of Jews, and settling Germans on the lands emptied. To help the process along, Reinhard Heydrich, head of the Reich Security Main Office, ordered that the "leadership class" in Poland must be killed and the Jews expelled.[109]

The Germans initiated a policy of sending Jews from all the areas they had recently annexed (Austria, Czechoslovakia, and parts of Poland) to the central section of Poland, which they called the General Government. There the Jews were concentrated in ghettos in major cities.[110] Cities chosen were located on railway lines to facilitate later deportation.[111] Food supplies were restricted and public hygiene was difficult. The inhabitants subjected to forced labour.[112] In the labour camps and ghettos in Poland between 1939 and 1941 at least half a million Jews died of starvation, diseases, and the poor living conditions.[113]

Jewish mass grave near Złoczów (Nazi occupied Poland), now western Ukraine. Photo was found by the Soviets at a former Gestapo headquarters in Złoczów.

The ghettos were not initially considered a step along the way towards the extermination of the Jews. Instead, they were one step towards a policy of creating a territorial reservation to contain Jews.[114]

Lublin reservation (Nisko plan)

After the invasion of Poland, the Germans set up a "Jewish reservation" in the Lublin area, the Nisko Plan. Adolf Eichmann was assigned the task of removing all Jews from Germany, Austria, and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia to this reservation.[115] The first Jews were sent in October 1939.[116] Although 80,000 Jews were initially planned to be deported, only 4700 were actually transported.[117] In late March 1940 Göring put the Nisko Plan on hold,[118] and it was abandoned completely in April 1940.[119]

Other occupied countries

Germany invaded Norway in April 1940 and had completed their occupation by June.[120] There were about 1800 Jews in Norway, and they were initially the object of persecution by Norwegian Nazis. In late 1940, they were banned from some occupations and in 1941 all Jews had to register their property with the government.[121] Also in 1940, Germany invaded Denmark,[120] where the country was overrun so quickly there was no chance of resistance. Consequently, the Danish government stayed in place and the Germans found it easier to work through the local government. Because of this, few measures were taken against the Danish Jews before 1942.[122]

The Germans invaded the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium, and France in May 1940. In the Netherlands, the Germans installed Arthur Seyss-Inquart as Reichskommissar, who quickly began to persecute the approximately 140,000 Dutch Jews. Jews were forced out of their jobs and had to register with the government. Non-Jewish Dutch citizens protested these measures, and held a strike in February 1941 that was crushed quickly.[123] After Belgium's surrender at the end of May 1940, it was ruled by a German military governor, Alexander von Falkenhausen, which enacted anti-Jewish measures against the approximately 90,000 Jews in Belgium, many of whom were refugees from Germany or Eastern Europe.[124] France had approximately 300,000 Jews, divided between the German-occupied northern part of France, and the unoccupied collaborationist southern areas under the Vichy regime. The occupied regions were under the control of a military governor, where anti-Jewish measures were not enacted as quickly as they were in the Vichy-controlled areas.[125]

In October 1940, Gauleiters Josef Bürckel and Robert Heinrich Wagner oversaw Operation Bürckel, the expulsion of the Jews into unoccupied France from their gaues and the parts of Alsace-Lorraine that had been annexed to Germany. Only those Jews in mixed marriages were not expelled.[126] The Jews expelled in Operation Bürckel were interned in harsh conditions by the Vichy authorities at various camps.[126]

Yugoslavia and Greece were invaded in April 1941, and both countries surrendered before the end of the month. Germany and Italy divided Greece into occupation zones, but did not eliminate it as a country. Yugoslavia was dismembered, with regions in the north being annexed by Germany and regions along the coast were made part of Italy. The rest of the country was divided into a puppet state of Croatia, nominally an ally of Germany, and Serbia, which was governed by a combination of military and police administrators. There were approximately 80,000 Jews in Yugoslavia when it was invaded. The ruling party in Croatia, the Ustasha, not only killed Jews, but also murdered and expelled Orthodox Christian Serbs and Muslims too.[127] One difference between the Germans and the Croatians was the Ustasha's allowing its Jewish and Serbian victims to convert to Catholcism to escape death. Serbia was declared to be free of Jews in August 1942.[128]

Germany's allies

Germany's ally Italy introduced some antisemitic measures, but there was less antisemitism in the populace than in Germany. Italian-occupied countries were generally safer for Jews than German-occupied territories. In some areas, the Italian authorities even attempted to protect Jews, such as in the Croatian areas of the Balkans. But while Italian forces in Russia were not as viscious towards Jews as the Germans, they did not try to stop German atrocities there either. There were no deportations of Italian Jews to Germany while Italy remained an ally.[129]

Finland was pressured give the Germans its Jews (who numbered around 200) in 1942, but given the opposition among the people and government, this did not happen. Eight non-Finnish Jews were deported in late 1942,[g] but that was the only case. Finnish Jews even fought in the army during the period it was allied with Germany.[130] Japan had little antisemitism in its society, and did not persecute Jews in most of the territories it controlled. Jews in Shanghai were confined, but despite German pressure, they were not killed.[131]

Romania implemented a number of anti-Jewish measures in May and June 1940 as part of their efforts towards an alliance with Germany. These included forcing Jews from government service and the relegation of Jews to the status of second-class citizens. Pogroms were also carried out and by March 1941 Jewish property had been confiscated and all Jews lost their jobs. After Romania joined the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, Romanian troops carried out massacres through Romanian-controlled territory, including the Odessa massacre of 20,000 Jews in Odessa in late 1941. Romania also set up concentration camps under their control in Transnistria, where approximately 154,000 to 170,000 Jews were deported from 1941 to 1943.[132]

Slovakia introduced anti-Jewish measures similar to those in Germany, and later would deport its Jews to German concentration and extermination camps.[133] Bulgaria introduced some anti-Jewish measures in 1940 and 1941, including the requirement to wear a yellow star, the banning of mixed marriages, and loss of property. Jews in Thrace and Macedonia, which were annexed by Bulgaria, were deported to Treblinka in March 1943. But when plans to deport 6000 Bulgarian Jews became public, the Orthodox Church and many Bulgarians protested, and King Boris III banned the deportation of Jews from pre-war Bulgaria.[134]

Although Hungary expelled Jews in its newly annexed lands who were not Hungarian citizens in 1941, it did not deport most of the Hungarian Jews.[135]

Several forced labor camps for Jews were established in Italian-controlled Libya. Almost 2600 Libyan Jews were sent to camps, where 562 died.[136] Vichy France's government implemented anti-Jewish measures in French Algeria and the two French Protectorates of Tunisia and Morocco.[137] Tunisia had 85,000 Jews when the Germans and Italians arrived in November 1942. An estimated 5,000 Jews were subjected to forced labor.[138]

Concentration and labor camps (1933–1945)

The Third Reich first used concentration camps as places of incarceration, and large numbers of Jews did not get sent there until after Kristallnacht.[139] They were not designed to be killing centers.[140] After the start of the war, new camps were established, and some were located outside Germany in occupied Europe. The number of prisoners also grew, to about 80,000. Most of these prisoners were not Germans, but from other countries under the control of the Germans.[141] It is estimated in the occupied countries that Germans established 30,000 slave labor camps and subcamps, almost 1,000 concentration camps, and another 1,000 prisoner-of-war camps.[142]

After 1942, the economic functions of the camps, previously secondary to their control and terrorism functions, came to the fore. Forced labour of camp prisoners became commonplace and companies utilized cheap prisoner labour.[139] The guards became much more brutal, and the death rate increased markedly as the guards not only beat and starved prisoners, but also killed them more frequently.[141] Extermination through labour was a policy of systematic extermination—camp inmates would literally be worked to death, or worked to physical exhaustion, when they would be gassed or shot.[143][144] For many prisoners, the Germans estimated the average life span in a concentration camp at three months, mainly due to lack of food and clothing, constant epidemics, and frequent punishments for the most minor transgressions.[145] The shifts were long and often involved exposure to dangerous materials. Safety was neglected.[146]

Prisoner transportation between camps was often carried out in freight cars with the prisoners packed very tightly. Long delays often took place, with the prisoners confined in the cars on sidings for days.[147] In mid-1942 labour camps began requiring newly arrived prisoners to be put into quarantine for four weeks.[148] Some camps tattooed prisoners with an identification number on arrival, but not all did.[149] Prisoners also had colored triangles on their uniforms, with the color of the triangle denoting the reason for their incarceration.[h][155]

Ghettos (1939–1945)

A starving child lying in the streets of the Warsaw Ghetto.
Main ghettos: Białystok, Budapest, Kraków, Kovno, Łódź, Lvov, Riga, Vilna, Warsaw.

