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Epic Battle of Deception: USA vs UK - Napoleonic: Total War 3 Mod Gameplay
Epic Battle of Deception: USA vs UK - Napoleonic: Total War 3 Mod Gameplay
Published: 2017/01/27
Channel: Pixelated Apollo
Let
Let's Play: Napoleon :Total War - Great Britain - Ep.1
Published: 2013/02/02
Channel: Simpzy
[Episode 1] Napoleonic: Total War 3.7 - United Kingdom
[Episode 1] Napoleonic: Total War 3.7 - United Kingdom
Published: 2014/01/24
Channel: DiplexHeated
Napoleon Total War: Darthmod - Great Britain Campaign [Episode #1] Europe At War!
Napoleon Total War: Darthmod - Great Britain Campaign [Episode #1] Europe At War!
Published: 2016/06/05
Channel: DomDowg Gaming
Napoleon Invades England! "What If" Scenario in Wars of Napoleon
Napoleon Invades England! "What If" Scenario in Wars of Napoleon
Published: 2016/01/20
Channel: MatrixGamesPress
Documentary - The Anglo-American War of 1812
Documentary - The Anglo-American War of 1812
Published: 2015/05/28
Channel: A-Z Docu
GREAT BRITAINS LAST STAND! Great Britain v France - Napoleon Total War Survival Gameplay
GREAT BRITAINS LAST STAND! Great Britain v France - Napoleon Total War Survival Gameplay
Published: 2017/03/22
Channel: Alex The Rambler!
Roblox | BRITISH EMPIRE VS FRENCH EMPIRE! (Roblox Napoleon Wars)
Roblox | BRITISH EMPIRE VS FRENCH EMPIRE! (Roblox Napoleon Wars)
Published: 2017/03/16
Channel: PotatoSaladMan | Roblox
Waterloo - France vs Britain - First Napoleon Total War Multiplayer Battle
Waterloo - France vs Britain - First Napoleon Total War Multiplayer Battle
Published: 2015/08/21
Channel: Maximus Decimus Meridius
French Vs British Battle of Berry Head Reenactment
French Vs British Battle of Berry Head Reenactment
Published: 2011/08/07
Channel: Andrew K Fletcher
Napoleonic Invasion of Britain - Alternate History
Napoleonic Invasion of Britain - Alternate History
Published: 2017/03/17
Channel: North Carolina Mapper
Napoleon Total War   British Elite Foot Guards  VS  French Elite Old Guard
Napoleon Total War British Elite Foot Guards VS French Elite Old Guard
Published: 2010/04/04
Channel: AlienTechProductions
Mount and Blade Warband Napoleonic Wars - The British are Coming, Comrade!
Mount and Blade Warband Napoleonic Wars - The British are Coming, Comrade!
Published: 2015/01/17
Channel: BaronVonGamez
A World in Arms Britain
A World in Arms Britain's War Against Napoleon 1of3 Armies
Published: 2017/03/19
Channel: christel slaten
Napoleon Total War: Great Britain Campaign - Episode 1: From bottom Scratch
Napoleon Total War: Great Britain Campaign - Episode 1: From bottom Scratch
Published: 2013/06/24
Channel: Legionary Cohort
Napoleonic Wars: United Kingdom VS Poland - European Nations Cup
Napoleonic Wars: United Kingdom VS Poland - European Nations Cup
Published: 2013/12/02
Channel: The Other Linelor
Mount & Blade - British Sniper! For Old Nosey - Mount & Blade Warband Napoleonic Wars Gameplay
Mount & Blade - British Sniper! For Old Nosey - Mount & Blade Warband Napoleonic Wars Gameplay
Published: 2015/04/20
Channel: BaronVonGamez
