From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Group of Thugs.gif
Group of Thugs around 1894
Founded Before 1356
Named after Hindi word for deceit
Founding location Central India
Years active At least 450 years
Territory Indian subcontinent
Criminal activities Murder, robbery

Thuggee or tuggee (Hindi: ठग्गी ṭhaggī; Urdu: ٹھگ‎; Nepali: ठग्गी ṭhaggī; Sanskrit: sthaga; Marathi: ठक; Odia: ଠକ thaka; Sindhi: ٺوڳي، ٺڳ‎; Kannada: ಠಕ್ಕ thakka; Bengali: ঠগি ṭhogī) refers to the acts of Thugs, an organised gang of professional robbers and murderers.

Thugs travelled in groups across the Indian sub-continent for six hundred years.[1] Although the Thugs traced their origin to seven Muslim tribes, Hindus appear to have been associated with them at an early period. The earliest authenticated mention of thugs appears in Ziyā-ud-Dīn Baranī's History of Fīrūz Shāh, dated around 1356.[2] Thuggee was a secret cult whose members, both Muslims and Hindus, worshipped Mother Kali, the goddess of destruction. They operated as gangs of highway robbers, tricking and later strangling their victims.[3]

To take advantage of their victims, the Thugs would join travellers and gain their confidence; this would allow them to surprise and strangle the travellers with a handkerchief or noose. They would then rob and bury their victims. This led to the Thugs being called Phansigar (English: "using a noose"), a term more commonly used in southern India.[4] During the 1830s, the Thugs were targeted for eradication by Governor-General of India, William Bentinck and his chief captain, William Henry Sleeman.

The English language word "thug" traces its roots to this, from the Hindi ठग (ṭhag), which means "swindler" or "deceiver". Related words are the verb thugna ("to deceive"), from the Sanskrit स्थग (sthaga "cunning, sly, fraudulent") and स्थगति (sthagati, "he conceals").[5] This term, describing the murder and robbery of travellers, is popular in the Indian subcontinent and particularly India.

A Tamil movie 'Theeran Adhigaram' was also made in reference to this. A group of 13 people whose roots go back to these thugee tribes camouflaged themselves as a logistics and goods delivery vendors and plundered random cities and brutally murdered families, women and children included.

Tamil Nadu police took this matter seriously when a member of legislative assembly was victimized. It took them over 18months a country wide spread operation with limited resources to pin down this cult group.


The earliest known reference to the Thugs as a band or fraternity, rather than ordinary thieves, is found in Ziau-d din Barni's History of Firoz Shah (written about 1356):

In the reign of that sultan [about 1290], some Thugs were taken in Delhi, and a man belonging to that fraternity was the means of about a thousand being captured. But not one of these did the sultan have killed. He gave orders for them to be put into boats and to be conveyed into the lower country, to the neighbourhood of Lakhnauti, where they were to be set free. The Thugs would thus have to dwell about Lakhnauti and would not trouble the neighbourhood of Delhi any more.

— Sir HM Elliot, History of India, iii. 141
Two drawings of an older, bearded man
Guru Multhoo Byragee Jogee, a native of Ajmere aged 90, in jail (1840)
Sketch of three standing men, of different ages
Murdan Khan and gang from Lucknow (1840)

Membership was sometimes passed from father to son, as part of a criminal underclass. The leadership of established Thug groups tended to be hereditary, as the group evolved into a criminal tribe. Other men would become acquainted with a Thug band and hope to be recruited, as Thugs were respected by the criminal community and had a camaraderie of numbers and shared experience. Robbery became less a question of solving problems associated with poverty and more a profession.

Sometimes young children of travellers would be spared and groomed to become Thugs themselves, since children would help allay suspicion. A fourth way of becoming a Thug was by training with a guru (similar to an apprenticeship for a guild or profession), during which the candidate could be assessed for reliability, courage, discretion and discipline.[6]

Modus operandi[edit]

See caption
Watercolour by unknown early-19th-century artist of three Thugs strangling a traveller; one holds his feet, another his hands and a third tightens the ligature around his neck.
See caption
Sketch by the same artist of a group of Thugs stabbing the eyes of murdered travellers before throwing the bodies into a well.