After invading Poland, the Nazis established ghettos in the incorporated territories and General Government to confine Jews.[110] The ghettos were formed and closed off from the outside world at different times and for different reasons.[156][157] For example, the Łódź ghetto was closed in April 1940,[110] to force the Jews inside to give up money and valuables;[158] the Warsaw ghetto was closed for health considerations (for the people outside, not inside, the ghetto),[159] but this did not happen until November 1940;[110] and the Krakow ghetto was not established until March 1941.[160] The Warsaw Ghetto contained 380,000 people[110] and was the largest Polish ghetto; the Łódź Ghetto was the second largest,[161] holding between 160,000[162] to 230,000.[163] Because of the long drawn-out process of establishing ghettos, it is unlikely that they were originally considered part of a systematic attempt to eliminate Jews completely.[164]

The Germans required each ghetto to be run by a Judenrat, or Jewish council.[165] Councils were responsible for a ghetto's day-to-day operations, including distributing food, water, heat, medical care, and shelter. The Germans also required councils to confiscate property, organize forced labor, and, finally, facilitate deportations to extermination camps.[166] The councils' basic strategy was one of trying to minimise losses, by cooperating with Nazi authorities, bribing officials, and petitioning for better conditions or clemency.[167]

Emaciated corpses of children in Warsaw Ghetto

Eventually the Germans ordered the councils to compile lists of names of deportees to be sent for "resettlement".[168] Although most ghetto councils complied with these orders,[169] many councils tried to send either outsiders, such as the Roma, or the least useful workers.[170] Leaders who refused these orders were shot. Some individuals or even complete councils committed suicide rather than cooperate with the deportations.[171] Others, like Chaim Rumkowski, who became the "dedicated autocrat" of Łódź,[172] argued that their responsibility was to save the Jews who could be saved, and that therefore others had to be sacrificed.[173] The councils' actions in facilitating Germany's persecution and murder of ghetto inhabitants was important to the Nazis.[174] When cooperation crumbled, as happened in the Warsaw ghetto after the Jewish Combat Organisation displaced the council's authority, the Germans lost control.[175]

Ghettos were intended to be temporary until the Jews were deported to other locations, which never happened. Instead, the inhabitants were sent to extermination camps. The ghettos were, in effect, immensely crowded prisons serving as instruments of "slow, passive murder."[176] Though the Warsaw Ghetto contained 30% of Warsaw's population, it occupied only 2.5% of the city's area, averaging over 9 people per room.[177] Between 1940 and 1942, starvation and disease, especially typhoid, killed many in the ghettos.[178] Over 43,000 Warsaw ghetto residents, or one in ten of the total population, died in 1941;[179] in Theresienstadt, more than half the residents died in 1942.[176]

Himmler ordered the closing of the Polish ghettos in mid-July 1942, with most inhabitants going to extermination camps. Those Jews needed for war production would be confined at concentration camps.[180] The deportations from the Warsaw Ghetto began on 22 July; over the almost two months of the Aktion, until 12 September, the Warsaw ghetto went from approximately 350,000 inhabitants to about 65,000. Those deported were transported in freight trains to the Treblinka extermination camp.[181] Similar deportations happened in other ghettos, with many ghettos totally emptied.[182]

The first ghetto uprisings occurred in mid-1942 in small community ghettos.[183] Although there were armed resistance attempts in both the larger and smaller ghettos in 1943, in every case they failed against the overwhelming Nazi military force, and the remaining Jews were either killed or deported to the death camps.[184]

Pogroms (1939–1942)

Jewish woman chased by men and youth armed with clubs during the Lviv pogroms, July 1941, then occupied Poland, now Ukraine

A number of deadly pogroms occurred during the Holocaust.[185] The Nazis encouraged some and others were spontaneous.[186] Some, such as the Iaşi pogrom, were in lands controlled by Germany's allies.[187] In the series of Lviv pogroms committed in occupied Poland, perhaps initiated by the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, some 6,000 Polish Jews were murdered in the streets in July 1941, on top of 3,000 arrests and mass shootings by Einsatzgruppe C.[188] During the Jedwabne pogrom of July 1941, in the presence of the Nazi officers, several hundred Jews were murdered by some local Poles, with some being burned alive in a barn.[189][i]

Death squads (1941–1943)

Executions of Jews by German army mobile killing units (Einsatzgruppen) near Ivanhorod, now Ukraine. The photo was mailed from the Eastern Front to Germany and intercepted by a member of the Polish resistance.

Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941 opened a new phase in the Holocaust.[190] Nazi propaganda portrayed the war against the Soviet Union as both an ideological war between German National Socialism and Jewish Bolshevism and a racial war between the Germans and the Jewish, Romani and Slavic Untermenschen ("sub-humans").[191]

German police shooting women and children from the Mizocz Ghetto, 14 October 1942

Local populations in some occupied Soviet territories actively participated in the killings of Jews and others. Besides participating in killings and pogroms, they helped identify Jews for persecution and rounded up Jews for German actions.[192] German involvement ranged from active instigation and involvement to more generalized guidance.[193] In Lithuania, Latvia, and western Ukraine locals were deeply involved in the murder of Jews from the beginning of the German occupation. Some of these Latvian and Lithuanian units also participated in the murder of Jews in Belarus. In the south, Ukrainians killed about 24,000 Jews and some went to Poland to serve as concentration and death-camp guards.[192] Military units from some countries allied to Germany also killed Jews. Romanian units were given orders to exterminate and wipe out Jews in areas they controlled.[194] Ustaše militia in Croatia persecuted and murdered Jews, among others.[128] Many of the killings were carried out in public, a change from previous practice.[195]

The mass killings of Jews in the occupied Soviet territories was assigned to four SS formations called Einsatzgruppen ("task groups"), which were under Heydrich's overall command. Similar formations had been used to a limited extent in Poland in 1939, but the ones operating in the Soviet territories were much larger.[196] The Einsatzgruppen's commanders were ordinary citizens: the great majority were professionals and most were intellectuals.[197] By the winter of 1941–1942, the four Einsatzgruppen and their helpers had killed almost 500,000 people.[198]

Probably the largest massacre of Jews by the mobile killing squads in the Soviet Union was at a ravine called Babi Yar outside Kiev,[199] where 33,771 Jews were killed in a single operation on 29–30 September 1941.[200][j] A mixture of SS and Security Police, assisted by Ukrainian police, carried out the killings.[202] Although they did not actively participate in the killings, men of the 6th Army helped round up the Jews of Kiev and transport them to be shot.[203]

By the end of the war, estimates of the number of victims of the Einsatzgruppen and their helpers in the local population and the German Army are about 2 million. Of those, about 1.3 million were Jews and perhaps as many as quarter million were Roma.[204]

Gas vans

As the mass shootings continued in Russia, the Germans began to search for new methods of mass murder. This was driven by a need to have a more efficient method than simply shooting millions of victims. Himmler also feared that the mass shootings were causing psychological problems in the SS. His concerns were shared by his subordinates in the field.[205] Starting in December 1939, another method besides shooting was tried. Experimental gas vans equipped with gas cylinders and a sealed compartment were used to kill the disabled and mentally-ill in occupied Poland, as part of the Action T4. In the Sachsenhausen concentration camp, larger vans holding up to 100 people were used from November 1941, using the engine's exhaust rather than tanked gases. Similar vans were introduced to the Chełmno extermination camp in December 1941, and another 15 were used by the Einsatzgruppen in the occupied Soviet Union. The vans were used to kill about 500,000 people, primarily Jews but also Romani and others.[206]

Final Solution

Wannsee Conference

Reinhard Heydrich convened the Wannsee Conference on 20 January 1942 in Berlin's Wannsee suburb. It brought together Nazi leaders, from the party and government departments responsible for policies linked to Jewish issues. The conference's initial purpose was to discuss plans for a comprehensive solution to the "Jewish question in Europe." Heydrich was put in overall charge of "final solution" throughout Europe.[207] Heydrich meant for the conference to share information among the officials so they would all share responsibility.[208]

A copy of the minutes survives, but on Heydrich's instructions, they were written in "euphemistic language" so the exact words used are not known.[209] But Heydrich announced that the immigration plan had been replaced by an approach of deporting Jews to the east. This was just a provisional solution leading up to a final solution that would involve some 11 million Jews living not only in territories controlled by Germany, but throughout continental Europe and areas adjacent to it.[210] There was little doubt what the solution was: "Heydrich also made it clear what was understood by the phrase 'Final Solution': the Jews were to be annihilated by a combination of forced labour and mass murder."[211]

Extermination camps

Killing on a mass scale with gas as the main killing means is the main difference between a death or extermination camp and the rest of the German concentration and labour camps.[212] During 1942 three camps were built as extermination camps for Operation Reinhard.[213][k] About the same time, two other camps, Chełmno[l] and Majdanek[m] which already existed had extermination facilities added to them.[220] The three new camps were built for the sole purpose of killing large numbers of Jews as quickly as possible – at Bełżec, Sobibór and Treblinka.[221] At around the same time, Auschwitz, which was actually three camps, was experimenting with systematic killing.[222] These six camps are generally considered to be death camps or extermination camps. A few other camps are occasionally also named as extermination camps, but there is no scholarly agreement on the additional camps.[223] Commonly mentioned as "other" death camps are Mauthausen in Austria[223] and Stutthof.[224] There may have been plans for camps at Mogilev and Lvov also, but they never progressed past the planning stage.[225]