British grenadiers march — British line infantry attack
British grenadiers march — British line infantry attack
Published: 2014/11/08
Channel: Tadeáš Kratochvíl
Napoleonic Wars: United Kingdom VS German - European Nations Cup
Napoleonic Wars: United Kingdom VS German - European Nations Cup
Published: 2013/12/08
Channel: The Other Linelor
German States United: Defense Against British Aggression - Napoleonic: Total War 3 Mod Gameplay
German States United: Defense Against British Aggression - Napoleonic: Total War 3 Mod Gameplay
Published: 2017/01/21
Channel: Pixelated Apollo
Napoleon Total War Online Battle #6 (2v2) - British Empire
Napoleon Total War Online Battle #6 (2v2) - British Empire
Published: 2015/04/23
Channel: Pixelated Apollo
[Wars] The British Invasion of Java (1811): Every Day
[Wars] The British Invasion of Java (1811): Every Day
Published: 2015/11/21
Channel: GalacticPenguinTV
NAPOLEONIC British Infantry Soldier Interview Military Odyssey 2014 | HD
NAPOLEONIC British Infantry Soldier Interview Military Odyssey 2014 | HD
Published: 2014/10/11
Channel: LivingHistory82
Napoleonic France vs United Kingdom (Sub Commanders)
Napoleonic France vs United Kingdom (Sub Commanders)
Published: 2016/02/17
Channel: Invicta
Napoleonic Wars Cavalry Nation Cup (France/United Kingdom)
Napoleonic Wars Cavalry Nation Cup (France/United Kingdom)
Published: 2014/03/16
Channel: IVeCorps
Napoleonic Wars: United Kingdom VS Denmark - European Nations Cup
Napoleonic Wars: United Kingdom VS Denmark - European Nations Cup
Published: 2013/11/19
Channel: The Other Linelor
Alternate History | The Napoleonic Invasion of Britain Everyday | Sneak Peek
Alternate History | The Napoleonic Invasion of Britain Everyday | Sneak Peek
Published: 2017/03/14
Channel: Talinite
Coldstream Sergeant Explains Napoleonic Wars French and British Infantry Equipment 25 5 15
Coldstream Sergeant Explains Napoleonic Wars French and British Infantry Equipment 25 5 15
Published: 2015/05/25
Channel: Hellfire 661
History of the Royal Navy - Wooden Walls (1600-1805)
History of the Royal Navy - Wooden Walls (1600-1805)
Published: 2013/03/03
Channel: Ryan Doyle
Napoleonic wars British Rifleman
Napoleonic wars British Rifleman
Published: 2014/06/22
Channel: SS P
Ep4 Napoleonic Wars Beach Head Assault United Kingdom Defends Against Prussia w Swift & SaphirePhoen
Ep4 Napoleonic Wars Beach Head Assault United Kingdom Defends Against Prussia w Swift & SaphirePhoen
Published: 2014/06/21
Channel: snowhood
Artmaster Studio: How to paint British Line Infantry
Artmaster Studio: How to paint British Line Infantry
Published: 2014/04/07
Channel: Artmaster Studio TV
Napoleonic Wars: United Kingdom VS Sweden - European Nations Cup
Napoleonic Wars: United Kingdom VS Sweden - European Nations Cup
Published: 2013/11/10
Channel: The Other Linelor
Napoleon: Total War (The Great War Mod) - United Kingdom Campaign - Part 1
Napoleon: Total War (The Great War Mod) - United Kingdom Campaign - Part 1
Published: 2013/08/18
Channel: Gamer Empire
In These Times: Living in Britain Through Napoleon’s Wars - A video invite from Jenny Uglow
