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1
Part 1.4 1-CCD or 3 CCD Camera?
Part 1.4 1-CCD or 3 CCD Camera?
::2011/08/01::
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2
Color cameras: Bayer and 3 CCD
Color cameras: Bayer and 3 CCD
::2011/10/28::
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3
SeeSense-Toshiba 3 chip CCD cameras
SeeSense-Toshiba 3 chip CCD cameras
::2012/06/18::
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4
Live From Photonics West 2012: Camera Comparison — Three-Chip CCD Vs. Single-Chip CMOS
Live From Photonics West 2012: Camera Comparison — Three-Chip CCD Vs. Single-Chip CMOS
::2012/03/01::
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5
Using the CCD Camera at the Musk Observatory
Using the CCD Camera at the Musk Observatory
::2012/11/18::
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6
$ 61 US, Sentinel - Waterproof Night Vision CCTV (SONY 1/3 CCD) - PAL 1st Shopping Channel
$ 61 US, Sentinel - Waterproof Night Vision CCTV (SONY 1/3 CCD) - PAL 1st Shopping Channel
::2009/08/21::
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7
Jai - Color Line Scan Cameras (3 & 4-CCD, 3-CMOS)
Jai - Color Line Scan Cameras (3 & 4-CCD, 3-CMOS)
::2013/10/29::
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8
Guide to Sony HDR-FX1 3-CCD HDV High Definition Camcorder w/12x  New in 2014
Guide to Sony HDR-FX1 3-CCD HDV High Definition Camcorder w/12x New in 2014
::2014/06/10::
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9
6576 Sony HDR-FX1 3-CCD HDV High Definition Camcorder w/12x Optical Zoom 25273
6576 Sony HDR-FX1 3-CCD HDV High Definition Camcorder w/12x Optical Zoom 25273
::2014/06/14::
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10
Reversing camera | 9" Monitor HD 12V/24V Reversing CCD Camera
Reversing camera | 9" Monitor HD 12V/24V Reversing CCD Camera
::2013/12/03::
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11
Whats The Difference Between CCD  vs CMOS camera Image Sensor
Whats The Difference Between CCD vs CMOS camera Image Sensor
::2010/06/24::
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12
Portable Mini DVR Snoy CCD Button Camera Remote Control Video Recorder
Portable Mini DVR Snoy CCD Button Camera Remote Control Video Recorder
::2012/08/23::
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13
Cleaning the CCD sensor of a Panasonic Lumix Compact Digital Camera
Cleaning the CCD sensor of a Panasonic Lumix Compact Digital Camera
::2011/08/11::
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14
8675 JVC GY-HD100U High Definition 3-CCD MiniDV Professional Camcorder with 16x  6569
8675 JVC GY-HD100U High Definition 3-CCD MiniDV Professional Camcorder with 16x 6569
::2014/06/21::
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15
Anomaly, full spotter cam footage 03/16/14 6:35pm EST
Anomaly, full spotter cam footage 03/16/14 6:35pm EST
::2014/03/17::
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16
1/3" SONY CCD 420 TVL Security Board Color Camera GST3018
1/3" SONY CCD 420 TVL Security Board Color Camera GST3018
::2010/01/24::
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17
Pixim Seawolf Camera vs Sony CCD Camera
Pixim Seawolf Camera vs Sony CCD Camera
::2012/07/15::
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18
Double car cam (2013 CCD camcorder vs 1979 vidicon camera)
Double car cam (2013 CCD camcorder vs 1979 vidicon camera)
::2013/04/09::
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19
OPGAL Vumii DualSec  CCD & Thermal  Alternating Cameras  DAY   3 1km  Boat Behind Island
OPGAL Vumii DualSec CCD & Thermal Alternating Cameras DAY 3 1km Boat Behind Island
::2013/11/18::
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20
1-3 Video Door Phone Doorbell Intercom System LCD CCD Camera RFID Card & Password Access Control
1-3 Video Door Phone Doorbell Intercom System LCD CCD Camera RFID Card & Password Access Control
::2011/12/11::
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21
Field sequential 2 colour camera/television system telerecording (with CCD camera) (Part 2)
Field sequential 2 colour camera/television system telerecording (with CCD camera) (Part 2)
::2012/09/24::
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22
Jai - Multi Spectral Imaging (2-CCD) Industrial Camera
Jai - Multi Spectral Imaging (2-CCD) Industrial Camera
::2013/11/29::
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23
UFO, amazing object, three cam views 01/03/14 4:19pm EST
UFO, amazing object, three cam views 01/03/14 4:19pm EST
::2014/01/03::
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24
UFO sighting, Anomaly and bird from three cameras 04/27/14 4:32pm EST
UFO sighting, Anomaly and bird from three cameras 04/27/14 4:32pm EST
::2014/04/29::
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25
CCD, CMOS, And sCMOS Cameras For Imaging Applications
CCD, CMOS, And sCMOS Cameras For Imaging Applications
::2013/02/06::
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26
Fast anomaly(VTE) 03/11/14 10:26am EST
Fast anomaly(VTE) 03/11/14 10:26am EST
::2014/03/12::
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27