Approx. number killed at each extermination camp
Camp name Killed Coordinates[226] Ref.
Auschwitz II 1,000,000 50°2′9″N 19°10′42″E / 50.03583°N 19.17833°E / 50.03583; 19.17833 (Oświęcim (Auschwitz, Poland)) [227]
Bełżec 600,000 50°22′18″N 23°27′27″E / 50.37167°N 23.45750°E / 50.37167; 23.45750 (Belzec (Poland)) [228]
Chełmno 320,000 52°9′27″N 18°43′43″E / 52.15750°N 18.72861°E / 52.15750; 18.72861 (Chełmno (Poland)) [214]
Jasenovac 83,000 45°16′54″N 16°56′6″E / 45.28167°N 16.93500°E / 45.28167; 16.93500 (Jasenovac (Sisačko-Moslavačka, Croatia)) [229]
Majdanek 78,000 51°13′13″N 22°36′0″E / 51.22028°N 22.60000°E / 51.22028; 22.60000 (Majdanek (Poland)) [230]
Maly Trostinets 65,000 53°51′4″N 27°42′17″E / 53.85111°N 27.70472°E / 53.85111; 27.70472 (Malyy Trostenets (Belarus)) [231]
Sobibór 250,000 51°26′50″N 23°35′37″E / 51.44722°N 23.59361°E / 51.44722; 23.59361 (Sobibór (Poland)) [232]
Treblinka 870,000 52°37′35″N 22°2′49″E / 52.62639°N 22.04694°E / 52.62639; 22.04694 (Treblinka (Poland)) [233]

Gas chambers

Usually, victims arrived by train.[234] Almost all arrivals at the Operation Reinhard camps of Treblinka, Sobibór, and Bełżec were sent directly to the gas chambers,[235] with occasional individuals selected to replace dead workers.[citation needed] At Auschwitz, the camp officials usually subjected individuals to selections and some of new arrivals deemed fit to work were sent to slave labour.[236] Those selected for death at all camps were then told to undress and hand over their valuables to camp workers.[237] They were then herded naked into the gas chambers. In order to prevent panic, the victims were often told these were showers or delousing chambers.[238] The procedure at Chełmno was slightly different, as the victims were put into a mobile gas van and asphyxiated while being driven to prepared burial pits in the nearby forests. There the corpses were unloaded and buried.[239]

Picture of Auschwitz–Birkenau taken by an American surveillance plane, 13 September 1944.

At Auschwitz, after the chambers were filled, the doors were shut and pellets of Zyklon-B were dropped into the chambers through vents,[240] releasing toxic HCN, or hydrogen cyanide.[citation needed] Those inside died within 20 minutes; the speed of death depended on how close the inmate was standing to a gas vent, according to the commandant Rudolf Höss, who estimated that about one-third of the victims died immediately.[241] Johann Kremer, an SS doctor who oversaw the gassings, testified that: "Shouting and screaming of the victims could be heard through the opening and it was clear that they fought for their lives."[242] The gas was then pumped out, the bodies were removed, gold fillings in their teeth were extracted, and women's hair was cut.[243] The work was done by the Sonderkommando, or work groups of Jewish prisoners.[244] At first at Auschwitz, the bodies were buried in deep pits and covered with lime, but between September and November 1942, on the orders of Himmler, they were dug up and burned. In early 1943, new gas chambers and crematoria were built to accommodate the numbers.[245]

At the three Reinhard camps the victims were killed by the exhaust fumes of stationary diesel engines.[235] Gold fillings were pulled from the corpses before burial, but the women's hair was cut before death. At Treblinka, in order to calm the arriving victims, the arrival platform was made to look like a train station, complete with fake clock.[246] Majdanek used Zyklon-B gas in its gas chambers.[247] In contrast to Auschwitz, the three Reinhard camps were quite small.[248] At these camps, most of the initial victims were buried in pits, but in 1942 in order to hide the evidence of the extermination, the exhumation of the bodies and cremation of them was begun. Sobibór and Bełżec began the process in late 1942 but Treblinka did not start until March 1943. The bodies were burned in open fireplaces and the remaining bones were crushed into powder.[249]

Jewish resistance

Armed members of the Jewish resistance, the Fareynikte Partizaner Organizatsye, active in the Vilnius Ghetto.[citation needed]
Ariadna Scriabina, (a convert to Judaism and a daughter of the Russian composer Alexander Scriabin), co-founded the Armée Juive, becoming a leader of the French Resistance. She was killed by the pro-Nazi milice in 1944. She was posthumously awarded the Croix de guerre and the Médaille de la Résistance.

Peter Longerich observes that in the Polish ghettos by the end of 1942 that "there was practically no resistance."[250] He argues that one of the reasons for this were that there were no organized groups until the early part of 1942.[251] Raul Hilberg accounts for this compliant attitude by evoking the history of Jewish persecution: as had been the case before in history, simply appealing to their oppressors, and complying with orders, would hopefully avoid inflaming the situation and so mitigate the damage until the onslaught abated.[252] They were "caught in the straitjacket of their history", and the realisation that this time was different came too late.[252]

Discussing the case of Warsaw, Timothy Snyder notes in a similar vein that it was only during the three months after the massive deportations of July–September 1942 that general agreement on the need for armed resistance was reached.[253] By the time of the biggest act of armed resistance, the Warsaw Ghetto uprising of spring 1943, only a small minority of Polish Jews were still alive.[251]

Henri Michel argues that resistance consisted not only of physical opposition, but of any activity that gave the Jews dignity and humanity in humiliating and inhumane conditions. Yehuda Bauer restricts Michel's definition somewhat, making resistance as actions that opposed somehow the German directives, laws, or conduct.[254]

In every ghetto, in every deportation train, in every labour camp, even in the death camps, the will to resist was strong, and took many forms: fighting with sticks and knives, individual acts of defiance and protest, the courage of obtaining food under the threat of death, the nobility of refusing to allow the Germans their final wish to gloat over panic and despair. Even passivity was a form of courage. ... To die with dignity was in itself courageous. To resist the dehumanizing, brutalizing force of evil, to refuse to be abased to the level of animals, to live through the torment, to outlive the tormentors, these too were courageous. Merely to give a witness by one's own testimony was, in the end, to contribute to a moral victory. Simply to survive was a victory of the human spirit.

— Martin Gilbert, The Holocaust[255]
Captured members of the Jewish resistance, Warsaw Ghetto, 1943.

Hilberg cautions against overstating the extent of Jewish resistance, or using all-encompassing definitions of it like that deployed by Gilbert; aruging that by turning isolated incidents into resistance, it obscures the underlying German motivations and elevates the slaughter of innocent people into some kind of battle. He also contends that by ascribing to every European Jew acts of resistance, it diminishes the heroism of those who to active measures to resist the Germans.[256] Finally he asserts that the blending of the passive majority with the active few is a way of deflecting questions about the survival strategies and leadership of the Jewish community.[257]

Armed resistance

Organized uprisings took place in at least 19 ghettos as well as some of the camps. Groups such as the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw Ghetto, or the United Partisan Organization in Vilna, were formed to resist through armed revolts or resistance.[258] Over a hundred revolts and uprisings are known to have occurred in ghettos and other locations in Eastern Europe.[259]

The best known example of Jewish armed resistance was the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of 1943,[259][260] when around a thousand poorly armed Jewish fighters[n] held the SS off for four weeks before the German's superior forces defeated them.[262] According to Jewish accounts, several hundred Germans were killed,[citation needed] while the Germans reported 16 dead.[263] The Germans reported around 14,000 Jews killed[o] and between 53,000[265] and 56,000 deported.[261] A revolt in the Treblinka extermination camp occurred on 2 August 1943, when the inmates revolted.[266] They killed five or six guards and set fire to a few camp buildings,[267] Of the approximately 850 prisoners in the camp,[268] only around 350 or so escaped the immediate area of the camp, and 70 of those survived the war.[p] The camp itself was demolished soon after the revolt by the Germans, who used recaptured prisoners for the work before killing them.[269] Another uprising occurred in the Białystok Ghettoon 16 August 1943. The revolt began when the Germans announced mass deportations and a group of Jewish insurgents revolted. The fighting lasted five days, but the fighters were defeated by the superior numbers of the Germans.[270]

On 14 October 1943, Jewish prisoners in Sobibór, including Jewish Soviet prisoners of war, attempted an escape.[271] The prisoners killed 11 German SS officers and a couple of Ukranian camp guards, but the inmates were forced to run.[272] About 300 prisoners escaped, but 100 were recaptured and shot soon after escaping.[273] About 50 survived the war.[271] In October 1944, Jewish Sonderkommandos at Auschwitz attacked their guards and blew up Crematorium IV with explosives that had been smuggled in. Three German guards were killed during the uprising, one of whom was stuffed into an oven. The Sonderkommandos attempted a mass breakout, but all were killed.[274]

Partisan and resistance groups

While there were no independent Jewish resistance groups during the war, many joined other active partisan groups. Estimates of total Jewish participation in partisan units throughout Europe range from a low of 20,000 to a high of 100,000.[275] An estimated 20,000 to 30,000 Jews joined the Soviet partisan movement.[276]

In the occupied Polish and Soviet territories, thousands of Jews fled into the swamps or forests and joined the partisans,[277] although the partisan movements did not always welcome them.[278] An estimated 20,000 to 30,000 Jews joined the Soviet partisan movement.[276] One of the famous Jewish partisan groups was the Bielski partisans in Belarus, which was led by the Bielski brothers.[279] Some of the fighters in the Warsaw Uprising of 1944 had participated in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of 1943. Jews also joined the Polish Home Army or other Polish forces. According to Timothy Snyder, "more Jews fought in the Warsaw Uprising of August 1944 than in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of April 1943".[280] Joining the partisans was an option only for the young and the fit who were willing to leave their families. Many Jewish families preferred to die together rather than be separated.