In These Times: Living in Britain Through Napoleon’s Wars - A video invite from Jenny Uglow
Published: 2014/09/18
Channel: History West Midlands
UNITED KINGDOM vs RUSSIA WWIII (Military Power Comparison) | 2015
UNITED KINGDOM vs RUSSIA WWIII (Military Power Comparison) | 2015
Published: 2015/03/06
Channel: VSB defense
Napoleon Total War   Russia v Britain
Napoleon Total War Russia v Britain
Published: 2016/12/23
Channel: Command Combat Battle Reports
Napoleon Bonaparte: The Conquerors of Europe Continent (Full Documentary)
Napoleon Bonaparte: The Conquerors of Europe Continent (Full Documentary)
Published: 2014/02/13
Channel: Creative Fun World
Mount & Blade Napoleonic Wars - United Kingdom fife British Grenadiers
Mount & Blade Napoleonic Wars - United Kingdom fife British Grenadiers
Published: 2015/03/28
Channel: Georg von Böhmen
British Napoleonic Artillery
British Napoleonic Artillery
Published: 2017/02/15
Channel: Leon T66
Napoleonic British Infantry - Loading and Firing a Musket - 68th Durham Regt
Napoleonic British Infantry - Loading and Firing a Musket - 68th Durham Regt
Published: 2013/04/22
Channel: The68dli
Poland vs United Kingdom (11.04.14) - Napoleonic Wars Cavalry Nation Cup
Poland vs United Kingdom (11.04.14) - Napoleonic Wars Cavalry Nation Cup
Published: 2014/04/15
Channel: Piąty PułkPiechoty
Napoleonic Wars Machinima-Prussia against United kingdom
Napoleonic Wars Machinima-Prussia against United kingdom
Published: 2017/02/13
Channel: Andrey Player Productions
Rise of America—#9 March on Britain—European War 4 Napoleon
Rise of America—#9 March on Britain—European War 4 Napoleon
Published: 2017/04/08
Channel: Mr Ghostrufan
A few British Victories in the Napoleonic wars
A few British Victories in the Napoleonic wars
Published: 2009/11/11
Channel: mastercheff1216
Napoleonic Wars: United Kingdom VS Serbia - European Nations Cup
Napoleonic Wars: United Kingdom VS Serbia - European Nations Cup
Published: 2013/12/08
Channel: The Other Linelor
Napoleon Total War 1v1 Great Britain vs France
Napoleon Total War 1v1 Great Britain vs France
Published: 2014/04/24
Channel: piper.spirit
Ep5 Napoleonic Wars River Crossing United Kingdom Defends Against Austria w/ Swift & Saphire
Ep5 Napoleonic Wars River Crossing United Kingdom Defends Against Austria w/ Swift & Saphire
Published: 2014/06/23
Channel: snowhood
British Napoleonic Uniforms & Civil War Accessories
British Napoleonic Uniforms & Civil War Accessories
Published: 2016/01/25
Channel: UK EXPO INTERNATIONAL
M&B Warband : UK vs Sweden Napoleonic Wars Nations Cup
M&B Warband : UK vs Sweden Napoleonic Wars Nations Cup
Published: 2012/10/05
Channel: SirCymro
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Between 1803 and 1815, Great Britain was the most constant of Napoleon's enemies. Through its command of the sea, subsidies to allies on the European mainland, and active military intervention in the Peninsular War, Britain played the central role in Napoleon's downfall even as all the other major powers switched back and forth.

