1
The Kallikak Family - Top Gun
The Kallikak Family - Top Gun
DATE: 2012/12/19::
2
Henry Goddard: Mental Testing in the USA 2 [HPsy 8C:2]
Henry Goddard: Mental Testing in the USA 2 [HPsy 8C:2]
DATE: 2012/07/29::
3
KALLIKAK FAMILY MUSIC VIDEO
KALLIKAK FAMILY MUSIC VIDEO
DATE: 2007/03/17::
4
"GOOD BLOOD/BAD BLOOD": PROFESSOR MICHAEL WEHMEYER ON EUGENICS
"GOOD BLOOD/BAD BLOOD": PROFESSOR MICHAEL WEHMEYER ON EUGENICS
DATE: 2013/02/09::
5
THE MICROPHONES - Live at 6Odum (Chicago)
THE MICROPHONES - Live at 6Odum (Chicago)
DATE: 2006/10/29::
6
Top Gun 2: After Tastin
Top Gun 2: After Tastin' Sunsets
DATE: 2014/11/06::
7
Top Gun
Top Gun
DATE: 2014/11/06::
8
Kallikaks - The Ridge
Kallikaks - The Ridge
DATE: 2010/11/20::
9
Dulce De Leche
Dulce De Leche
DATE: 2014/11/06::
10
Lesser / Rob Crow - Kallikak (Split Open Eugenic Mix)
Lesser / Rob Crow - Kallikak (Split Open Eugenic Mix)
DATE: 2012/04/09::
11
When Good Science Goes Bad!
When Good Science Goes Bad!
DATE: 2012/12/31::
12
Familie Kallikak op Festival 5D 2012
Familie Kallikak op Festival 5D 2012
DATE: 2012/10/17::
13
DON OBAMA AND THE MEDICAL MAFIA
DON OBAMA AND THE MEDICAL MAFIA
DATE: 2012/11/27::
14
Kallikaks - Heavens Sake
Kallikaks - Heavens Sake
DATE: 2010/11/18::
15
Akron/Family & The Angels Of Light - Oceanside
Akron/Family & The Angels Of Light - Oceanside
DATE: 2011/04/02::
16
The Jukes Family  @ Winstons
The Jukes Family @ Winstons
DATE: 2007/11/22::
17
Varieties of Eugenics Experience in the 21st Century - Part 3
Varieties of Eugenics Experience in the 21st Century - Part 3
DATE: 2009/03/16::
18
La Historia de la Dinastía Rothschild - 1ra parte. Desde 1743 a 1798
La Historia de la Dinastía Rothschild - 1ra parte. Desde 1743 a 1798
DATE: 2013/11/04::
19
pika rapa sings meet the monster by five finger death punch
pika rapa sings meet the monster by five finger death punch
DATE: 2014/11/03::
20
Lucky Dragons - The Electricians
Lucky Dragons - The Electricians
DATE: 2012/12/19::
21
Dash Berlin - Till the sky falls down (Monokini Beach Mix)
Dash Berlin - Till the sky falls down (Monokini Beach Mix)
DATE: 2012/11/17::
22
Amnesia Mod The Small Horse the Escape Parte 2 "Viva i pokemon..."
Amnesia Mod The Small Horse the Escape Parte 2 "Viva i pokemon..."
DATE: 2012/06/28::
23
top gun (volleyball scene)
top gun (volleyball scene)
DATE: 2012/11/29::
24
Playtime at the Dempsey House
Playtime at the Dempsey House
DATE: 2009/03/22::
25
GTsolo ||  Ft Kaniva || & Ms Banks || WORD OF MOUTH REMIX
GTsolo || Ft Kaniva || & Ms Banks || WORD OF MOUTH REMIX
DATE: 2014/01/20::
26
Harriet A. Washington North Carolina & Medical Apartheid
Harriet A. Washington North Carolina & Medical Apartheid
DATE: 2014/12/16::
27
The hirundu Nancy
The hirundu Nancy
DATE: 2007/05/20::
28
TOP GUN 2 - Goose doesn
TOP GUN 2 - Goose doesn't die.mp4
DATE: 2012/04/19::
29
Lucky Dragons - La Desdeñosa
Lucky Dragons - La Desdeñosa
DATE: 2012/12/18::
30
Conversations Theme Song
Conversations Theme Song
DATE: 2011/01/17::
31
Top Gun Volleyball Scene Remake
Top Gun Volleyball Scene Remake
DATE: 2014/06/18::
32
Circus Circus Agency presents :
Circus Circus Agency presents :
DATE: 2012/10/23::
33
Zermatt Summer park top to bottom run 2012
Zermatt Summer park top to bottom run 2012
DATE: 2012/08/12::
34
Top Gun mort de Goose
Top Gun mort de Goose
DATE: 2012/03/26::
35
Clue to Kalo - Seconds When It
Clue to Kalo - Seconds When It's Minutes
DATE: 2010/06/23::
36
Top Gunned
Top Gunned
DATE: 2008/02/01::
37
Top Gun Shower Scene
Top Gun Shower Scene
DATE: 2012/09/14::
38
Dirty Projectors - Nevermind
Dirty Projectors - Nevermind
DATE: 2012/12/19::
39
amazing beach volleyball
amazing beach volleyball
DATE: 2013/08/18::
40
Jib Kidder - Yall Want That Drell
Jib Kidder - Yall Want That Drell
DATE: 2012/12/18::
41
Lucky Dragons - Time Division Multiplexing
Lucky Dragons - Time Division Multiplexing
DATE: 2012/12/18::
42
Eats Tapes - Leeds Likes To Party
Eats Tapes - Leeds Likes To Party
DATE: 2012/12/17::
43
Flaspar - Be Forewarned (I
Flaspar - Be Forewarned (I'm Backworn)
DATE: 2012/12/19::
44
Impressie Festival 5D 2012
Impressie Festival 5D 2012
DATE: 2012/12/20::
45
ML 11243240
ML 11243240
DATE: 2009/03/26::
46
video desktop
video desktop
DATE: 2006/04/25::
47
Wrong turn 6
Wrong turn 6
DATE: 2013/05/31::
48
Gay Top Gun
Gay Top Gun
DATE: 2009/04/14::
49
Joe
Joe's Top Gun
DATE: 2009/12/17::
50
VersatixTV: Ramel "Limit" Harold Freestyle
VersatixTV: Ramel "Limit" Harold Freestyle
DATE: 2011/03/02::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For the television series, see The Kallikaks.
Goddard's book traced the genealogy of "Deborah Kallikak", a woman in his institution.