French Jews were also highly active in the French Resistance, with the percentage of Jews belonging to resistance groups being many times their percentage of the population.[281] Zionist Jews formed the Armee Juive (Jewish Army), which participated in armed resistance under a Zionist flag, smuggled Jews out of the country,[282] and participated in the liberation of Paris and other cities.[283]

Jews in the Allied forces

As many as 1.4 million Jewish soldiers fought in the Allied armies.[284] including 500,000 in the Red Army, 550,000 in the U.S. Army, 100,000 in the Polish army and 30,000 in the British army.[285] About 200,000 Jewish soldiers serving in the Red Army died in the war.[286] The Jewish Brigade, a unit of 5,000 Jewish volunteers from the British Mandate of Palestine, fought in the British Army.[287]

Medical experimentation

The SS used the inmates of both the concentration and extermination camps as subjects of medical experiments. Both Jewish and non-Jewish prisoners were used for a variety of experiments.[288] The most notorious of these physicians was Josef Mengele, who worked in Auschwitz. His experiments included placing subjects in pressure chambers, testing drugs on them, freezing them, attempting to change their eye color by injecting chemicals into children's eyes, and amputations and other surgeries.[289][q] Other experiments took place at Buchenwald, Dachau, Natzweiler, Neuengamme, Ravensbrück, Sachsenhausen, and others. Some of the experiments dealt with sterilization of men and women, the treatment of war wounds, ways to counteract chemical weapons, research into new vaccines and drugs, and survival of harsh conditions. These experiments violated rules requiring consent for human experimentation and were conducted without regard to medical ethics. At least 7000, and likely more, prisoners were subjected to these experiments, and most died either during the experiments or afterwards.[291]

Climax

During 1943 and 1944, the extermination camps killed hundreds of thousands of people shipped to them by rail from almost every country within the German sphere of influence.[citation needed] During the Hungarian deportations in May and June 1944,[292] up to 6,000 people were being gassed every day at Auschwitz.[293]

Budapest, Hungary—Hungarian and German soldiers drive arrested Jews into the municipal theatre. October 1944.

Despite the high productivity of the war industries based in the Jewish ghettos of General Government, they were liquidated in 1942–1943, and their populations shipped to the camps for extermination.[citation needed] About 42,000 Jews were shot during the Operation Harvest Festival on 3–4 November 1943.[294] At the same time, rail shipments arrived regularly from western and southern Europe at the extermination camps. Few Jews were shipped from the occupied Soviet territories to the camps: the killing of Jews in this zone was left in the hands of the SS, aided by locally recruited auxiliaries.

Shipments of Jews to the camps had priority over anything but the army's needs on the German railways, and continued even in the face of the increasingly dire military situation at the end of 1942[295] and the Allied air attacks on German industry and transport.[citation needed] Army leaders and economic managers complained about this diversion of resources and at the killing of skilled Jewish workers;[296] however, Nazi leaders rated ideological imperatives above economic considerations.[297] In fact, many of the war industries using slave labour were more productive when SS supervision was removed;[298] otherwise their brutality proved counterproductive.

Jewish women and children from Carpatho-Ruthenia after their arrival at the Auschwitz death camp. May/June 1944.

By 1943, it was evident to the armed forces leadership that Germany was losing the war.[299] Many senior officials began to fear the retribution that might await Germany and them personally for the crimes being committed in their name.[citation needed] In October 1943, Himmler gave a speech to senior Nazi Party officials gathered in Poznań. Here he came closer than ever before to stating explicitly his intent to exterminate the Jews of Europe:

I am now referring to the evacuation of the Jews, the extermination of the Jewish people. It's one of those things that is easily said: "The Jewish people are being exterminated", says every party member, "this is very obvious, it's in our program, elimination of the Jews, extermination, we're doing it, hah, a small matter." ... The hard decision had to be made that this people should be caused to disappear from earth…Perhaps, at a much later time, we can consider whether we should say something more about this to the German people. I myself believe that it is better for us—us together—to have borne this for our people, that we have taken the responsibility for it on ourselves (the responsibility for an act, not just for an idea), and that we should now take this secret with us to the grave.

— Heinrich Himmler, "Secret Address to SS Officers" 10 June 1943, quoted in Berel Lang Act and Idea in the Nazi Genocide[300]

The scale of extermination slackened somewhat at the beginning of 1944 once the ghettos in occupied Poland were emptied,[citation needed] but on 19 March 1944, Hitler ordered the military occupation of Hungary, and dispatched Eichmann to Budapest to supervise the deportation of Hungarian Jews.[301] More than half of Hungarian Jews were shipped to Auschwitz after the occupation. The camp commandant, Rudolf Höss, said at his trial that he killed 400,000 Hungarian Jews in three months.

"Blood for goods"

The operation to kill Hungarian Jews met strong opposition within the Nazi hierarchy, and there were some suggestions that Hitler should offer the Allies a deal where they would be spared in exchange for a favorable peace settlement.[citation needed] There were unofficial negotiations in Istanbul between Himmler's agents, British agents, and representatives of Jewish organizations; at one point an attempt by Eichmann to exchange one million Jews for 10,000 trucks[302]—the so-called "blood for goods" proposal[303]—but there was no real possibility of such a deal being struck on this scale.

Escapes and early Allied responses

"The Mass Extermination of Jews in German Occupied Poland", by the Polish government-in-exile addressed to the wartime allies of the then-United Nations, 1942.

Escapes from the camps were few, but not unknown.[citation needed] Assisting a Jew in any way within Nazi-occupied Poland was life-threatening as a result decrees ordering the death penalty for hiding a Jew, later expanded to include the death penalty for any aid to Jews.[304]

In February 1942, an escapee from Chełmno, Jacob Grojanowski, reached the Warsaw Ghetto, where he gave detailed information about the camp to the Oneg Shabbat group. His report, which became known as the Grojanowski Report, was smuggled out of the ghetto and reached London by June 1942.[214][305] In the meantime, by 1 February, the United States Office of War Information had decided not to release information about the extermination of the Jews because it was felt that it would mislead the public into thinking the war was simply a Jewish problem.[306]

After being smuggled into the Warsaw ghetto and infiltrating Bełżec, Jan Karski reported to Allies in 1942 on the situation in Poland, especially the destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto and the mass killings.[307] In December 1942, the Polish Foreign Minister in-exile sent a report to all Allied governments which detailed liquidation of the ghettos and denounced the mass extermination the Jewish population.[308] This report and the Polish Government's lobbying efforts triggered the Joint Declaration by Members of the United Nations of 17 December 1942 which made public and condemned the mass extermination of the Jews in Nazi-occupied Poland.[309]

By at least 9 October 1942, British radio broadcast news of gassing of Jews to the Netherlands.[citation needed] News about gassing Jews was also published in the illegal newspapers of the Dutch resistance. The news was so unbelievable that many assumed it was merely war propaganda. Many Jews were warned that they would be murdered, but as escape was impossible for most of them, they preferred to believe that the warnings were false.

Bratislava, June–July 1944. Rudolf Vrba (right) escaped from Auschwitz on 7 April 1944. Arnost Rosin (left), escaped on 27 May 1944.[310]

Two Jews, Rudolf Vrba and Alfred Wetzler, escaped from Auschwitz in April 1944, eventually reaching Slovakia. The 32-page document they dictated to Jewish officials about the mass murder at Auschwitz became known as the Vrba-Wetzler report. The level of detail with which they described the transports allowed Slovakian officials to compare their account with their own deportation records, and the corroboration convinced the Allies to take the report seriously.[311][page needed] The New York Times published material from the Vrba-Wetzler report in June and July 1944.[312][313] The subsequent pressure persuaded Miklós Horthy to bring the deportations of Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz to a halt on 9 July, saving up to 200,000 Jews from death.[314]

Death marches (1944–1945)

Grave and Memorial in Wodzisław of the most infamous Death march from Auschwitz Birkenau to Wodzisław Śląski.

By mid-1944, the Holocaust had largely run its course. Those Jewish communities within easy reach of the Nazi regime had been largely exterminated, in proportions ranging from about 25 percent in France to more than 90 percent in Poland.[citation needed] On 5 May, Himmler claimed in a speech that "the Jewish question has in general been solved in Germany and in the countries occupied by Germany".[315] During the rest of 1944 finding victims became more difficult due to defections of some of Germany's allies, Allied air attacks, and the loss of German-held territory.