UFO, multicolor anomaly 03/24/14 5:28pm EST
UFO, multicolor anomaly 03/24/14 5:28pm EST
::2014/03/24::
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28
Anomaly, yellow 03/16/14 7:01pm EST
Anomaly, yellow 03/16/14 7:01pm EST
::2014/03/19::
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29
Coptervision
Coptervision
::2010/04/16::
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30
laser cutting machine with CCD camera
laser cutting machine with CCD camera
::2013/12/30::
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31
Oriental Motor RKII Series Application CCD Camera
Oriental Motor RKII Series Application CCD Camera
::2014/04/16::
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32
My next camera- Sony handycam vision ccd- trv87
My next camera- Sony handycam vision ccd- trv87
::2012/07/20::
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33
Variable Topology Entity, morphing close-ups 03/03/14 4:44pm EST
Variable Topology Entity, morphing close-ups 03/03/14 4:44pm EST
::2014/03/04::
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34
DJI-Innovations S800 with Wookong M autopilot and 10X Zoom Camera
DJI-Innovations S800 with Wookong M autopilot and 10X Zoom Camera
::2012/07/31::
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35
1991 CCD colour camera vs 1978 vidicon colour camera
1991 CCD colour camera vs 1978 vidicon colour camera
::2011/09/10::
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36
SpyCameraCCTV.com - High Res Wireless CCD Pinhole Camera, Audio Receiver Spy Kit 420TVL Setup Guide
SpyCameraCCTV.com - High Res Wireless CCD Pinhole Camera, Audio Receiver Spy Kit 420TVL Setup Guide
::2011/07/04::
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37
Panasonic GP-CX161 CCD Board Camera
Panasonic GP-CX161 CCD Board Camera
::2010/10/23::
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38
My next camera- Sony handycam ccd-trv87 update
My next camera- Sony handycam ccd-trv87 update
::2012/07/17::
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39
Variable UFO as seen by the LG cam, first six minutes 01/13/14 4:58pm EST
Variable UFO as seen by the LG cam, first six minutes 01/13/14 4:58pm EST
::2014/01/13::
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40
Best Sale High End 14 Interline Transfer SONY CCD PTZ Dome Camera 680 TVL 27
Best Sale High End 14 Interline Transfer SONY CCD PTZ Dome Camera 680 TVL 27
::2014/08/29::
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41
Tadibrothers 7 Inch Mirror with Wireless CCD Steel License Plate Backup Camera
Tadibrothers 7 Inch Mirror with Wireless CCD Steel License Plate Backup Camera
::2014/08/17::
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42
Anomaly(VTE), electrostatic plasma ball-type 03/03/14 9:46am EST
Anomaly(VTE), electrostatic plasma ball-type 03/03/14 9:46am EST
::2014/03/03::
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43
CCD, Interline CCD and CMOS sensor design
CCD, Interline CCD and CMOS sensor design
::2009/08/25::
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44
UFO, elliptic/disc shaped object, seen by the LG cam 12/06/13 4:20pm EST
UFO, elliptic/disc shaped object, seen by the LG cam 12/06/13 4:20pm EST
::2013/12/06::
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45
UFO, object as seen by the spotter camera, last four minutes 12/19/13 4:18pm EST
UFO, object as seen by the spotter camera, last four minutes 12/19/13 4:18pm EST
::2013/12/20::
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46
Preparing for Super Moon 2012 with 25-inch Dobsonian telescope and CCD camera
Preparing for Super Moon 2012 with 25-inch Dobsonian telescope and CCD camera
::2012/05/05::
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47
Fast unknown object 02/25/14 9:02am EST
Fast unknown object 02/25/14 9:02am EST
::2014/02/26::
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48
Visual references: bursting weather balloon.
Visual references: bursting weather balloon.
::2013/12/10::
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49
Micron IV Retinal Imaging Microscope Training Video
Micron IV Retinal Imaging Microscope Training Video
::2013/11/18::
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50
UFO, blue anomaly 03/08/14 9:52am EST
UFO, blue anomaly 03/08/14 9:52am EST
::2014/03/24::
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RESULTS [51 .. 101]
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A color-separation beam splitter prism assembly, with a white beam entering the front, and red, green, and blue beams exiting the three focal-plane faces.
A Philips type trichroic beam splitter prism schematic, with a different color separation order than the assembly shown in the photo. The red beam undergoes total internal reflection at the air gap, while the other reflections are dichroic. This construction has the advantage over the above type that all 3 separated images are laterally inverted (as with a single sensor). In the first type, the blue image is not laterally inverted but the other two are.
A 3CCD imaging block consisting of a color separation prism of Philips type on which 3 CCDs are mounted.