The Kallikak Family: A Study in the Heredity of Feeble-Mindedness was a 1912 book by the American psychologist and eugenicist Henry H. Goddard. The work was an extended case study of Goddard's for the inheritance of "feeble-mindedness," a general category referring to a variety of mental disabilities including mental retardation, learning disabilities, and mental illness. Goddard concluded that a variety of mental traits were hereditary and society should limit reproduction by people possessing these traits.

The name Kallikak is a pseudonym used as a family name throughout the book. Goddard coined the name from the Greek words καλός (kallos) meaning beautiful and κακός (kakos) meaning bad.[1]

Goddard's Kallikak pedigree

Summary[edit]

The book begins by discussing the case of "Deborah Kallikak," a woman in Goddard's institution, the New Jersey Home for the Education and Care of Feebleminded Children (now Vineland Training School). In the course of investigating her genealogy, Goddard claims to have discovered that her family tree bore a curious and surprising moral tale.

The book follows the genealogy of Martin Kallikak, Deborah's great-great-great grandfather, a Revolutionary War hero married to a Quaker woman. On his way back from battle, the normally morally upright Martin dallied one time with a "feeble-minded" barmaid. The young Martin soon reformed and went on with his upright life, becoming a respected New England citizen and father of a large family of prosperous individuals. All of the children that came from this relationship were "wholesome" and had no signs of retardation.[2]

But according to Goddard, a child was born by the dalliance with "the nameless feeble-minded girl". This single child, a male, went on to father more children, who fathered their own children, and on and on down the generations. And so with the Kallikaks, Goddard claims to have discovered, one has as close as one could imagine an experiment in the hereditability of intelligence, moral ability, and criminality.

On the "feeble-minded" side of the Kallikak family, descended from the barmaid, the children wound up poor, insane, delinquent, and mentally retarded. Deborah was, in Goddard's assessment, "feeble-minded": a catch-all early 20th century term to describe various forms of mental retardation or learning deficiencies. Goddard was interested in the heritability of "feeble-mindedness"—and often wrote of the invisible threat of recessive "feeble-minded" genes carried by otherwise healthy and intelligent looking members of the population (Mendel's laws had only been rediscovered a decade before; Goddard's genetic shorthand was, in its day, considered to be on par with cutting edge science). It was in tracing the family history of Deborah that Goddard and his assistants—usually upper-class girls from nearby colleges—discovered that Deborah's family of drunks and criminals was related—through Martin Kallikak—to another family tree of economy and prosperity.

A set of Kallikak children on the "feeble-minded" side of the family

On the "normal" side of the Kallikak family tree, the children ended up prosperous, intelligent, and morally upstanding. They were lawyers, ministers, and doctors. Goddard concluded from this that intelligence, sanity, and morality were hereditary, and every effort should be undertaken to keep the 'feeble-minded' from procreating, with the overall goal of potentially ending 'feeble-mindedness' and its accompanying traits. The damage from even one dalliance between a young man and a "feeble-minded" girl could create generations and generations worth of crime and poverty, with its members eventually living off the generosity of the state (and consequently taxpayers), Goddard argued. His work contains intricately constructed family trees, showing near-perfect Mendelian ratios in the inheritance of negative and positive traits.

Unsurprisingly, Goddard recommended segregating them in institutions exactly like the one he himself ran, where they would be taught how to work various forms of menial labor.

Present-day evaluation[edit]

Two Kallikaks. It is possible that the boy was born with Down Syndrome, a former name of the syndrome being mongolism.