As the Soviet armed forces advanced, the camps in eastern Poland were closed down, with surviving inmates shipped to camps closer to Germany.[citation needed] Despite the military situation, efforts were made to conceal evidence of what had happened in the camps. The gas chambers were dismantled, the crematoria dynamited, and the mass graves dug up and the corpses cremated. Local commanders continued to kill Jews, and to shuttle them from camp to camp by forced "death marches" until the last weeks of the war.[316][r]

Already sick after months or years of violence and starvation, prisoners were forced to march out of the camps. Some were marched to train stations and then transported for days at a time without food or shelter in open freight cars and forced to march again at the other end to the new camp. Others were marched the entire distance to the new camp. Those who lagged behind or fell were shot. Around 250,000 Jews died during these marches.[318]

The largest and best-known of the death marches took place in January 1945, when the Soviet army advanced on Poland. Nine days before the Soviets arrived at Auschwitz, the SS marched 60,000 prisoners out of the camp toward Wodzisław, 56 km (35 mi) away, where they were put on freight trains to other camps. Around 15,000 died on the way.

Liberation

A grave inside Bergen-Belsen.

The first major camp to be encountered by Allied troops, Majdanek, was discovered by the advancing Soviets on 23 July 1944. Treblinka, Sobibór, and Bełżec were never liberated, but were destroyed by the Nazis in 1943.[citation needed] Chełmno was liberated by the Soviets on 20 January 1945.[citation needed] Auschwitz was liberated, also by the Soviets, on 27 January 1945;[319] Buchenwald by the Americans on 11 April;[320] Bergen-Belsen was liberated by the British on 15 April;[321] Dachau was liberated by the Americans on 29 April;[322] Ravensbrück was liberated by the Soviets on 30 April;[323] Mauthausen was liberated by the Americans on 5 May;[324] and the Red Cross took control of Theresienstadt on 4 May,[325] some days before the Soviets arrived.[326]

Starving prisoners in Mauthausen camp liberated on 5 May 1945.

In most of the camps discovered by the Soviets, almost all the prisoners had already been removed, leaving only a few thousand alive[citation needed]—7,600 inmates were found in Auschwitz,[327] including 180 children who had been experimented on by doctors.[citation needed] Some 60,000 prisoners were discovered at Bergen-Belsen by the British 11th Armoured Division,[328] 13,000 corpses lay unburied, and another 10,000 died from typhus or malnutrition over the following weeks.[329] On the orders of the British, the SS guards picked up the corpses and took them to mass graves.

The BBC's Richard Dimbleby described the scenes that greeted him and the British Army at Belsen:

Here over an acre of ground lay dead and dying people. You could not see which was which… The living lay with their heads against the corpses and around them moved the awful, ghostly procession of emaciated, aimless people, with nothing to do and with no hope of life, unable to move out of your way, unable to look at the terrible sights around them… Babies had been born here, tiny wizened things that could not live… A mother, driven mad, screamed at a British sentry to give her milk for her child, and thrust the tiny mite into his arms… He opened the bundle and found the baby had been dead for days. This day at Belsen was the most horrible of my life.

— Richard Dimbleby, 1945[330]

Responses to the Holocaust

Perpetrator's motivations

In his 1965 essay "Command and Compliance", historian Hans Buchheim wrote there was no coercion to murder Jews and others, and all who committed such actions did so out of free will.[331] Buchheim wrote that the chances to avoid participating in killing Jews were available for perpetrators, although they did not often admit that after the war,[331] and that he found no evidence that SS men who refused to carry out criminal orders were sent to concentration camps or executed.[332] Moreover, SS rules prohibited acts of gratuitous sadism and acts of sadism were taken on the individual initiative of those who were either especially cruel or who wished to prove themselves ardent Nazis.[331] Finally, he argued that those who committed crimes did so because they wished to conform to the values of the group and were afraid of being branded "weak" by their colleagues.[333]

In his 1992 monograph Ordinary Men, the historian Christopher Browning examined the deeds of German Reserve Police Battalion 101, used for massacres and round-ups of Jews as well as deportations to the death camps. The members of the battalion were middle-aged men of working-class background who were too old for regular military duty.[334] They were given no special training for genocide and at first,[335] the commander gave his men the choice of opting out of direct participation in the killing of Jews if they found it too unpleasant. The majority chose not to opt out; fewer than 12 men, out of a battalion of 500 did so on the first occasion.[336] Browning argued that the men of the battalion killed out of peer pressure, not blood-lust.[337]

Historian Sergei Kudryashov studied the guards trained at the Trawniki SS camp division ("Trawniki men" or "Trawniki guards"),[338] who provided personnel for the Operation Reinhard death camps and other concentration camps.[339] Most of them were former Red Army soldiers who volunteered to join the SS in order to get out of the POW camps.[340] The vast majority carried out the SS's expectations of how to treat Jews,[341] and most personally killed Jews.[342] Agreeing with Browning, Kudryashov argued that the Trawniki men were examples of ordinary people becoming willing killers.[343]

Germans usually justified the Einsatzgruppen's massacres on the grounds of anti-Bolshevik, anti-partisan or anti-bandit operations, but the historian Andreas Hillgruber aruges that this was merely an excuse for the German Army's considerable involvement in the Holocaust in Russia.[344] Hillgruber maintained that those German generals who claimed that the Einsatzgruppen were a necessary anti-partisan response were lying.[344] Jürgen Förster agrees, and argued that the Wehrmacht played a key role in the Holocaust. He said it is wrong to describe the Holocaust as solely the work of the SS with the Wehrmacht as a passive and disapproving bystander.[345]

Army co-operation with the SS in anti-Bolshevik, anti-partisan and anti-Jewish operations was close and intensive. After a 1941 SS "anti-partisan" operation which killed over 14,000 Jews and only 1000 partisans, General Max von Schenckendorff, who commanded the Army Group Center Rear Area, ordered that all Wehrmacht security divisions should emulate this example when on anti-partisan duty, and organized a joint SS-Wehrmacht seminar on how best to kill Jews. The event, that became known as the Mogilev Conference, ended with a German unit killing Jews as a demonstration.[346]

German public

In his 1983 book, Popular Opinion and Political Dissent in the Third Reich, Ian Kershaw examined everyday life in Bavaria during the Nazi period. Kershaw argued that the most common viewpoint of Bavarians was indifference towards the persecution of Jews. Kershaw argued that most Bavarians were vaguely aware of the genocide, but were vastly more concerned about the war than the "Final Solution".[347] Kershaw made the analogy that "the road to Auschwitz was built by hate, but paved with indifference".[348][349]

Kershaw's assessment that most Bavarians, and by implication most Germans, were indifferent to the Holocaust faced criticism from historians Otto Dov Kulka and Michael Kater. Kater maintained that Kershaw downplayed the extent of popular antisemitism, and that though admitting that most of the "spontaneous" antisemitic actions of Nazi Germany were staged, argued that because these actions involved substantial numbers of Germans, it is wrong to see the extreme antisemitism of the Nazis as coming solely from above.[350] Kulka argued that most Germans were more antisemitic than Kershaw portrayed them and that rather than "indifference", "passive complicity" would be a better term to describe the reaction of the German people.[351]

In a study focusing only on the views about Jews among Germans opposed to the Nazi regime, historian Christof Dipper in his 1983 essay "Der Deutsche Widerstand und die Juden" argued that the majority of the anti-Nazi national-conservatives were antisemitic.[350] Though Dipper noted no one in the German resistance supported the Holocaust, he also commented that the national-conservatives did not intend to restore civil rights to the Jews after the planned overthrow of Hitler.[350]

Research by the United States Holocaust Museum has established that because the camps were so widespread[s] it is unlikely that the German population could avoid knowing about the persecutions and killings.[142] Robert Gellately has argued that the German civilian population were, by and large, aware of what was happening. According to Gellately, the government openly announced the conspiracy through the media and civilians were aware of its every aspect except for the use of gas chambers.[352]

Victims enumerated

Victims (enlarged) Killed Source
Jews 5.93 million Dawidowicz[353]
Soviet POWs 2–3 million Berenbaum[354]
Ethnic Poles 1.8–2 million Piotrowski[355][356]
Other Slavs | | |
Disabled 270,000 DCHGS[357]
Romani 90,000–220,000 USHMM / Hancock[358][t][360]
Homosexuals 5,000–15,000 Harran[361]
Jehovah's Witnesses 2,500–5,000 Shulman [362]

The number of victims depends on which definition of the Holocaust is used.[7] The number of Jewish victims is somewhere over 5 million,[7] with upper estimates ranging from 5.9 million,[363] to 6 million,[79] or even over 6 million.[364] The broadest definition of the Holocaust would raise the death toll to 17 million.[7] A research project conducted by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum estimated that 15 to 20 million people died or were imprisoned during the Holocaust.[142] Rudolph Rummel estimates the total democidal death toll of Nazi Germany to be 21 million.