A three-CCD camera is a camera whose imaging system uses three separate charge-coupled devices (CCDs), each one taking a separate measurement of the primary colors, red, green, or blue light. Light coming into the lens is split by a trichroic prism assembly, which directs the appropriate wavelength ranges of light to their respective CCDs. The system is employed by still cameras, telecine systems, professional video cameras and some prosumer video cameras.

Compared to cameras with only one CCD, three-CCD cameras generally provide superior image quality through enhanced resolution and lower noise. By taking separate readings of red, green, and blue values for each pixel, three-CCD cameras achieve much better precision than single-CCD cameras. By contrast, almost all single-CCD cameras use a Bayer filter, which allows them to detect only one-third of the color information for each pixel. The other two-thirds must be interpolated with a demosaicing algorithm to 'fill in the gaps', resulting in a much lower effective resolution.[1]

Technology[edit]

The combination of the three sensors can be done in the following ways:

  • Composite sampling, where the three sensors are perfectly aligned to avoid any color artifact when recombining the information from the three color planes
  • Pixel shifting, where the three sensors are shifted by a fraction of a pixel. After recombining the information from the three sensors, higher spatial resolution can be achieved.[2] Pixel shifting can be horizontal only to provide higher horizontal resolution in standard resolution camera, or horizontal and vertical to provide high resolution image using standard resolution imager for example. The alignment of the three sensors can be achieved by micro mechanical movements of the sensors relative to each other.
  • Arbitrary alignment, where the random alignment errors due to the optics are comparable to or larger than the pixel size.

Three-CCD cameras are generally more expensive than single-CCD cameras because they require three times as many elements to form the image detector, and because they require a precision color-separation beam-splitter optical assembly.

Some design goals for a prism assembly are:

  • That the light path lengths for the three colors are the same (with correction for the different index of refraction of the glass at different colors).
  • That the separation works regardless of the polarization of the incoming light; this polarization is quite challenging in practice, and there are various strategies for dealing with the resulting polarization-dependent color separation.
  • That the output images are oriented the same way around (in the case of CCD image sensors). In the prism assembly illustrated above, where the red light is the direct path, the blue path is reflected once and the resultant image is not laterally inverted, unlike the red and green. In cameras using vacuum tube video pickup devices this was solved by merely reversing the connections for the line scan coils; with CMOS imagers, the row or column address sequence is simply reversed. But with CCD sensors it is necessary to build a mirror image sensor for one channel. The Philips prism assembly (center right) has all three color channels laterally inverted and can thus use three similar CCDs.

The concept of cameras using three image pickups, one for each primary color, was first developed for color photography on three glass plates in the late nineteenth century, and in the 1960s through 1980s was the dominant method to record color images in television, as other possibilities to record more than one color on the video camera tube were difficult.

Three-CCD cameras are often referred to as "three-chip" cameras; this term is actually more descriptive and inclusive, since it includes cameras that use CMOS active pixel sensors instead of CCDs. Camcorders with three chips were called "3CCD" earlier and some are still called "3MOS" (derived from 3xCMOS, Panasonic) today.[3]

Efficiency[edit]

Dielectric mirrors can be produced as low-pass, high-pass, band-pass, or band-stop filters. In the example shown, a red and a blue mirror reflect the respective bands back, somewhat off axis. The angles are kept as small as practical to minimize polarization-dependent color effects. To reduce unwanted reflections, air-glass interfaces are minimized; the image sensors may be attached to the exit faces with an index-matched optical epoxy, sometimes with an intervening color trim filter. The Philips type prism includes an air gap with total internal reflection in one light path, while the other prism shown above does not. A typical Bayer filter single-chip image sensor absorbs at least two-thirds of the visible light with its filters, while in a three-CCD sensor the filters absorb only stray light and invisible light, and possibly a little more for color tuning, so that the three-chip sensor has better low light capabilities.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cliff Wootton (2005). A Practical Guide to Video and Audio Compression: From Sprockets and Rasters to Macroblocks. Elsevier. p. 137. ISBN 978-0-240-80630-3. 
  2. ^ "3 CCD with Pixel Shift Technology". GL2 Digital Camcorder. 
  3. ^ Forget 3CCD - Panasonic introduces 3MOS | News | TechRadar

External links[edit]

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