In its day, The Kallikak Family was a tremendous success and went through multiple printings. It helped propel Goddard to the status of one of the nation's top experts in using psychology in policy, and along with the work of Charles B. Davenport and Madison Grant is considered one of the canonical works of early 20th century American eugenics.

It has also been argued that the effects of malnutrition were overlooked in the Kallikak family.[citation needed] Goddard's peer, Davenport, even identified various forms of diseases now known to be caused by diet deficiencies as being hereditary.

A detail of faces from the book — Stephen Jay Gould alleged that Goddard had doctored them to make them look more sinister.

Another recent perspective has been offered that the Kallikaks almost certainly had undiagnosed fetal alcohol syndrome.[3][4] In addition to poverty and malnourishment, prenatal alcohol exposure can create craniofacial and other physical anomalies that could account for their peculiar facial features.[5] Furthermore, prenatal alcohol exposure may also damage the central nervous system, which can result in impaired cognitive and behavioral functioning similar to that described by Goddard.[5]

Alteration of photographs[edit]

The paleontologist and science writer Stephen Jay Gould advanced the view that Goddard—or someone working with him—had retouched the photographs used in his book in order to make the "bad" Kallikaks appear more menacing. In older editions of the books, Gould said, it has become clearly evident that someone has drawn in darker, crazier looking eyes and menacing faces on the children and adults in the pictures. Gould argues that photographic reproduction in books was still then a very new art, and that audiences would not have been as keenly aware of photographic retouching, even on such a crude level. The 14 photos were subsequently studied further to show the nature of the retouching and subsequent use to help make Goddard's points.[6]

The psychologist R. E. Fancher, however, has claimed that retouching of faces of the sort which is apparent in Goddard's work was a common procedure at the time, in order to avoid a "washed out" look which was common to early photographic printing methods (poor halftones). Furthermore, Fancher argued, malicious editing on Goddard's part would take away from one of his primary claims: that only a trained eye can spot the moron in the crowd.

Influence[edit]

A caricature of the Kallikak Family from a 1950s psychology textbook. Modern research indicates that there is nothing accurate about the descriptions offered here.

The overall effect of The Kallikak Family was to temporarily increase funding to institutions such as Goddard's, but these were not seen to be worthwhile solutions of the problem of "feeble-mindedness" (much less "rogue" "feeble-mindedness"—the threat of idiocy as a recessive trait), and more stringent methods, such as compulsory sterilization of the mentally retarded, were undertaken.

The term "Kallikak" became, along with "Jukes" and "Nams" (other case studies of similar natures), a cultural shorthand for the rural poor in the South and Northeast United States.

In August 1977, NBC premiered a situation comedy called The Kallikaks [1], which depicted the comic misadventures of an Appalachian family that moved to California and feuded with another family named the Jukes; the series lasted only five episodes. A June 8, 1987 cartoon in The New Yorker provided a further update to the concept, depicting "The Jukes and Kallikaks Today"Link to Cartoon at Conde Nast.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Deutschmann, Linda B. Deviance & Social Control, p. 168.
  2. ^ Goddard, H. H. (1912). The Kallikak family: A study in the heredity of feeble mindedness.New York: MacMillan.
  3. ^ Karp, R.J. (1993). Introduction: A history and overview of malnourished children in the United States. In R.J. Karp (Ed.), Malnourished Children in the United States: Caught in the Cycle of Poverty. New York: Springer-Verlag.
  4. ^ Karp, R.J., Quazi, Q.H., Moller, K.A., Angelo, W.A., & Davis, J.M. (1995). Fetal alcohol syndrome at the turn of the century: An unexpected explanation of the Kallikak family. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 149(1), 45-48.
  5. ^ a b Streissguth, A.P. (1997). Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Guide for Families and Communities. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.
  6. ^ Elks, Martin A. (August 2005). O'Brien, John, ed. "Visual indictment: a contextual analysis of the Kallikak family photographs". Mental Retardation 43 (4): 268–280. doi:10.1352/0047-6765(2005)43[268:VIACAO]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0047-6765. PMID 16000027. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Henry H. Goddard, The Kallikak Family: A Study in the Heredity of Feeble-Mindedness, New York: Macmillan, 1912.
  • Stephen Jay Gould, The Mismeasure of Man, Norton: New York, 1996, revised edn.
  • R. E. Fancher, "Henry Goddard and the Kallikak family photographs," American Psychologist, 42 (1987), 585-590.
  • J. David Smith, Minds Made Feeble : The Myth and Legacy of the Kallikaks, Rockville, MD : Aspen, 1985 ISBN 0-87189-093-3
  • Spiro, Jonathan P. (2009). Defending the Master Race: Conservation, Eugenics, and the Legacy of Madison Grant. Univ. of Vermont Press. ISBN 978-1-58465-715-6. Lay summary (September 29, 2010). 
  • J. David Smith, Michael L. Wehmeyer, "Good Blood, Bad Blood: Science, Nature, and the Myth of the Kallikaks," Washington, DC : AAIDD, 2012 ISBN 978-1-937604-03-5

External links[edit]

Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License
Powered by YouTube
MASHPEDIA
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2015