Overview[edit]

In May 1803, war was declared again. Napoleon's plans to invade Britain failed due to the inferiority of his navy, and in 1805, Lord Nelson's fleet decisively defeated the French and Spanish at the Battle of Trafalgar, which was the last significant naval action of the Napoleonic Wars.

Battle of Trafalgar

The series of naval and colonial conflicts, including a large number of minor naval actions, resembled those of the French Revolutionary Wars and the preceding centuries of European warfare. Conflicts in the Caribbean, and in particular the seizure of colonial bases and islands throughout the wars, could potentially have some effect upon the European conflict. The Napoleonic conflict had reached the point at which subsequent historians could talk of a "world war". Only the Seven Years' War offered a precedent for widespread conflict on such a scale.

Napoleon also attempted economic warfare against Britain, especially in the Berlin Decree of 1806. It forbade the import of British goods into European countries allied with or dependent upon France, and installed the Continental System in Europe. All connections were to be cut, even the mail. British merchants smuggled in many goods and the Continental System was not a powerful weapon of economic war.[1] There was some damage to Britain, especially in 1808 and 1811, but its control of the oceans helped ameliorate the damage. Even more damage was done to the economies of France and its allies, which lost a useful trading partner.[2] Angry governments gained an incentive to ignore the Continental System, which led to the weakening of Napoleon's coalition.[3]

The British army remained a minimal threat to France; the British standing army of just 220,000 at the height of the Napoleonic Wars hardly compared to France's army of a million men—in addition to the armies of numerous allies and several hundred thousand national guardsmen that Napoleon could draft into the military if necessary. Although the Royal Navy effectively disrupted France's extra-continental trade—both by seizing and threatening French shipping and by seizing French colonial possessions—it could do nothing about France's trade with the major continental economies and posed little threat to French territory in Europe. In addition, France's population and agricultural capacity far outstripped that of Britain.

Many in the French government believed that isolating Britain from the Continent would end its economic influence over Europe and isolate it. Though the French designed the Continental System to achieve this, it never succeeded in its objective. Britain possessed the greatest industrial capacity in Europe, and its mastery of the seas allowed it to build up considerable economic strength through trade to its possessions from its rapidly expanding new Empire. Britain's command of the sea meant that France could never enjoy the peace necessary to consolidate its control over Europe, and it could threaten neither the home islands nor the main British colonies.

Battle of Waterloo

Sideshows like the Gunboat War against Denmark, the Walcheren Campaign against the Netherlands and the War of 1812 against the United States could not hurt Napoleon, but the Spanish uprising of 1808 at last permitted Britain to gain a foothold on the Continent. The Duke of Wellington and his army of British and Portuguese gradually pushed the French out of Spain and in early 1814, as Napoleon was being driven back in the east by the Prussians, Austrians, and Russians, Wellington invaded southern France. After Napoleon's surrender and exile to the island of Elba, peace appeared to have returned, but when he escaped back into France in 1815, the British and their allies had to fight him again. The armies of Wellington and Von Blucher defeated Napoleon once and for all at the Battle of Waterloo.

Civilian support network[edit]

Britain mobilized a vast civilian support network to support its 1 million soldiers. Historian Jenny Uglow (2015) explores a multitude of connections between the Army and its support network, as summarized by a review of her book by Christine Haynes:

a whole host of other civilian, actors, including: army contractors, who provided massive quantities of tents, knapsacks, canteens, uniforms, shoes, muskets, gunpowder, ships, maps, fortifications, meat, and biscuit; bankers and speculators, who funded the supplies as well as subsidies to Britain's allies...revenue agents, who collected the wide variety of taxes imposed to finance the wars; farmers, whose fortunes rose and fell not just with the weather but with the war; elites, who amidst war maintained many of the same old routines and amusements; workers, when the context of war found opportunities for new jobs and higher wages but also grievances that led to strikes and riots; and the poor, who suffered immensely through much of this....[And women who] participated in the war not just as relations of combatants but as sutlers, prostitutes, laundresses, spinners, bandage-makers, and drawing-room news-followers. [4][5]

Financing the war[edit]