Jewish death toll

Figures updated for the Jewish death toll by postwar European borders according to Wolfgang Benz[365]
Country
(1945)
Death toll of Jews
Poland 2,700,000
Soviet republics 2,100,000
Germany 144,000
Austria 48,767
Czechoslovakia 143,000
Greece 58,443
Netherlands 102,000
Hungary 559,250
Belgium 28,000
Yugoslavia 51,400
Romania 120,919
Norway 758
France 76,000
Bulgaria 7,335
Luxembourg 720
Denmark 116
Italy 5,596
Albania 591

Since 1945, the most commonly cited figure for the total number of Jews killed has been 6 million, quoted originally by Adolf Eichmann.[citation needed][u] Of those victims, 1.5 million were children.[366] The Yad Vashem Museum writes that "there is no precise figure for the number of Jews killed",[367] but has been able to find documentation of more than three million names of Jewish victims killed.[368]

The early postwar calculations ranged from about 4.2 to 4.5 million in The Final Solution (1953) by Gerald Reitlinger, who was arguing against higher Russian estimates,[369] and 5.1 million from Raul Hilberg, to 5.95 million from Jacob Lestschinsky.[370] Yehuda Bauer and Robert Rozett in the Encyclopedia of the Holocaust estimate 5.59–5.86 million.[371] A study led by Wolfgang Benz suggests 5.29 to 6.20 million. These estimates derive from comparing census records from before and after the war as well as the surviving German documentation on deportations and killings.[367] Martin Gilbert arrived at a "minimum estimate" of over 5.75 million Jewish victims.[372] Lucy S. Dawidowicz used the pre-war census figures to estimate that 5.934 million Jews died.[353]

The roughly six million killed in the Holocaust represent 60 to 75 percent of European Jewry, based on an estimated number of about eight to ten million Jews in the territories controlled by the Nazis. The uncertainty revolves around how many Jews there were in the Soviet Union; compounded by the NKVD practice of claiming foreign nationals as Soviet citizens.[373][374] Of Poland's 3.3 million Jews, about 90 percent were killed.[citation needed] At the beginning of World War II, the Jewish population of the Baltic States was around 350,000 in total: 250,000 in Lithuania, 95,000 in Latvia, and 4,500 in Estonia.[375] By the end of 1941, close to 230,000 Jews in Latvia and Lithuania had been murdered during the previous six months.[376] Of 4,000 Jews in Estonia before the German invasion, some 3,000 fled to the Soviet Union. The remaining 1,000 were all murdered by the SS killing squads.[377]

According to Holocaust Encyclopedia, there were 523,000 Jews in Germany in 1933. Following the Nazi takeover, many left the country. About 202,000 Jews remained in Germany and 57,000 in Austria after the invasion of Poland. The majority died in the Holocaust.[378]

In Czechoslovakia, Greece, the Netherlands, and Yugoslavia, over 70 percent of the Jews were killed. Fifty to 70 percent were killed in Romania, Belgium and Hungary. It is likely that a similar proportion were killed in Soviet Belarus and the Soviet Ukraine, but these figures are less certain. Countries with notably lower proportions of deaths include Bulgaria, Denmark, France, Italy, and Norway. Albania was the only country occupied by Germany that had a larger Jewish population in 1945 than in 1939.[citation needed][v]

Death camps

At Auschwitz-Birkenau over 1,000,000 people were killed.[381][382] At Treblinka 870,000[233] to 925,000 Jews were murdered.[383] At Bełżec, between 434,000[384] and 600,000 Jews were slaughtered.[228] At Chełmno, between 152,000[385] and 320,000 Jews were executed.[214] At Sobibór, between 170,000[386] and 250,000 Jews were killed.[232] At Majdanek, depending on the various sources, between 79,000 and 235,000 Jews were murdered.[230][387] For the death camps, 80–90% of the victims are estimated to be Jews. They accounted for half the total number of Jews killed in the entire Holocaust.[353]

Other Jewish deaths

In addition to those who died in the extermination camps, at least half a million Jews died in other camps, including the major concentration camps in Germany. Although these were not extermination camps, they had large numbers of Jewish prisoners at various times, particularly in the last year of the war as the Nazis withdrew from Poland.[citation needed] Around one million Jews were killed by the Einsatzgruppen in the occupied Soviet territories,[388] an approximate figure, since the Einsatzgruppen reports did not always survive the war.[389] Many more died through execution or of disease and malnutrition in the ghettos of Poland before they could be deported.

By country

Jewish Holocaust death toll as a percentage of the total pre-war Jewish population.[citation needed]
   0–1%
   2–34%
   35–59%
   60–79%
   80–90%

In the 1990s, the opening of government archives in Eastern Europe resulted in the adjustment of the death tolls published in the pioneering work by Hilberg, Dawidowicz and Gilbert.

Non-Jewish

Slavs

The Nazis considered the Slavs as subhumans,[390] or Untermenschen.[391] Heinrich Himmler in a secret memorandum dated 25 May 1940 expressed his own thoughts and the future plans for the populations in the East. Himmler stated that it was in the German interests to discover as many ethnic groups in the East and splinter them as much as possible, find and select racially valuable children to be sent to Germany to assimilate them and restrict non-Germans in the conquered territories to schools which would only teach them how to write their own name, count up to 500 and to obey Germans.[392]

Himmler's General Plan East, or Generalplan Ost,[393] which was agreed to by Hitler in the summer of 1942,[394] involved exterminating, expelling, or enslaving most or all Slavs from their lands so as to make living space for German settlers, something that would be carried out over a period of 20–30 years.[395][396] Though Generalplan Ost was never implemented,[citation needed] historian Rudolph Rummel estimates the number of Slav civilians and POWs murdered by the Nazis to be 10,547,000.[397]

Ethnic Poles
Polish civilians executed in Warsaw.

German planners in November 1939 called for "the complete destruction" of all Poles.[398] Poland under German occupation was to be cleared of Poles and settled by German colonists.[399] But Nazi planners decided against a genocide of ethnic Poles on the same scale as against Jews, at least in the short term.[400]

Execution of Poles by Einsatzkommando, Leszno, October 1939.

German actions against ethnic Poles were not on the scale of the Jewish genocide. Most Polish Jews perished during the Holocaust, while most Christian Poles survived the occupation.[401] Between 1.8 and 2.1 million non-Jewish Polish citizens perished in German hands during the course of the war, about four-fifths of whom were ethnic Poles with the rest ethnic Ukrainians and Belarusians.[355][356] According to 2009 estimates by the IPN, over 2.5 million non-Jewish Polish citizens died as a result of the German occupation.[402] At least 200,000 of these victims died in concentration camps with about 146,000 being killed in Auschwitz. Many others died as a result of general massacres or uprisings such as the Warsaw Uprising where between 120,000 and 200,000 civilians were killed.[403]

The policy of the Germans in Poland included reducing food rations, deliberate lowering of public hygiene, and the deprivation of medical services. The general mortality rate rose from 13 to 18 per thousand.[404] Overall, about 5.6 million of the victims of World War II were Polish citizens,[356] both Jewish and non-Jewish, and over the course of the war Poland lost 16 percent of its pre-war population.[405] Over 90 percent of the death toll came through non-military losses, through various deliberate actions by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union.[403]

Other West Slavs

Other West Slavic populations were persecuted. By one estimate, 345,000 Czechoslovak citizens were executed or otherwise killed, and hundreds of thousands West Slavs were sent to concentration camps and used as forced labour.[406] The villages of Lidice and Ležáky were completely destroyed by the Nazis; all men over 16 years of age were murdered and the rest of the population were sent to concentration camps where many women and nearly all of the children were killed.

The German ethnic Sorbian population was also persecuted.

Ethnic Serbs and other South Slavs
Croatian Ustaše sawing off the head of Branko Jungić, an ethnic Serb from Bosnia.

In the Balkans, up to 581,000 Yugoslav civilians were killed during World War II in Yugoslavia.[407][408] The Germans had specific orders from Hitler to fight ruthlessly against the Serbs, who, besides being potential allies of the Russians, were considered Untermenschen (sub-humans).[409] The Ustaše collaborators conducted a systematic extermination of large numbers of people for political, religious or racial reasons. The most numerous victims were Serbs. Bosniaks, Croats and others were also victims of the Ustaše.

The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum reports that between 77,000 and 99,000 persons were killed at the Jasenovac concentration camp.[410] Yad Vashem reports that over 500,000 Serbs were murdered by the Ustaše.[411]

According to the study, Bošnjaci u Jasenovačkom logoru ("Bosniaks in the Jasenovac concentration camp") by the author Nihad Halilbegović, at least 103,000 Bosniaks perished at the hands of both the Nazi regime and the Ustaše.[412] Excluding Slovenes under Italian rule, between 20,000 and 25,000 civilian Slovenes were killed.[413]

Albanian collaborationists cooperated with the Nazis in an extensive persecution of non-Albanians. Most of the war crimes were perpetrated by the Albanian SS Skenderbeg Division and the Balli Kombëtar.[citation needed] 3,000 to 10,000 Kosovo Serbs were murdered by the Albanians during the war, and another 30,000 to 100,000 were expelled.[414]

East Slavs
Mass murder of Soviet civilians near Minsk, Belarus, 1943

Soviet civilian populations in the occupied areas were also heavily persecuted outside of events taking place in the frontline warfare of the Eastern Front. Thousands of peasant villages across Soviet Russia, Belarus and Ukraine were destroyed by German troops.

