Third-party officeholders in the United States have been rare at any point of the country's existence thus-far. Although the current two-party system in the U.S., with the Republican Party and Democratic Party, started in 1856, many of the older parties still existed and had an influence. Therefore, this article includes any politician since the end of Reconstruction or since the 45th United States Congress.
These galleries and lists include anyone who at one time, while in office, was an independent or affiliated with a third party. They are listed in descending order from the first year they were in office as something other than a Republican or Democrat.
Since the end of Reconstruction, there have been a total of 30 U.S. Senators, 111 U.S. Representatives, and 28 Governors that weren't affiliated with a major party. There are now two U.S. Senators (King and Sanders), and four major city Mayors. Hundreds of third-party officeholders exist at the local level (including those in nonpartisan positions who are affiliated with a third-party), including 144 Libertarian Party members, 26 Constitution Party members, and 139 Green Party members.
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