A key element in British success was its ability to mobilize the nation’s industrial and financial resources and apply them to defeating France. With a population of 16 million Britain was barely half the size of France with 30 million. In terms of soldiers the French numerical advantage was offset by British subsidies that paid for a large proportion of the Austrian and Russian soldiers, peaking at about 450,000 in 1813.[6] Most important, the British national output remained strong and the well-organized business sector channeled products into what the military needed. The system of smuggling finished products into the continent undermined French efforts to ruin the British economy by cutting off markets. The British budget in 1814 reached £66 million, including £10 million for the Navy, £40 million for the Army, £10 million for the Allies, and £38 million as interest on the national debt. The national debt soared to £679 million, more than double the GDP. It was willingly supported by hundreds of thousands of investors and tax payers, despite the higher taxes on land and a new income tax. The whole cost of the war came to £831 million. By contrast the French financial system was inadequate and Napoleon’s forces had to rely in part on requisitions from conquered lands.[7][8][9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Paul W. Schroeder, The Transformation of European Politics 1763–1848 (1994) pp 305-10
  2. ^ Alexander Grab, Napoleon and the Transformation of Europe (2003) pp 29-33
  3. ^ François Crouzet, "Wars, blockade, and economic change in Europe, 1792–1815." Journal of Economic History (1964) 24#4 pp 567-588 in JSTOR.
  4. ^ Christine Haynes, Review, ‘’Journal of military history April 2016 80#2 p 544
  5. ^ Jenny Uglow, In These Times: Living in Britain Through Napoleon's Wars, 1793-1815 (2015)
  6. ^ Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers – economic change and military conflict from 1500 to 2000 (1989), pp. 128–9
  7. ^ Elie Halevy, A History of the English People in 1815 (1924) vol 2 p 205-6, 215-228
  8. ^ Roger Knight, Britain Against Napoleon: The Organisation of Victory, 1793–1815 (2013)
  9. ^ J. Steven Watson, The Reign of George III 1760–1815 (1960), 374-77, 406-7, 463-71,

Bibliography[edit]

  • Andress, David. The Savage Storm: Britain on the Brink in the Age of Napoleon (2013)
  • Bates, Stephen. Year of Waterloo: Britain in 1815 (2015).
  • Bryant, Arthur. Years of Endurance 1793–1802 (1942); and Years of Victory, 1802–1812 (1944) well-written surveys of the British story
  • Christie, Ian R. Wars and Revolutions Britain, 1760–1815 (1982)
  • Divall, Carole (2013). Napoleonic Lives: Researching the British Soldiers of the Napoleonic Wars. Pen & Sword Family History. p. 188. ISBN 978-1848845749. 
  • Coss, Edward J. All for the King's Shilling: The British Soldier Under Wellington, 1808-1814 (University of Oklahoma Press, 2012).
  • Ehrman, John. The Younger Pitt: The Consuming Struggle (Volume 3) (1996)
  • Emsley, Clive. Britain and the French Revolution (Routledge, 2014).
  • Esdaile, Charles. Napoleon's Wars: An International History, 1803–1815 (2008); 645pp excerpt and text search a standard scholarly history
  • Haythornthwaite, Philip J. Wellington's Military Machine, 1792–1815 (1989)
  • Haythornthwaite, Philip (2012). Redcoats: The British Soldiers of the Napoleonic Wars. Pen & Sword Military. p. 200. ISBN 978-1844159581. 
  • Kennedy, Catriona (2013). Narratives of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars: Military and Civilian Experience in Britain and Ireland. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 272. ISBN 978-0230275430. 
  • Knight, Roger. Britain Against Napoleon: The Organisation of Victory, 1793–1815 (2013)
  • Lavery, Brian. Nelson's Navy: The Ships, Men, and Organization, 1793–1815 (2nd ed. 2012)
  • Robson, Martin (2014). A History of the Royal Navy: The Napoleonic Wars. I B Taurus. p. 256. ISBN 978-1780765440. 
  • Muir, Rory. Britain and the Defeat of Napoleon: 1807–1815 (1996)
  • Muir, Rory. Wellington: The Path to Victory 1769–1814 (2013) vol 1 of two-volume scholarly biography excerpt and text search
  • Ross, Steven T. European Diplomatic History, 1789–1815: France Against Europe (1969)
  • Uglow, Jenny. In These Times: Living in Britain Through Napoleon's Wars, 1793-1815 (2015) excerpt
  • Watson, J. Steven. The Reign of George III 1760–1815 (1960),


  • Roger A.C Phillip. Trinidadian*

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