The Thugs' modus operandi was to join a caravan as fellow travellers, delaying their attack until the other travellers lost their initial wariness of the newcomers. Depending on the size of the target group, it might take hundreds of miles to reach a suitable place and time. There were variations on this method. When tackling a large group, a Thuggee band might disperse along a route and join a group in stages, concealing their acquaintanceship and eventually outnumbering their intended victims in small, non-threatening increments. If the travellers doubted any one party, they might confide their worries to another party of the Thuggee band; the trusted band would be best placed to deal with those members of the caravan at the appropriate time, or advise their colleagues to modify their behaviour to allay suspicion.

The killing place needed to be remote from local observers, with no escape (for example, a riverbank). Thugs had favoured places of execution, known as beles, and knew their geography better than their victims did. Attacks were conducted at night or during a rest break, when travellers would be busy with chores and background noises would mask any sounds of alarm. A quick, quiet method, leaving no stains and requiring no specialised weapon, was strangulation. This method, associated with Thuggee, led to the Thugs being called phansigars ("noose-operators") or "stranglers" by British troops. Usually two or three Thugs would strangle one traveller; they then needed to dispose of the bodies, either burying them or throwing them into a well.[6] The leader of a Thugee gang was known as a jemadar.[citation needed]

In 1884, seven men well-armed with swords and matchlocks, bearing a treasure worth 4,500 rupees, passed by a hidden encampment of two hundred Thugs.[7][8] The Thugs followed them unobserved for 7 miles, then rushed upon them and killed them all. While the Thugs were doing so, a tanner approached, "and to prevent him giving the alarm they put him to death also, and made off with the treasure, leaving the bodies unburied."[8]

The garrote is often depicted as a weapon of the Thuggee.[9][10] It is sometimes described as a rumāl (head covering or kerchief), translated as "yellow scarf"; "yellow", in this case, may refer to a natural cream or khaki colour rather than bright yellow.

Death toll[edit]

Estimates of the total number of victims vary widely, since no reliable source confirms the length of the Thugs' existence. According to the Guinness Book of Records, the Thuggee cult was responsible for approximately two million deaths; British historian Mike Dash said that they killed a total of 50,000 people over an estimated 150 years. Political scientist David C. Rapoport estimated that 500,000 people were killed by the Thugs.[11] According to other estimates, they murdered one million people.[12]

British suppression[edit]

Portrait of a middle-aged man in uniform
William Henry Sleeman, superintendent of the Thuggee and Dacoity Department

The Thugs were suppressed by the British rulers of India during the 1830s.[6] The initiative was due largely to the efforts of civil servant William Henry Sleeman, who captured "Feringhea" (also known as Syeed Amir Ali, on whom the novel Confessions of a Thug is based) and persuaded him to turn King's evidence. Feringhea brought Sleeman to a grave with a hundred bodies, told him the circumstances of the murders and named the Thugs who had committed them.[13]

After initial investigations confirmed what Feringhea had said, Sleeman began an extensive campaign using profiling and intelligence. The government of India established the Thuggee and Dacoity Department in 1835, with Sleeman its first superintendent. Thousands of men were imprisoned, executed or expelled from British India.[6]

The campaign relied on captured Thugs who became informants. These informants were offered protection on the condition that they told everything that they knew. By the 1870s the Thug cult was extinct, but the history of Thuggee led to the Criminal Tribes Act (CTA) of 1871. Although the CTA was repealed at Indian independence, tribes considered criminal still exist in India.[14][15] The Thuggee and Dacoity Department remained in existence until 1904, when it was replaced by the Central Criminal Intelligence Department (CID).