In 1995 The Russian Academy of Sciences reported that the number of civilian victims in the USSR who were murdered at German hands, including Jews, totaled 13.7 million dead, 20% of the 68 million persons in the occupied USSR. This included 7.4 million victims of Nazi genocide and reprisals.[415]

In Belarus, Nazi Germany imposed a regime in the country that deported some 380,000 people for slave labour and killed hundreds of thousands of civilians. More than 600 villages had their entire populations killed and at least 5,295 Belarusian settlements were destroyed by the Nazis. According to Timothy Snyder, of "the nine million people who were on the territory of Soviet Belarus in 1941, some 1.6 million were killed by the Germans in actions away from battlefields, including about 700,000 prisoners of war, 500,000 Jews, and 320,000 people counted as partisans (the vast majority of whom were unarmed civilians)".[416]

Soviet POWs
Naked Soviet POWs in Mauthausen concentration camp. Unknown date.

According to Michael Berenbaum, between two and three million Soviet prisoners-of-war—which was around 57 percent of all Soviet POWs—died of starvation, mistreatment, or executions between June 1941 and May 1945, most during their first year of captivity.[citation needed] According to other estimates by Daniel Goldhagen, an estimated 2.8 million Soviet POWs died in eight months in 1941–42, with a total of 3.5 million by mid-1944.[citation needed] The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum has estimated that 3.3 million of the 5.7 million Soviet POWs died in German custody.[417] The death rates decreased as the POWs were needed to work as slaves to help the German war effort; by 1943, half a million of them had been deployed as slave labour.[354]

Romani people

The Nazi crimes against the Roma and Sinti people paralleled those against the Jews, and both groups were subject to discrimination under the Nuremberg racial laws. About 25% of the Romani population of Europe died in the war.[citation needed] Because the Romani are traditionally private with a culture based on oral history, less is known about their experience than is known about any other group.[418] Yehuda Bauer writes that the lack of information can be attributed to the Romani's distrust and suspicion, and to their humiliation, because some of the taboos in Romani culture regarding hygiene and sex were violated at Auschwitz.[419]

Map of persecution of the Roma

The treatment of the Romani was not consistent across German-occupied territories. In some areas, such as Luxembourg and the Baltic countries, the Nazis killed almost the entire Romani population. In other areas, such as Denmark or Greece, no Romanis were subjected to mass killings.[citation needed] Before being sent to the camps, the victims were herded into ghettos, including several hundred into the Warsaw Ghetto.[179] Further east, teams of Einsatzgruppen tracked down Romani encampments and murdered the inhabitants on the spot, leaving no records of the victims. They were also targeted by the allies of the Germans, such as the Ustaše regime in Croatia, where a large number of Romani were killed in the Jasenovac concentration camp.[citation needed]

In May 1942, the Romani were placed under similar labour and social laws to the Jews. On 16 December 1942, Heinrich Himmler issued a decree that "Gypsy Mischlinge [mixed breeds], Roma Gypsies, and members of the clans of Balkan origins who are not of German blood"[420] should be sent to Auschwitz, unless they had served in the Wehrmacht.[420] This was adjusted on 15 November 1943, when Himmler ordered that, in the occupied Soviet areas, "sedentary Gypsies and part-Gypsies are to be treated as citizens of the country. Nomadic Gypsies and part-Gypsies are to be placed on the same level as Jews and placed in concentration camps."[421] Bauer argues that this adjustment reflected Nazi ideology that the Romani, originally an Aryan population, had been "spoiled" by non-Romani blood.[422]

Donald Niewyk and Frances Nicosia write that the death toll was at least 130,000 of the nearly one million Romani in German-occupied Europe.[418] Michael Berenbaum writes that serious scholarly estimates lie between 90,000 and 220,000.[423] The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum calculates a death toll of at least 220,000.[358] Martin Gilbert estimates a total of more than 220,000 of the 700,000 Romani in Europe.[citation needed] Ian Hancock has argued in favour of a much higher figure of between 500,000 and 1,500,000.[360]

Persons of color

The number of Afro-Germans in Germany when the Nazis came to power is variously estimated at 5,000–25,000.[424] It is not clear whether these figures included Asians. Although blacks in Germany and German-occupied Europe were subjected to incarceration, sterilization, murder, and other abuse, there was no programme to kill all of them as there was for the Jews.[425] Meanwhile, Afrikaners, Berbers, Iranians and Pre-Partition Indians were classified as Aryans, so they were not persecuted. Racial restrictions were relaxed to the extent that Turkic peoples, Arabs and South Asians were recruited by the German military due to the shortage of manpower.

Others

Hitler's order for Action T4.

Disabled and mentally ill

Nazis used the phrase Lebensunwertes Leben (Life unworthy of life) in reference to their disabled or mentally-ill victims.[426] In July 1933, the Sterilization Law allowing for compulsory sterilization of the "inferior" was passed.[427] In the first year of operation, this eugenics policy had over 80,000 cases, which were decided in favour of sterilization over 90 percent of the time. Estimates for the total number of involuntary sterilizations during the whole of the Third Reich range from 300,000 to 400,000.[428] In October 1939 Adolf Hitler signed a "euthanasia decree" backdated to 1 September 1939 that authorized Reichsleiter Philipp Bouhler, the chief of Hitler's Chancellery,[w] and Karl Brandt, Hitler's personal physician, to carry out the programme of involuntary euthanasia, known as Action T4.

The Action T4 programme aimed to maintain the racial purity of the German people by killing or sterilizing citizens who were judged to be disabled or suffering from mental disorders. The program was named after Tiergartenstraße 4, the address of a villa in the Berlin borough of Tiergarten, where the various organizations involved were headquartered.[429]

Between 1939 and 1941, 80,000 to 100,000 mentally-ill adults in institutions were killed; 5,000 children in institutions; and 1,000 Jews in institutions. There were also specialized killing centres, where the deaths are estimated as 20,000, according to Georg Renno, the deputy director of Schloss Hartheim, one of the euthanasia centers, or 400,000, according to Frank Zeireis, the commandant of Mauthausen concentration camp.[430] Overall it has been estimated that over 270,000 individuals[357] with mental disorders of all kinds were put to death.[citation needed] Despite not being formally ordered to take part, psychiatrists and many psychiatric institutions took part in the planning and carrying out of the Action T4 at every stage, and constituted the connection to the later annihilation of Jews and others in the Holocaust.[431] After strong protests by the German Catholic and Protestant churches in August 1941 Hitler ordered the cancellation of the T4 program,[432] although the disabled and mentally-ill continued to be killed until the end of the war, just in smaller numbers.

Homosexuals

Himmler's executive order from 1938 for the establishment of Reich's office against homosexuality.

Between 5,000 and 15,000 German homosexuals are estimated to have been sent to concentration camps.[361] James Steakley writes that what mattered in Germany was criminal intent or character, rather than acts, and the "gesundes Volksempfinden" ("healthy sensibility of the people") became the guiding legal principle.[433] In 1936, Himmler created the Reich Central Office for the Combating of Homosexuality and Abortion.[434] Homosexuality was declared contrary to "wholesome popular sentiment",[361] and homosexuals were consequently regarded as "defilers of German blood".[citation needed] The Gestapo raided gay bars, tracked individuals using the address books of those they arrested, used the subscription lists of gay magazines to find others, and encouraged people to report suspected homosexual behavior and to scrutinize the behavior of their neighbors.[361][433]

Tens of thousands were convicted between 1933 and 1944 and sent to camps for "rehabilitation", where they were identified by pink triangles.[433] Hundreds were castrated, sometimes voluntarily in hopes that they could avoid criminal sentences, although in some cases the consent had been forced.[435] They were abused, tortured, used in medical experiments, and killed.[361] Steakley writes that the full extent of gay suffering was slow to emerge after the war. Many victims kept their stories to themselves because homosexuality remained criminalized in postwar Germany.[433]

Political opponents

German opponent of Nazism executed at Dachau.

German communists, socialists and trade unionists were among the earliest opponents of the Nazis,[436] and they were also among the first to be sent to concentration camps. Within concentration camps such as Buchenwald, German communists were privileged in comparison to Jews because of their "racial purity".

Whenever the Nazis occupied a new territory, members of communist, socialist, or anarchist groups were normally to be the first persons detained or executed.[citation needed] Before the invasion of the Soviet Union, Hitler issued the Commissar Order, which ordered the execution of all political commissars and Communist Party members captured.[437] Nacht und Nebel ("Night and Fog") was a directive of Hitler in December 1941, resulting in kidnapping and the disappearance of political activists throughout Germany's occupied territories.

Jehovah's Witnesses

Because they refused to pledge allegiance to the Nazi party or to serve in the military, roughly 12,000 Jehovah's Witnesses were sent to concentration camps where they were given the option of renouncing their faith and submitting to the state's authority. They were marked out by purple triangles. Between 2,500 and 5,000 were killed.[362] Historian Detlef Garbe writes that "no other religious movement resisted the pressure to conform to National Socialism with comparable unanimity and steadfastness."[438]

Uniqueness question

Shimon Samuels says that one debate in Holocaust scholarship is between "specifists" and "universalists". The former regards comparisons of the Holocaust to other genocides to be invidious trivialization, while the latter places the Holocaust alongside other experiences of mass killings as part and parcel of the global context of genocide and human suffering.[439] Proponents of the Holocaust's uniqueness argue that comparing it to other genocides trivializes the Holocaust, with regards to its scope, scale, methods and motivations.[440] Opponents of this view consider it immoral and unjustified to hold any tragedy as unique and beyond comparison. Others believe that debating the Holocaust's uniqueness itself is offensive and misguided.