The Thugs spurred passage of the Criminal Tribes Act. In Following the Equator, Mark Twain wrote about an 1839 government report by William Henry Sleeman:[13]

There is one very striking thing which I wish to call attention to. You have surmised from the listed callings followed by the victims of the Thugs that nobody could travel the Indian roads unprotected and live to get through; that the Thugs respected no quality, no vocation, no religion, nobody; that they killed every unarmed man that came in their way. That is wholly true — with one reservation. In all the long file of Thug confessions an English traveler is mentioned but once—and this is what the Thug says of the circumstance:

"He was on his way from Mhow to Bombay. We studiously avoided him. He proceeded next morning with a number of travellers who had sought his protection, and they took the road to Baroda."

We do not know who he was; he flits across the page of this rusty old book and disappears in the obscurity beyond; but he is an impressive figure, moving through that valley of death serene and unafraid, clothed in the might of the English name.

We have now followed the big official book through, and we understand what Thuggee was, what a bloody terror it was, what a desolating scourge it was. In 1830 the English found this cancerous organisation embedded in the vitals of the empire, doing its devastating work in secrecy, and assisted, protected, sheltered, and hidden by innumerable confederates —big and little native chiefs, customs officers, village officials, and native police, all ready to lie for it, and the mass of the people, through fear, persistently pretending to know nothing about its doings; and this condition of things had existed for generations, and was formidable with the sanctions of age and old custom. If ever there was an unpromising task, if ever there was a hopeless task in the world, surely it was offered here—the task of conquering Thuggee. But that little handful of English officials in India set their sturdy and confident grip upon it, and ripped it out, root and branch! How modest do Captain Vallancey's words sound now, when we read them again, knowing what we know:

"The day that sees this far-spread evil completely eradicated from India, and known only in name, will greatly tend to immortalise British rule in the East."

It would be hard to word a claim more modestly than that for this most noble work.
— Chapter xlvi, conclusion

Thug view[edit]

Drawing of two men worshipping before a statue
The Thugs Worshipping Kalee, around 1850[16]

Although Thugs trace their origin to the battle of Kali against Raktabija, their foundation myth departs from Brahminical versions of the Puranas. Thugs considered themselves children of Kali (a Hindu goddess), created from her sweat.[17] However, many of the Thugs who were captured and convicted by the British were Muslims.[18]

Thug Behram, who was responsible for 931 deaths.

According to colonial sources, Thugs believed they had a positive role in saving human lives. Without the Thugs' sacred service, Kali might destroy all mankind:

  • "It is God who kills, but Bhowanee has [a] name for it."
  • "God is all in all, for good and evil."
  • "God has appointed blood for [Bhowanee's] food, saying 'khoon tum khao': feed thou upon blood. In my opinion it is very bad, but what can she do, being ordered to subsist upon blood!"
  • "Bhowanee is happy and more so in proportion to the blood that is shed."[19]

According to Mike Dash, the Thugs had no religious motive to kill and the colonial sources were inaccurate in that respect.[6]

21st-century views[edit]

Martine van Woerkens has suggested that evidence for a Thug cult in the 19th century was partly the product of "colonial imaginings", arising from British fear of the little-known interior of India, as well as limited understanding of the religious and social practices of its inhabitants.[20] Mike Dash, however, has pulled the debate the other way, as in Krishna Dutta's review of his book Thug: the true story of India's murderous cult:

"In recent years, the revisionist view that Thuggee was a British invention, a means to tighten their hold in the country, has been given credence in India, France and the US, but this well-researched book objectively questions that assertion."[21]

In his book, Dash rejects scepticism about the existence of a secret network of groups with a modus operandi different from highwaymen. He cites excavated corpses in graves whose locations were revealed to Sleeman's team by Thug informants. Dash examines Sleeman's extensive, thorough documentation, rejecting the colonial emphasis on a religious motivation for banditry and asserting that monetary gain was the primary motivation for Thuggee and men became Thugs due to extreme poverty. According to Dash, the Thugs were highly superstitious; although they worshipped the Hindu goddess Kali, their faith was little different from that of contemporary non-Thugs. However, he notes that the Thugs had group-specific superstitions and rituals.[6]

English language[edit]

The Thugs were popularised by books such as Philip Meadows Taylor's 1839 novel, Confessions of a Thug, which introduced the word "thug" to the English language. Ameer Ali, the protagonist of Confessions of a Thug, was said to be based on Syeed Amir Ali. A Bollywood film is being made based on the novel. It is titled Thugs of Hindostan and stars Amitabh Bachchan, Aamir Khan, Katrina Kaif and Fatima Sana Shaikh in lead roles and is being directed by Vijay Krishna Acharya. It is being produced by Aditya Chopra under the Yash Raj Films production banner. Filming began in Malta in June 2017 and the film is scheduled to release during Diwali 2018.

Indian pronunciation of "Thuggee" and "Thug" is closer to "Tug-gee" and "Tug", than the English pronunciations.[22]

In popular culture[edit]

  • The 1931 crime novel The Case of the Frightened Lady by Edgar Wallace makes an indirect reference to the Thuggee murders by featuring "Indian scarves" used as murder weapons, as do its 1940 and 1963 West German film adaptations.
  • The 1939 film Gunga Din features British soldiers' conflict with a resurgent sect of Thuggee cultists.
  • The Stranglers of Bombay (1959), a film centering about a lone British officer investigating and uncovering the doings of the Thuggee cult.
  • Sunghursh (1968), an Indian Bollywood film, has a fictionalized account of a thug trying not to join his family business of Thuggee
  • The Deceivers (1988) is an adventure film based on the 1952 John Masters novel of the same name regarding the murderous Thugs of India. Pierce Brosnan plays William Savage, a tax-collector of a British-Indian company in 1825 who goes undercover to investigate a Thuggee sect.
  • Sikh Guru Nanak's Janamsakhis describe an encounter with a Thug Sheikh Sajjan[23]
  • Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom showcases the Thuggee cult with fictionalized religious ritual and the primary antagonist, Mola Ram, being a Thuggee High Priest of Kali.
  • The fictional DC Comics villain Ravan, a member of the Suicide Squad, is a modern-day member of the Thugee cult.
  • The Black Company, a dark fantasy series by Glen Cook, features a cult called the Deceivers, largely based on the Thugee, who play a major role in the later novels.
  • Ameer Ali thug na peela rumal ni gaanth, a novel in 3 parts by the famous Gujarati thriller writer Harkisan Mehta, is a fictionalized account of the thug Amir Ali,[24] with references to the infamous Pindari chief Chitu Pindari[25][better source needed].
  • Theeran Adhigaaram Ondru (2017; Tamil) an honest police officer finds himself transferred again and again due to his sincerity. After his latest transfer, he comes across a file that involves a gang of ruthless thieves who loot and kill along the highway.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Tracing India's cult of Thugs". 3 August 2003. Los Angeles Times.
  2. ^ "thug - Indian bandit". Retrieved 1 October 2017. 
  3. ^ David Scott Katsan (2006). "The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature, Volume 1". Oxford University Press. p. 141. ISBN 9780195169218. 
  4. ^ R.V. Russell; R.B.H. Lai (1995). The tribes and castes of the central provinces of India. Asian Educational Services. p. 559. ISBN 978-81-206-0833-7. Retrieved 19 April 2011. 
  5. ^ "Thugs". Retrieved 1 October 2017. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f Dash, Mike Thug: the true story of India's murderous cult ISBN 1-86207-604-9, 2005
  7. ^ "Rambles and Recollections of an Indian Official by William Sleeman". Retrieved 1 October 2017. 
  8. ^ a b Sleeman, William H. (1915). Rambles and Recollections of an Indian Official by William Sleeman. 
  9. ^ Richard James Popplewell (1995). Intelligence and imperial defence: British intelligence and the defence of the Indian Empire, 1904-1924. Frank Cass. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-7146-4580-3. Retrieved 16 April 2011. 
  10. ^ Lois H. Gresh; Robert Weinberg (4 April 2008). Why Did It Have To Be Snakes: From Science to the Supernatural, The Many Mysteries of Indiana Jones. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 104–107. ISBN 978-0-470-22556-1. Retrieved 16 April 2011. 
  11. ^ Richardson, Louise. What Terrorists Want (2007 ed.). Random House. p. 27. 
  12. ^ "Colonial India and the Making of Empire Cinema: Image, Ideology and Identity", by Prem Chowdhry, p. 137
  13. ^ a b Twain, Mark (18 August 2006). "Following the Equator" (ASCII). EBook. Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 
  14. ^ "Thugs Traditional View". BBC. Archived from the original (shtml) on 17 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-17. 
  15. ^ Sinister sects: Thug, Mike Dash's investigation into the gangs who preyed on travellers in 19th-century India by Kevin Rushby, The Guardian, Saturday, 11 June 2005.
  16. ^ "The Thugs Worshipping Kalee". The Missionary Repository for Youth, and Sunday School Missionary Magazine. Paternoster Row, London: John Snow. XII: 98. 1848. Retrieved 6 November 2015. 
  17. ^ Brigitte Luchesi; Kocku von Stuckrad (2004). Religion im kulturellen Diskurs. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 623–624. ISBN 978-3-11-017790-9. Retrieved 20 April 2011. 
  18. ^ Douglas M. Peers (2013). India Under Colonial Rule: 1700-1885. Routledge. p. 57. ISBN 978-1-31-788286-2. 
  19. ^ Martine van Wœrkens; Catherine Tihanyi (2002). The Strangled Traveler: Colonial Imaginings and the Thugs of India. University of Chicago Press. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-226-85086-3. Retrieved 19 April 2011. 
  20. ^ van Woerkens, Martine (2002). The Strangled Traveler: Colonial Imaginings and the Thugs of India.
  21. ^ Mike Dash" (8 July 2005). ""The sacred slaughterers. Book review of Thug: the true story of India's murderous cult". The Independent. Archived from the original on 12 July 2005. 
  22. ^ Masters, John. 1952. The Deceivers. The Viking Press, 237 pages
  23. ^ "Sheikh Sajjan". Retrieved 8 July 2017. 
  24. ^ https://en.wikipedia.orgConfessions_of_a_Thug_(novel).  Missing or empty |title= (help)Amir Ali
  25. ^ https://en.wikipedia.orgPindari.  Missing or empty |title= (help)