A 2011 survey by Dan Stone deemed the debate "irrelevant" in genocide scholarship.[38] However specific arguments about the Nazi Holocaust continue to characterize the views of many specialists on the subject. A 2015 view from a historian of the Third Reich, Richard J. Evans:

Thus although the Nazi 'Final Solution' was one genocide among many, it had features that made it stand out from all the rest as well. Unlike all the others it was bounded neither by space nor by time. It was launched not against a local or regional obstacle, but at a world-enemy seen as operating on a global scale. It was bound to an even larger plan of racial reordering and reconstruction involving further genocidal killing on an almost unimaginable scale, aimed, however, at clearing the way in a particular region – Eastern Europe – for a further struggle against the Jews and those the Nazis regarded as their puppets. It was set in motion by ideologues who saw world history in racial terms. It was, in part, carried out by industrial methods. These things all make it unique.

— Richard Evans, The Third Reich in History and Memory[441]

Aftermath

Trials

Defendants in the dock at the Nuremberg trials. The main target of the prosecution was Hermann Göring (at the left edge on the first row of benches), considered to be the most important surviving official in the Third Reich after Hitler's death. Göring later committed suicide.

The Nuremberg trials were a series of military tribunals, held by the Allied forces after World War II in Nuremberg, Germany, to prosecute prominent members of the political, military, and economic leadership of Nazi Germany. The first, and best known of these trials,[citation needed] was the 1945–1946 trial of the major war criminals before the International Military Tribunal (IMT).[442] This tribunal tried 22 political and military leaders of the Third Reich,[443] except for Adolf Hitler, Heinrich Himmler, and Joseph Goebbels, all of whom had committed suicide several months before.[444]

The prosecution entered indictments against 24 major war criminals[x] and seven organizations—the leadership of the Nazi party, the Reich Cabinet, the Schutzstaffel (SS), Sicherheitsdienst (SD), the Gestapo, the Sturmabteilung (SA) and the "General Staff and High Command". The indictments were for: participation in a common plan or conspiracy for the accomplishment of a crime against peace; planning, initiating and waging wars of aggression and other crimes against peace; war crimes; and crimes against humanity. The Tribunal passed out sentences ranging from acquittal to death by hanging.[445] Further trials at Nuremberg took place between 1946 and 1949, which tried a further 185 defendants.[446]

Effect on languages

Entrance to Auschwitz-Birkenau, 1945.

Because the significant majority of the Jewish victims of the Holocaust were speakers of Yiddish, the Holocaust had a profound and permanent effect on the fate of the Yiddish language and culture. On the eve of World War II, there were 11 to 13 million Yiddish speakers in the world.[447] The Holocaust led to a dramatic, sudden decline in the use of Yiddish, because the Jewish communities that used it in their day-to-day life were largely destroyed.[448] Of the remaining non-Yiddish speaking population, the Ladino (Judaeo-Spanish) speaking Jewish communities of Greece and the Balkans were also destroyed, which contributed to the near-extinction of this language.

Reparations

In the immediate aftermath of the Second World War, the Jewish Agency submitted to the Allies a memorandum demanding reparations to Jews by Germany but it received no answer. In March 1951, a new request was made by Israel's foreign minister Moshe Sharett which claimed global recompense to Israel of $1.5 billion based on the financial cost absorbed by Israel for the rehabilitation of 500,000 Jewish survivors. West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer accepted these terms and declared he was ready to negotiate other reparations. A Conference on Jewish Material Claims against Germany was opened in order to help with individual claims. After negotiations, the claim was reduced to a sum of $845 million in direct and indirect compensation to be paid over a period of 14 years.

In 1988, West Germany allocated another $125 million for reparations. In 1999, many German industries such as Deutsche Bank, Siemens or BMW faced lawsuits for their role in the forced labour during World War II. In order to dismiss these lawsuits, Germany agreed to raise $5 billion for reparations.[449] In 2013, Germany agreed to pay a new reparation of €772 million as a result of negotiations with Israel.[450] In 2014, the SNCF, the French state-owned railway company, was compelled to allocate $60 million to American Jewish Holocaust survivors for its role in the transport of deportees to Germany.[451] These reparations were sometimes criticized in Israel where they were seen as "blood money".[449]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The extended definition of the Holocaust includes other victims of Nazi crimes against humanity and war crimes, such as the Romani genocide, Germany's eugenics program, the German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war, the Nazi crimes against the Polish nation and other Slavs as well as political opponents, the persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust, the persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses in Nazi Germany, as well as murder of civil hostages and Resistance during World War II members from all over Europe.
  2. ^ From the Greek ὁλόκαυστος holókaustos: hólos, "whole" and kaustós, "burnt".[2]
  3. ^ Hebrew: השואה, HaShoah, "the catastrophe"
  4. ^ The Hebrew word churban is used by many Orthodox Jews to refer to the Holocaust.[10]
  5. ^ Further examples include Ben Kiernan in Blood and Soil,[15] Stephen Atkins in Holocaust Denial as an International Movement,[16] Susan Zuccotti in The Holocaust, the French, and the Jews,[17] Richard Evans in Lying About Hitler,[18] Martin Gilbert in The Holocaust,[19] and Adam Jones in Genocide.[20]
  6. ^ The French planned to try Grynszpan for murder, but the German invasion in 1940 interrupted the proceedings. Grynszpan was handed over to the Germans and his fate is unknown.[88]
  7. ^ Only one would survive the war.[130]
  8. ^ Red signified a political prisoner,[150] Jehovah's Witnesses had purple triangles,[151] "asocials" and criminals wore black or green, badges for homosexuals were pink,[152] and yellow for Jews.[153] Jews had a second yellow triangle which was worn with their original triangle, with the two triangles forming a six-pointed star.[154]
  9. ^ The exact details of who killed whom and when are murky and have led to much debate in Poland.[189]
  10. ^ The Germans continued to use the ravine for mass killings throughout the war, and the total killed there could have been as high as 100,000.[201]
  11. ^ Although not technically part of Operation Reinhard, Chełmno began functioning as an extermination camp in December 1941.[214]
  12. ^ Chełmno, which used gas vans rather than gas chambers to commit mass murder,[215] had its roots in the extension of the Euthanasia Program Action T4 to the Warthegau.[216] The camp was established in November 1941,[217] but it did not begin the liquidation of large numbers of that Gau Jews until December 1941.[218]
  13. ^ Majdanek began as a POW camp, but in August 1942 it had gas chambers installed.[219]
  14. ^ The fighters probably only had one or two submachine guns and around 10 rifles in addition to pistols, grenades, and homemade gasolene bombs.[261]
  15. ^ About 7000 died during the fighting and around 7000 sent to Treblinka.[264]
  16. ^ About 100 prisoners were either recaptured before leaving the camp or did not even attempt to escape because of illness or other conditions. Another 350 to 400 inmates were killed before getting beyond the fence area. The rest of the prisoners managed to escape, but only about 200 survived the first 24 hours,[268]
  17. ^ The full extent of his work is unknown because Otmar von Verschuer destroyed the correspondence Mengele sent to him while Mengele was at Auschwitz.[290]
  18. ^ According to Krakowski, death marches were a frequent occurrence throughout the war. The inaugural one commenced on 14 January 1940 in occupied Poland, when the SS escorted 800 Jewish POWs from the Polish army to Biała Podłaska from Lublin, a distance of 100 km in a matter of days in the depths of Polish winter. Massacred all along the way, less than 5% of the 800 survived the journey.[317]
  19. ^ There were over 42,000 camps and other facilities identified. Even in Berlin there were 3,000 camps of various functions.[142]
  20. ^ The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum places the scholarly estimates at 220,000–500,000. According to Berenbaum "serious scholars estimate that between 90,000 and 220,000 were killed under German rule."[359]
  21. ^ Wilhelm Höttl testified at the Nuremberg trials and Eichmann's trial that at a meeting he had with Eichmann in Budapest in late August 1944, Eichmann said that "Approximately 4 million Jews had been killed in the various concentration camps, while an additional 2 million met death in other ways, the major part of which were shot by operational squads of the Security Police during the campaign against Russia" (Nuremberg Trial proceedings, Vol. 3). See also Kahn, David (2008). "The Secret History of the Author of the Secret Front". Archived from the original on 9 April 2009. Retrieved 30 October 2016. 
  22. ^ About 200 native Jews and over 1000 refugees were provided with false documents, and hidden whenever possible.[379][380]
  23. ^ Hitler's Chancellery, also known as the Kanzlei des Führer der NSDAP, is not to be confused with the Reich Chancellery or Reichskanzlei.
  24. ^ Two of the indictments were dropped before the end of the trial. Robert Ley committed suicide in prison, and Gustav Krupp was judged unfit for trial.[444]

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