  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Thuggee". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  • Dash, Mike Thug: the true story of Indias murderous cult ISBN 1-86207-604-9, 2005
  • Dutta, Krishna (2005) The sacred slaughterers. Book review of Thug: the true story of India's murderous cult by Mike Dash. In The Independent (Published: 8 July 2005) text
  • Guidolin, Monica "Gli strangolatori di Kali. Il culto thag tra immaginario e realtà storica", Aurelia Edizioni, 2012, ISBN 978-88-89763-50-6.
  • Paton, James 'Collections on Thuggee and Dacoitee', British Library Add. Mss. 41300
  • Woerkens, Martine van The Strangled Traveler: Colonial Imaginings and the Thugs of India (2002),

External links[edit]


None of the audio/visual content is hosted on this site. All media is embedded from other sites such as GoogleVideo, Wikipedia, YouTube etc. Therefore, this site has no control over the copyright issues of the streaming media.

All issues concerning copyright violations should be aimed at the sites hosting the material. This site does not host any of the streaming media and the owner has not uploaded any of the material to the video hosting servers. Anyone can find the same content on Google Video or YouTube by themselves.

The owner of this site cannot know which documentaries are in public domain, which has been uploaded to e.g. YouTube by the owner and which has been uploaded without permission. The copyright owner must contact the source if he wants his material off the Internet completely.

Powered by YouTube
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL and (CC) license